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BY SHAROlf rnRNEBfl^AA. * R.A.S.L., 

p if «*n* BMotf flf Bi^iSi,* <* Th« HMMy or Ite Aiiflo4MM%P IM. 


vol* m/^-^.- -' '/.i 

. i 





( BBOTBBRB, 8t OLIf f-BT. 



-> . 'vf 









,.ijB Oiii 


Ml aiooi^-'; 

.. \a«to 


■ r 




9 ' 


■ • ■ ■. 


^ ■ 



Iir prawnting the coDcliidiog roluoif 
HMtory of the Worid to the puUks, tH'. 
only to thank hie readera for dieir^{^vc'*«^i** 
tioo of the preceding volumef* and ^ 
hope dMt the following page* may V 
unatiitable companion to them. They 
views of the great aubject which he d«- 
nit to the consideration of his younge- 
ries; and his wishes will be fulfills 
gratification to himself* if they shall In 
to those whom he desires so much to c 

Coitatt, Winehmora Hill, Middlaiei, 
nth Maivb, 1887. 




I " 

• • 



B«capituUtiiin uf tha Oljincta of thn fomwr Ijrtteni.-— S(at«*m4*nt 
of till* SutiiecU intriHlrd U> im ccnmulffrml in th<i pniMfnt Hn- 
ncM, BDfl ul tha Buujner in which tlwy will \m inuUni 


Thftl our WfirM Hm iNwn miMlr, nml in condueltii M an inti'lli- 
mit PUn. anil fiir intf llif^nt PurpoMM, wUch W« havo th« 
Caimcity to discover and uniliintand - - • - 17 


On ihf! Irnpcirtsnra of ntiidvinif Nnitirn himI Htimiin Ijifn, wiih 
the Miff thnt Divine IMauN and Vur\Ht9tM have alwayn n<:- 
c>ini|i«iiiod tliein ^ '<i'i 


Tha Plana of the (Creator an; ada|ilnd to tlie dllTerent CltiHM-rt of 
Tliinga of which iNir World m rofn|MNNid,>>Thf> diNtiiictiori of 
Ummw* into inatprial SiibMlHMCiiN. moving Powera, arnl liviiiK 
liriiiKn.- Thif PlniiN nil to the Iluiiiaii Race different ii"iii 
Ihoau <A tlio n!nl of Natnrit ...-•. '^ 


The (nvmihle Affrnnea aa rcrtnin m the Matenal One*, InUh iii 
Lifrniid .Naliiti' -Ttu' Diviiif AKcnrieaareof thiaCy'hnracli'f. 
— C;haiiKi* f;f thi; Dtviitfs Plan »« lo lliiman Population alti'r 
the Deluge, ainl in the ahhrevialion uf lafo - - - 32 


liUtetnent uf the Theorr of Mr. MftUhtia on ?ovi\3\«Sl>u\^.^^^ 
mrrmtiOB§ upon H.^Hr. ««di«r't cuDlimn V \m^% ^ 



No Titible or necessary Connexion in Nature between Popula- 
tion and Vegetation. — The Relation is intellectual and artifi- 
cial, arising from the Plan and Mind of the Creator. — America 
no support to the MaUbusian Ratio. — Countries resorted to by 
Emigrantii, or enlarged by Conauests, no Authorities for the 
Laws of Natural Population. — Instances of this in Canada 
and Russia Page 47 


The State of the American Ponulation from 1800 to 1830 nn- 
£ivoarable to the Malthusian Theory • • • • 58 


The experienced Increase shows the real Natural Laws, which 
are not the same for every Period of Society.— State and 
Progress of Population in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, 
and 101116 other Countries of Europe .... 65 


A Rule suggested, by which the Malthusian Ratio may be al. 
ways tried. — Its Conditions have not occurred anywhere.— 
The more probable Kate shown in the laue Increases of out 
own Population.— In Russia a similar Gradation. — Also in 
Prussia and Lithuania 74 


The Populations of the World are all in different States, which 
imply different Laws acting in each.— The three Elements of 
Population are Mamag^es, Births, and Deaths, all linked and 
adjusted to each other in the Plan and System of Creation. — 
On the Ratio of Marriages, and of Married and Marriageable 
Females in various Populations 84 


The Proportion af Births to Marriages. — The Variation in dif. 
ferent Countries. — The established Limits to these and usual 
Laws 96 


ne Lkww of Death consideTed.— T\ie\T K.dmi^Tnscit to the Laws 
-o#' Avth.— Statement of thte B^^la vmi rio^oi^ascA '\Bi^fi«i. 
maCoantriM '^'^ 

CUHTBim* yjl 

Lvrm xiT. 

liwMiiiyBi of Po|Mlilion prodtte^l by tlM Ofdintrf Uwi of 
DnUL— 9totofiMHii of Umm m thoy occur io Kogmtd utd in 
•oforal oUmtt ComtriMi Pm* 1SS3 


CPtbor Lows of t)Mfh.— Mortility ineiMUNM m Bhthf inrr^^aM. 
— Amr«nt f;r«MXKin IwiwiMm thoTimM otthmraecnrtttucti. 
^Rjrlatvmi b«twMm l>«Mth und iho Frtc« of Food^ Kttucxn 
t4 CUtMtm Mid MoiK— RmniIu of CbildUrtb/-'IUteeiirM»N <^ 
InlMift lAMiha 190 

M u if Jh m of Ibo Plom ind PrirK'iplMi on which Fopalatton 
b«M cmtAwmAf wnd of tb^ FarfWMMi which Mf ofloctUitod 



bf It —II notor MM boon injun'/u* to Ifociotf • '140 

LfsrreR xvil 

iMnMMOf FofKiUtion nwy rwqiib'o nofiM now Civil Rogolatiomi. 

'-HUtemmit of tb« Natnriil AdvaoUgo* from it^i cannrH 

nm if thofo bo not y<fud fw it J47 


Forth«r (UrtmiAtsnlUKm tm tho Bonofit* which mtIm frrnn an 
ibCftMuif Fopttlauon 163 


Vmw« fif th« Ktat«» «;f tlM Livinf Wi/rld in novord €^omitri«a.— 
TM tUttnunrnlivti ]*fti^tT\un% of ilmtr IfihAbfttntf ft th^v mm. 
ONirffnf Af<m 'if Lif«?. - 'rb*; |MM«ibl<} l^oncority ttt Hinnan 
Httora, tnd I fMt«nc«« nt it in varioua FarU of tho World 1 (A 


TW Natonil THvtaion ttf Pttptihlum into Moi«(kNi iif Youth and 
Afa m Knf land. <-Th«» aottl*^! VrttiitmiUttniuii an'l fttwfr of 
tlMi Kl'Ur -Kffect r;f thia mit«bli»b«d ArrMnfMnont— 1'h«rir 
ftonotUf Opo/at wna wi w«b othor -179 


Maftcb of ffco F7«o on which tho Fkn ai«k Woili> i»v*i*^t% Va 
iw»y tmmMmngml, yuiifigd, and ■tattgiiid.— T^ia 1LfUK;.>i <A >X 
m HawMo ifoeitif ««..... VIA 



ThA AoiD Class of Society considered. — State and ProporUoil 
of them m Enriand and Wales. — Review of their Character, 
Position, and Utilities in the Living World - Page 302 


Oreat Longevity one Part of the Plan, and one of the Laws o 
Human Life. — Its existence in Antiquity, and in all Periods 
of the World, down to our own^imes.— The most remarka- 
ble Instances of it in the last two Centuries - • - 211 


Longevity made a Natural Property of Human Nature. — At 
present increasing in frequency. — Not attended naturally with 
lOecej of Faculties.— Instances of its Efficiency. — Distin- 
foiahed Men ammig the Ancient's who were Aged - 223 


y^nther Instances showing that Longevity has been and may 
be ft pleasurable and efficient State. — Facts as to the Diet 
which Long-livers have used.— Comaro's Experience. — Ob- 
servations on our own Power of obtaining it - - 235 


Dotage and Disability of Mind or Body no necessary Ccmipan- 
ion of Longevity. — Continuity of existence anywhere can be 
no Prejudice to an Immortal Soul. — The Divine Plan of 
Human Life and Revelation is founded on its being Immor- 
tal and Improveable - - 247 


Inquiry into the State of the Mind at the time of our earthly 
Death, and on the Indications then given of the Immortality 
«f its Nature. — Illustrative Incidents from the Dying Moments 
ofmany Persons more or less distinguished ... 253 



Mankind have been created on the Principle that Subsistence 

should be essential to them. — Instances snowing that this was 

MOi an indispensable Condiuoa of Human Existence. — Bat, 

hmriag beeo made the Law of it^ we isa?| \)« c«l^MSL iS^wm^ 

«f««iii3lcient Supply w- 



MinHfln of Um prttent jtMrtl SupenbundmiM of Produce 
far tho Saboiilonoo of Minkind, noiwithtttndteif the Univer- 
tftl MalUplicatioM of tho PopyUtion of Eoropo tiid other 
AigtoM oT tho Olobo Page 203 


Ofmmde for a Rational Aieorance that the ftitore Multipliciition 
of Mankind will find aulllcient Sobeiatence.— Provition made 
in Nature for thia, by the quantity of Ground left hitherto un- 
cultivated 206 


The Principle of Animal Nutrition ia, that it ahall ariae from 
what hae had life within it.— Animal and Vegetable Organiia- 
tiona prepare all Human Food.— Facte to ahow that Mankind 
can and do Feed on all the Claaaee of the Animal Kingdom* 
and find Nutriment from all 313 


Ahnoet all the Vegetable Kingdom ia applicable and convert- 
ible into Human Food.— Inatancoa of thia in the ua« of itn 
vanoua Genera for that Purpose m diftbrpnt Parta ()f tho 
World.— The Impoatibtlity of Mankind periahing from Fam- 
Bia ■■•■■■•■•• «i«4 


Auaal and VegeUble Matter, in any Form, capable of Nouriah- 
mg Human Life.— Four Hourcei of it.— Three that will last 
askmgas Man.— Pn)bability thaw the Improvementa ynt at- 
tamable in Cultivation will always suffice.— The Benefit of 
email Allotmenta and Spade Husbandry under wiae Rogula- 
. . . : 331 


Miacellaneoua Facta and Remarks as to the Diet of difTornnt 
Countriea.— Their jraneral Enjoyment alike of all that thov 
are used to. — The Benefit arising from a moderate or alMtoint- 
flua LJae of Food.— Vegtitable Diet the moet common.— Di- 
geetibtlity of the different Bubetancea eaten • - 341 



TbA Supernatural History of the World a real Subject fyr 
Human Study and Knowledge — The Hebrew Scriptures are 
written Records of so much of it as has been disclosed to us. 
—Their endless value to us. — What was done in Judea by the 
Almighty was done for the Knowledge and Benefit of uL — 
The Communications of the Deity to us must always be mi- 
iRculoos. — ^The true Nature of Miracles - • Page 282 


Site and Preralence of Paganish in the fifth Centurjr after the 
Deluge. — Its Deleterious Effects and Self-perpetuaticm. — Hu- 
man Causes continuedt and could not subvert it. — Divine 
Interposition by an Intellectual Process essential both for Re- 
tigioiit and Monal Tuition and Improvement • - 378 


If ankind unable to liberate themselves from their Pagan Super- 
stitions or from Atheism. — The general Disposition to dis- 
credit Specific Relations. — Divine Agency has been indispen- 
sable to rescue Mankind from those Errors and Perversions 



The Divine Process for the complete Formation of Mankind a 
prospective and progressive one, foreseen and settled at the 
Creation to be so. — Their Nature made to be improveable with 
this View. — The Improvements it had always to acquire 397 


▲ Delineation of that Part of the Divine Process which was 
comprised in the Formation, Establishment, and Instruction 
of tbie Jewish Nation 404 


The Divine Commands to the Jewish Nation as to their Poor. 
— Reasoned Principles on the Production in Society of all its 
Necessaries. — ^The Divine Plan has been that every Producer 
u a Benefactor, and that all are conferring Benefits on each 
other. — It is the Dutv and Interest of Society to provide the 
MecbaxuMin and the Means, that all who are m want of Em- 
piifirymentsihoald befurmBYi!edmlVi\\. • •> •> - 413 



Tm Jwhi IfiCtoii MMQ M §Bt two BMuii Pinpoitt| which 
^ktt kWt0aff I wg •cco mgUwitd.'^Th t jgmtjp B of it lo be 
iko BiWMnfB MB|iiiv of tho Wdrid jM'voBlod bv (i o to m oPt 
JoNboMk Hid tho Pooplo oitobllittiiif PI|Mm Anioiif 
Itak— TMr Dif iiioo into two KiiiidoaM.-^rho pndictod 
ond oMOOlod DomrftU of tbeto Poopw ht pontoUnt in their 
twiiimrinni - r>ige485 


Hi Hliloiy of tho Jowo p r oo wto t Borioo of tho Sapemottirtl 
Aaney or Provfdooeo in thoir Notion ond on tho KlngdooM 
«Mhi Boilh.— Of two iorto, BoMorttd ond IntolloctaBl.— 
ThilMordlMtoyodhi its Oporotiooi in tho Riio ond Foil of 
NtfiaBi. and in tho PropbociiM copco m ing thorn.— 'Rotiow of 
' ' ■ oftS^ork 433 

, • 




sccodfcce ::^cu x. 7«- n:i; '■g -in.** .isrzjs: * crw^ iC£. 

oil lae :^Ciica 2ix 7*^ r:rrj"nr.ifcgs. v:;^-^ v-^ rjmii^:m nr 

1)CS(XC roc U flly U I lUJ >: ^-ii u •*►--*>"- :. 
It was 'jujt 3C»eet if 

^eooil OQ£:ii£» jf :3e 

oar earca. : jc jU miar icii jiazear^ 

abje Tca 03 perrerrs. tkl -zolt suae ^nzMruc: .kJ»% ^jc ^i*- 

bfe. CocsiiisEiiacs wse Mazed ic. xm y^ »^ taf^tfurji 
of OCT Swodaid T'Trs. siii ai ^le sssiita v^ucn. & 
of its bdz^s:- 3e las ^ursaEen jl ^ T: 
mac : cac dEKqee at as nrhnsr im. t. 


our common earth ; and the cause and nature of the dili 
commotion and desolations, which ended the first-created 
of our texrestrial surface, as well as of its then existing ] 
lation, were laid before you with their connected circumsti 
ID some detail. The new order and constitution of ma 
things which were afterward established, and which have 
nnce been npb^ and under which we are now aubsii 
terminated our proposed review of what it was ezpediei 
ut to recollect as to our external world. 

Our attention was then more particularly directed U 
•tate and history of mankind after their renewal. Their 
separation into distinct nations and distant settlements 
noticed. A general sketch was drawn of the most celeb 
countries of the ancient world, and of some of the 
■triking features of their habits and circumstances. ' 
transactions were not further described ; but we procc 
to remark on some of those peculiar occurrences whicl 
accompanied the formation and fortunes of the Jewish p 
— « race of men with whose nation, and ancient history, 
writings the well-being of all human kind has been inse 
bly connected ; and by whose future destinies it is still 1 
to be most essentially affected. All these topics were remi 
upon with an intention of tracing from them such in 
twnff of the Dirine system in the creation and govern 
tNHh of material nature and of our human frame and 1 
iforid, as were ascertainable in them. 

As it was not my intention to compose a detailed histc 
faphy of the ancient world, the sketches which were d 

' of^ the nations that were noticed were confined to those 
<Mal outlines which served to Ulustrate the main purpo 
Obd work, and with those the former letters ende(L It 
the topics which were mentioned in the preface to the s€ 
folume, as those which it would be desirable to review, 
yoor present attention vnll be called. They are all sul 
of ihe Divine administration of human affairs, and fom 
portant sections of the sacred histoiy of our world ; ^c 
kte to the scheme and provisions which have been mad 
the difiiision and perpetuation of the htiman race, and for 
continual and sufficient support, and to the employment c 
AMA indvmtxy thence arising. They comprise tue Divine 

^ war Bocial coinbin&tionB tnd consdVoXVotv \ Ssn. csvn cJv 
'M^Bnncnfi tad political xcJbtkn» \ «iA ^ot crat \em»»s& 


cooiM both of amity and hoatility. They will alio lead u« to 
trace the erolution and progreas of our mental activitiea and 
impiDTeiDenta under the ordained system of our being, and 
the design and operation of thia, with respect to our individ- 
ual comfort, and for the general progression o( human nature, 
as a favoured order of intellectual ejustence. Our task will 
be accomplished by an endeavour to stance, calmly and ra- 
tionally, on those ulterior purposes of the Divine mind for 
which the system of our being has been so Ions upheld snd 
carried on ; and to the fulfilment of which mankind, in their 
various distributions, seem to be now advancing, with un- 
equal step and in very diversified costume, but with an emu- 
lous acceleration in their most civilized societies which no 
prior sge has been known to display. 

Tliese subjects will embrace all that it will be necessary to 
lay before you for the guidance of your forming mind in its 
endeavours to understaml the Divine government of the world 
wt are bom to. But I do not wish you to overvalue what I 
may send you ; I seek for truth ; I desire to state nothing but 
what is such, and will not write a sentence which I do not be- 
lieve to be r^t and proper. But neither you nor I must forget 
that I may err without intending it. What 1 send you will there- 
fore still be, as before, only my individual impressions and de- 
ductions, grounded always, or meant to be so, on appropriate 
facta, and carefully reasoned from ; but not possessing any other 
chancter, nor pretending to be to you or to any a d^iding au- 
thority. They will be Uie phenomena of my personal convic- 
tion, and, as such, a series of intellectual conclusions, to be ad- 
ded to those which other mind» have formed, and to bo taken 
into your consideration with them when you are thinking upon 
this subject. It is in this way tliat moral truth enlarges its 
dominion in the human mind. New thoughts are suggested 
and published, which others deliberate upon and adopt, re- 
ject or modify, ax seems to them most ntting. All lasting 
0|Hnions and bislicf are but the continued acquiescence of the 
greater number of those who have considereid them, and con- 
cur in believing them to be just. 

Individual conviction, as it accumulates in such spontaiKKius 
coincidence, seems to be the foundation on which our CHtal^)- 
hihfd iniths permanently rent. But this caiino\ci \m^ ^v^tcvA. 
It must be freely given to he enduring ; it is a\>Na^u ^w^o\\«\ 
mhI peculiMTi ana is the result, in every one^ o( vIam^^ 

16 m sAcmsB HifroET 

feeling, inclinatioiis, and cireiimstaiieet,wliichdo iio(«nedf 
meet ui any other. These TuiitioDs make eoncinnBM non 
difficult and uncertain— but what is trae at laat gradnaSf ob- 
tains it — and the admitted &ct or concliiaioii then beeooMaa 
.filture in hmnan knowledge. 

To prodace this indiTidoal conTiction in finrour of hi* ova 
Tiews and sentiments, ereiy wnter may justly aim | boty K^'lki 
same time, be content with seddng to gain it by ftv VMifdalM 
and correct statements, and never exact i^ nor be diawtirfj 
or acrimonioos towards those who may w^hhold it. Each tf 
ns claims the liberty of judging for hiinsel^ without WuM^ as 
to the ideas of odiers, and mi»t, in common equity, ropcUi 
to them the same right of deciding on what he may mqgtmik 
What we retain in our own bosom remains of course oov. i^ 
eluded property ; but the Teiy act of uttering it to ochen 
▼eys a right to all who hear to admit or question it m 
may deem proper. We have no title to command thefr 
quiescence in any human speculations, or to res ent 'lL^^ 
doubt or disapprobation. With these sentiments iSbfb fnmff 
letters will be written and submitted to you ; nerer meMA » 
be imperious — ^nerer claiming infallibiltty. If the lHMpiM|l 
seem at times positive, do not mistake t&t as intiendedw 
assuming or dictatorial. It is to be read as only 

the strength of my individual conviction, and not ■• *tft 
suming assertion tnat my conclusions must be right, nor mif 
reproach to any who may differ from me. It mxM be ij|> 
principled in me to write them if I did not believe thorn tjplb 
just ; but my belief is a law to no one else ; and whotmr 
phrases may be used, it will be always with the underatandtw 
tiiat they leave every one to the fair exertion of his own 'mi 
ural right to dissent or agree, as his own judgment maj ^ 
termine, without any fetter or imputation whatever. I fV 
ask you to receive my thoughts as not unwelcome vioiMiH* 
to read them fiurly as well as freely ; to examine and ^aSdk 
on them without prepossession, and with so much delibenlioi 
as their important subjects may reasonably claim. Seaidi jiH 
obtain elsewhere what further knowledge or other Views fA 
feel to be necessary for your finid ju^^ent upon them ; Kmb- 
to the remarks of those whose opmions you respect ori * 
you wish to consult, and then decide dinnterestedly for _ 
self. By this course I shall not be a cause of luedJHfl 
into error, and you will be taking the fitteet hnnea 
Mvoid it. 




maijbr imUUigmi FurpOHt, wkich vm hmv§ tk§ CofOcUp to 4i9cw§r 

Mr DBAB Sow, 

Ov eamMpondmce hai been founded on the great princi- 
Bfe tbH our eerth and all its ayatenu of living beings have 
MID tbe creation of an intelligent Creator. 

By that degree of intelligence which human nature posses* 
ais and everywhere exercises, we know what intelligence is 
ii aajr being, and how it acts ; and we can understand and 
apMiciate what we perceive it to perform. 

In human workmanahip, we see the operation, of intelligent 
baiqga with our rate or intelligence ; and what we do aa 
such aaeista us to discern and judge of the agency and cffoct 
of greater intelligence elsewhere. In the world we inhabit, 
we behold the works of intellect in its most perfect nature. 
But amid aU its mndeur and inexpressible superiority in the 
praductione whicn surround us, it still displays itself with so 
many reeemblances and analogies to the qualities and opera- 
tions of the mind which it has conferred upon man, that the 
wencj of the Divine intelligence ia never beyond our pcrcep- 
Oon, and will always be a rational subject of our study. The 
success of the human intellect, in tracing it in its sublime 
ami^ments of our material system, warrants the hope that 
dM mora] economy of our world may be in time discerned 
and developed, in all its wisdom and beauty, if we accustom 
Mraelvea to meditate upon it, and persevere in the belief that 
it has been devised ana established by the same intelligence 
which has framed and governs the laws and principles of the 
viaible creation. 

It is the nature of intelligence to devise before it niakrs, 
and to make according to its design. Hence, in our natund 
world, every part roust have been put U>get\vai %ac^>x^\tv^ V> 
A» pugpoBCM of it9 producer* 9 mind. 
Jli0eaa§tnictimlmM bom fjin»ed to o^muXa \lbwie v^^^^V^*^^ 



in their intended order and ffuccession ; and it followa from 
this, that all things which earth contains have been speciallj 
adjuated to effectuate the ends appointed at their creatiim; 
because, without a specific adjustment of their due means 
and causes, no specific effect can be educed — no end can be 

These principles apply as much to our moral as to oar ma- 
terial world ; for, if external nature has been formed upon a 
reasoned plan, we may be sure that what concerns \ife and 
sensibiUty must have been as intelligently arranged by an 
intelligent Creator, and with still greater precision and con- 
trivance, if anything less than accuracy could be anywhere in 
the works of such a being, because, in addition to exactness 
of frame and careful adaptation to coexisting things, it woold 
be necessary so to plan and adjust them as to suit the activ- 
ities of the human mind, and not to aeonize its sensibility. 

A surprising degree of care and thought must have been 
exerted to make such diversified forms of living things as 
everywhere abound, and yet to cause the existence of each to 
be so comfortable to them, and the comforts of all to be so 
harmonized as we find them universally to be. 

If animal life required a well-conceived plan for its dae 
subsistence and welfare, we cannot doubt that human natnie 
has been the subject of a design as deliberate and kind ; and 
if so, human af»irs must have been arranged and provid^ 
for, and be always conducted upon a sagacious and well-ad- 
justed plan, and for purposes worthy of the intelligence of 
a Creator, whose almightiness gave him perfect power and 
liberty to devise and execute whatever he thought propor. 
We act in this manner ourselves, with our inferior intellect 
In all human workmanships and undertakings, we obecorf^ 
and use ourselves invariably forethought; plan; adjcutid 
•nrangoment, and provided means to execute the dewgn ; t 
ntional and attainable end in view ; and a chosen procass of 
operation to effect what is intended. 

Plan and purpose, and a suited series of operations con- 
formable to these, and successively conducing to jnromots 
and accomplish their prospective objects, accompany all hu- 
man fabrications and pursuits ; and for the plain reason that 
the end desired cannot be attained without them. 
Such are our cotton-imUa and a\«axa-«c^|pxkfi» \ wSok. «^ 
4nir military ezpoditions and coavuMdcMi csDteK^f6MA% 


tie our litenij conqxwitioiis ; such tre all tbe beiie6cial 
ploym^its of our social life. Plan and purpose ; dorectxii^ 
mind; a selected process, or connected and adapted series 
of means and movr mMtn, and an end conttnaallr m Tiew, 
and pnrsued until it be accomplished, cbaimcterue all tbe 
Taried business and manofactures of human societr. This 
being our perpetual, and natural, and unavoidable practice, we 
may be sure that <Hnnipotent wisdom is not less aagicioas, 
or less active and provident. We mav therefofe adopt it 
as one of our safest and most certain dedoctions. that plan 
and purpose accompany, in every part, the Divine eeonoonr 
of human life ; and that the habitual course and sequences, 
the laws and agencies which afifect or govern human a&irs, 
have been arranged and are constantly regulated so as to re- 
alize in due cn^er the Divine intenti<Mis. and to be ahvays 
promoting and contributing to produce his oltehcM' detetmi- 

It is with these plans and purposes that tbe sacred histary 
of our social world is more immediately concerned : for its 
chief aim will always he to discern and de«cnbe them I: :s 
indeed a subject to which no individual i* rornr'Ctent to do 
justice. From their very nature ; from the {greatness ziA 
remoteness to us of the omniscient Director : from the invui- 
faility and intangibility of tbe agencies by which his g^iidirrce 
and ruling interference** are carried on ; and by the very in- 
tdlectuality of the process he is pursuing, arid of its effcc:s ; 
the delineations and history of his adm:n:strat:on of oji 
wcHld, and the investigation of the plans he is executinz i^ 
it, and of the purposes which they accomplish, must nave 
d^culties, and darknesses, and perplexities peculiar to their 
recondite nature, and very often insurmountable by any one. 

On these themes no one must expect the same svicceas 
as attended Sir Isaac Newton's study of the grand physical 
l^encies which unite the sun and planets into a sublime fira^- 
temity with our globe. It was finely said of him, by on* 
who wasted a genius of much promise and power by pti^ 
applications of it ; 

^ Whom eye eoold Natures dsrkest veil pertada, 
And. sanlike, view ttke aoUiary nwid, 
Parsoe tbe wanderer tbrovcti ter secrtL tDS«a» 
And o*6r tier labonra dait a nooMUsYlaaia.* 


But no brilliant result like this will yet reward our atodj oC 
the moral and providential ayatem bj which hamaa iiatal% 
and ita operationa, and concema have been and continue to 
be regulated and carried on. Our attention haa been, hithai^ 
to, too much directed to the perceptiona of our Biateiial 
senae for our being yet able to expire, aa we deaire, wfait 
liea beyond it. The Divine ia alwaya the auperfanman ; and 
whatever is auperhuman haa been too much avoided and d#> 
cried by philosophical inquirers to be at preaent nndentood 
aa it ought to be. What ia neglected is never much luKnm; 
and what is little known is litUe valued, whatever ita real Wr 
cellence may be. Hence, although what ia beyond the leM^ 
of our eyesight exists aa certainly and aa nerpetually aa wkat 
ia within its compass, yet the science of toe aupe m at m al haa 
been so depreciated and oflen contemned by tboae whoaa 
power of thought and wide range of knowledge might hav* 
thrown many ravB of light upon its laws and operationa, that 
we are still involved in as much ignorance and doubta concan- 
ing it as our ancestors under the Tudor raigna were of ohymi*' 
try and elootricitv, and of the greatest truths of anatomy, and aa* 
tronomy. We know as little of the moral philoaophy of the 
universe, and of the Divine plans concerning it, aa tfaey did 
of fluxions, galvanism, and aarostation. 

But there is no just reason that we should continue in lih 
hostility or indifTorcnce to it. We have been made capable 
of understanding it. The Deity haa avowedly granted to iMi 
in our divinely-originating and heaven-deatined aool, snefa a 
participation of his moral and intellectual nature aa to haft 
attached to it the noble possibility of beiiu^ hia imaoe and 
likeneas. We must never forget thia dignifying bene&tion. 
By thia he haa himself characterized our created natuve, aai 
ha haa si^idcd his desire that we ahould regain thia pcdbe* 
tion ; he ravitoa ua to pursue it ; we are every year bacons 
ing more fit to do ao, and it ia not unreaaonable to aimpott 
that, the wiser we become, we shall more atrongly few that 
no inferior objects ought to prevent ua from realiung ioeh 
Bublime anticipations. There is a spirit abroad which dfr 
aif^ to elevate the condition of human nature. There ia a 
apreading impression that it ia yet highly improvable. A pnk 
grmmion in it which wa cannot atop ateadily advancea, and 
uittoa bU into the inviaible cuxT«n!b« TVi«i«S» %. mKcnrak vbbp 
mm in many of raising \^th t^u <nm wo& «A 'Qua.s^ 


otIieTs to a nobler character, and of effecting this by increa^ 
ing the moral influences upon the world. \V e may trace this 
in all the professions and in the educated classes ; and in tho 
diffusing desire of educating and of being educated. The in- 
dividuau are becoming more numerous and decided in all 
stations who feel that the union of knowledge, virtue, and re- 
ligion |»oduces the most deli^tful and the most lastrng; en- 
joyment of which the human mind is susceptible ; and that 
it ill our most desirable, and will become our most valuable 
possession. They seek to acquire this for themselves. They 
reconmiend it to others. I read, such effusions as these, to 
my own surprise, from the recollections of a very difiierent 
spirit in my younger days, in our periodical worss ; and I 
rejoice to find that such a new sunshine of British mind has 
begun to illuminate our social horizon before the inHrmities 
of ace and ailment have withdrawn me from it. 

All such aspirations and intentions are indications that hu- 
man nature has the capacity, as well as the desire, to compre- 
hend and to appreciate its Maker's works and ways, and will 
endeavour to do so. Indeed, his past conduct towards us 
encourages us to hope that, in this path of study, the effort to 
trace his mind and meaning will accord with his own wishes, 
and receive his favouring aid. He must desire to be known 
by his human race as fully and as cxtcndingly as they become 
qualified to do so. In all his communications to ur, he has 
treated us as if we were able to understand him. He repeat- 
edly calls upon us to acquire a knowledge of him ; and de- 
clares that one of the later perfections of our ulterior posterity 
will be the enlarged and universal attainment of this intellect- 
ual progression. On every occasion which has been recorded 
in his revelations, we perceive a rational and moral being, rea- 
soning as such on his own wishes and meaning. In this char- 
acter and manner he repeatedly addresses his human race as 
Uiose whom he has enabled and considers to be, or who ought 
to be and may be, rational and moral beings likewise, lie 
imparts ideas from himself to us to become ideas in our mind, 
as if we were as capable of receiving them from him as from 
nature or each other. He gives us commands to understajid 
as well as to obey. He pleads and expostulates with us, ex- 
horts, entreats, counsels, urges, and persuades in the same 
manner and by the same means, that is, by intelligible and 
i|ipropriAted language, assuming frequ.eiit\^ \.\ie '^Yswae^ o.^ >Coft 


most impressive eloquence and the most convincing ntiod- 
nation — as the finest intellects which we are acquainted witb 
in human society endeavour to interest and influence our ia- 
tellcctual sympathies and faculties by such effusions. 

The prophecies of Isaiah, delivered in his name, are sj^endid 
instances of such addresses. What, indeed, are all &e dii- 
Aourses and lessons of that Great Instructor whom we nuMt 
venerate, and by whom the human race has been moat benefit- 
Ad, but so many communications and appeals from a Difiiit 
intelligence, breathing heavenly wisdom and goodness to crasp 
lures whom he had made to be intelligent, sensitive, and db* 
jceming likewise. He thinks and speaks like man talloBg t» 
jnan, notwithstanding his exalted nature ; and thus be Biani- 
fests and acknowledges that degree of similitude between the 
human spirit and its Creator, in the intellectual capacity of eqr 
nature, v;hich enables us, from what we experience in thit|to 
understand and know him ; to comprehend his meaniiig in iD 
that ho expresses ; to imbibe whatever knowledge he pIpiiQi 
to impart, and to think and reason justly about it. It ia in|- 
fortunately true, that every one does not avail himself of dlb 
Divine capacitVf which he inherits as his birthrigbl when he 
begins to broatho and live ; but aU possess it from their Gie* 
ator, and may nurse and train it into activity and impnore* 
ment if they choose, or shall be actuated to do so. 

There caimot, therefore, be any reasonable doubt that nt 
are able to comprehend and to discern those plane and pan^ 
•es of our Creator in which we are concemea. Further tnui 
this, it is not necessary that we should be acquainted with thtn. 
But our external nature, our history and our current life abooU 
be viewed and studied witli a constant recollection, with the per* 
potual impression, that Divine plans and purposes, specificallf 
oirectod to them, preceded the oeginning of all earthly t^h w H^ 
and have been constantly regulating and accompanying tlw^ 
From those all nature has originated; accoroing to theia 
every part has been created ; and by Uiese, in eveiy age |f 
our world, have its course and conauct been supennteodid 
and governed. 

But all plans are proportioned and adapted to their intend 

fid objects and ends. There are always the greater and the 

smaller ; tlic general and the particular ; the si^rdinate qoob, 

Mnd those which command axvd. «A\.\i«.x.« \Wqu Witii tb 

mighty p/ai) of uniyeiaal cTeaXvpn ^vr^ "W^^k Vb^ ^i^ 

or Ttfl WOftLD. 2$ 

istcnce, no dinut relation, nor with thoM of tho 
I iMsyond our HyHtiMU. It in triio that, m a part, how« 
nHidorablr, of the wonderful whole, we muHt bo in 
ic«ct aflcirlod by what afloctH tliut ; and our aiitrono- 
n Hii|;^>ated that tho innumerable hoNtH of radiant 
ove iiH have, beNJdeM their Hejuirate and peculiar 
lyatciuN, NOine vaat {{cneral movement, around aomo 
ccntraiiuitjon, in the drptlw of unfathoined Hpaco. 
I perceptiblu eouHcxiuonceH flow from Uiia to our 
orld or to itn HOf:ial conaiitution. SatiMficd tluit 
lotfl are f^ovcrned by plana which, thou^^h CHaential 
irr not eiiended to un, beyond our f^uneral relations 
I of diataiice, niaf^nitude, and movement, our atten* 
never lie turned towardn any other achemoa and do* 
I thoae which have o{M!rate<l on our nature and on 

whde on it, moat precjoua world ; |)rociouH from 

Mid biMiefit to UN, and {irolwbly not mferior, in the 
m wo receive from it, to the cmnforta and advanta« 
' of our HiMter planeta. 'J'hore ia a glurioua future 
to tlKMM^ who may be admitted to it ; but an tlwi 
ipcciaj kmf(dom, npfUMally created finr ita iniinortoi* 
ittanta, it vvdl pnibubly bo ditlWront from any that 
I. I cannot, therelbre, avoid bi'liovin^ that we are 
it preamt in our minor f(lul)e aH our fellow •cnniturea 
greater maaaca of Jupiter and Saturn, liut be this 
, our intereata now are coniinod to our own earth, 

idena and purpONen on which that baa biusn formed, 
lich the erontnny of our Mxriai lifu in ^>venied. 
irticidarly anxioim that you ahould feel and iK'lieTO 
MMi muHt have iNien inuile in ull iLh |»artH iifam an 

plan, by ita iiit«llif(ent (yrciitor, and aiiould aiwaya 
I material nature and human hi^tor/ with thia lixitd 
I, liecauNfi both will Ins more iiiHtnirtive uimI um^ful 

you read and Uiink upon iht^m with thin |)i*rviulinfr 
IK principle. Yim will tlieii IxMroine more intereNleu 
1, and cannot (rtherwine profierly and HUfTicicnlly 
i cMther. Doth will ap|M>ur li> yon uiidvr very difliir- 

and |)roaGiit very diflfen'Ut proapocta, and ext'itc very 
Jtoui^hta and feeliiiKa, aceordiiiK un you rluTiNh or 
yoiir meditationa, tUiH oniif^ileiiiUK ii\u\ vVvivrVwxy;^ 

wt// hi' Mn itnpmving rxfrcine iil yuv\T dvH^i'Xu\\\^ 
ad m connuni p/oaaiiro to y«ur \mal Hui«\\iii\aXVi%, Nft 
mm Mtiploytnoni. 



My pbab Sox, 
If wc ^lopc th« principle that wc tn liTing in bedi ft 
lutunl and ii focul system of thiDgs, which have been midf 
on int<!'Ilig«iit pUii# tor incelligent purpiMes, we shall iwiw 
th«on2« or thii\k oa «idier nature or Lite as if they were aob* 
■utiii^ aiid moviiu; without them, or could have originaSed kk 
axiY other uvuinor Thou^ we should be unable to tnet 
them, yet the couviction tbu&t they are realities should nenr 
be al^seut fa^ui our minds : for as, when we can diKcn 
them. It will be our duty to reason conformably to them, H^ 
when th«'y tvidlt' our present researches, we should iliS 
bear in mmd tluc creation has nowhere existed wittaoot a 
reasoned dos;^ and a reasoning and directing govemoifloL 
If wc t'oUow tlio too ctHuinon oabit of thinking and actim 
upv^n the fdi'ts JUtai U\v» of materul nature and human lift M 
it' neither iud l^cen framed or was conducted on any intfll' 
liable pUxi. or for any and wixthy purpose ; as if al 
Tisible thii^r* ^ere siibsMting and recurring solely by thea* 
■elT«9k And letl to tli^mselves without des^pi or object, nd 
with no inT»ibl« superintendence ; if we regard the phsooB' 
ena of nature. ai;d tlio jrrvat events of history or of inditidnil 
bio-'raphy. as nwre trains of unarranscd,' undirected, UB* 
caused, or unoonuected se^uences^ wiuiout any reason wby 
they slH^uld be wiut they were, and succeed each otbtf •* 
they do. aiul witiiout any ass^ned or connecting lelatkn; 
deftitiitc of all accompanying meaninff. and occurring and 
changing bv no rule or for any projected or pursued rad : 

If we thus estiiiute and re^<rd the worid we Ure in, tod 
the course and state of things about us, we shall be per* 
petually misconceiving and misrepresenting than ; we uiU 
be narrowing and darkemng our intellectuu views, snd ihftD 
keep away trom our thou^pits those truths which will 
expiad arid improve ihem ; wUic^ w^ ifil^ 

sad cierfttcd faopse ; anA. «v *t ^ 


befall us, will always be a source of ezhilaxatUm and soothiiig 

I do not mean that we should be always painting or gilding 
our books of knowledge with religious vignettes or decora^ 
tions for ornamental recommendations ; nor edge our conver* 
sation or public discourses on art or science with such allu- 
sions for personal display or popular effect. It is not the 
phrase or the paragraph abetracteid from the pervading mind 
and personal feelii^ which is valuable ; for as these express 
no genuine conviction, they excite none. They are heaid aa 
rhetorical perorations, applauded, admired, and forgotten. The 
desirable requisite is, that these principles should ba the silent 
and abiding, but ever-living impressions and beUef in our own 
individual mind. We shouM feel that in examining or experi- 
menting on any object or department of nature we are in* 
yestigating the productions of an intelligent Creator, wbJcli 
have design in every part. This idea slx>uid sccompany us 
also with habitual conviction, as we contemplate the maps of 
recorded time in their historical lineaments and national ra- 

. If we assume that, both in natural philosophy and civil his- 
tory, we have before us the features and the outlines of thar 
plains and purposes of the Fonner and Governor of all things, 
and are viewing in the observed and narrated results the evo- 
lutions and executions of his purponcs, our knowledge will be 
kept in continual unison with him ; and wc shall then per- 
ceive meaning, wisdom, directing causation, connexions, re- 
lations, utilities, and accomplished ends, which are now but 
rarely adverted to or thought of. 

Tmi we know so little of them beyond our general and 
Terbal acknowledgment is no proof that they are unknow- 
able ; but is rather the indication that they have not been a 
favourite study ; for, in other pursuits, no failures prevent 
other exertions from being more successful. Nor is there a 
science now cultivated, except the geometrical ones, which 

* When we read what philosophers abroad in oar own tinnes. and 
what some among ourselves, have started on tbe origin or things, wn 
liave reason to Tear that,, if the principle oT an intelligent |rian and eor- 
respondent creatien be relinquished, we shall have our physiology do> 
formed by absurdities as striking as lh<>ae of Neoclea, tlie Croconian, 
whom Herodocus of Ueracleum narrates to have maintained that women 
In tbe hmkni lay eggs, aad that the men produced firom them an 9x% 
times the size of those on our aarth.— Aihen. Deimt-, V.. ^ v* ^^ ' 
Vol. m^C 


was not, both in the dsys of AristoUe and of Tachoi, is tlw 
same barren and, apparently, unimprovable conditioii. Nft* 
ture was then ererywhere an nndeciphered myttexy ; md it 
was because it seemed useless to study it that SocntM 
called the attention of the inquisitive to moral and pdttkd 

The error of thinking and reasoning on the worid w« in- 
habit, without these views, will appear, if we consider hovr 
egregiously the youn^ sailor would mislead himself if, on a- 
terins a snip of the Ime, on the commencement of hb piroftn* 
sion J career, he did not consider it as having beeo mdh hf 
skilful persons, woiking with acquired dexterity, aeeoidhig 10 
well-formed plans ; ai^ framing every pait with jadgmBOly 
care, meaning, anid purpose. If, like some savages, ki 
should deem the noble vessel a living creature, moving ftam 
and having life in itself ; or that it was some monstrooB bad, 
with immense limbs and wings ; or but a self-formed or ۥȥ 
ual meeting and cohesion of wandering pertkles; or tlw 
gradual grow^ of a fallen tree or of a little canoe, by n doir 
enlargement during millions of ages, into its noUe nwflnitadv 
and stupendous complication : if he should svumooflr Ut 
mind to such fancies as these, uid disbeUeve that sdentitfr 
directors and able shipwrights had framed it pnipoeely, htm 
contemptuously should we deride or pity his ignor a ncot 
Though entering it with a knowledge that it was to sail, and^ 
if necessary, to be used for buttle, he would Bamioee iti 
masts, canvass, and cannon to be the instruments for tfaasi 
services, yet how useless and unmeaning, in his first igno- 
rance, would seem most of the numerous articles of the UMg** 
nificent structure ! They would appear to hU apptehennon 
more like encumbrances and confusion than essential ptftt 
of its serviceable mechanism, until he had gnduaUy £md 
out their uses, and learned to know that eveiythinff he stM 
had been devised and made with specific purposes Kir meft* 
fie ends, which, whenever wanted, they accomplished. Thai 
he would understand that not a single rope or plank, not evei 

* If the sentiments of one of the seven sages had beeoms nnlmsJ 
bow little should we have known of the laws of the pUnolafy iris lis 
Bion said that astronomers were most ridicalous persons (y<Xior«i»sd 
for though they could not see the fish near the shores they wars wiK 
ing by, they pretended to be aUe to know the thiafs that wws In tfei 
skies.—SloMras, pi 469. 

09 THI WOBL». 27 

•bft |««g '#r nail, hud Inmsii put in uniifscmMrily, or witli^iiit 
4jrty:l iMeiuiing, furi:M>«;iii|{ UiU-nluiii, himJ tutiVtcitni rt-Himu. 
h !• litf: feofiMs 111 tkft Mirur'luri; of finturc niul in Uitt luitjitotny 

0/ Ijfft .Mt:IUlUli{i |fJ«l», l/UrfJOM, tUiti isffiKUtUl UMiUlllUon t-vttiy 

A* { lUt fi<H 4cfiii/t; you Ut In71iitv« Uim iKfcmmci I MMMrrt it, I 
wiU •ImU: Ut you ibc! tfroundM on wtuuli 1 rif«it my own tunivu- 
liMi of It ; b^-.iMmi, ilymir tH:lu;f imn U: nftvornitM] wiDi youf 
Miitfi*^ rvMon, it will nlwuyai Iks Um uiuttt inUtiUutiuii] mikJ 

Nklu/«, M ■ f-TMlMn, <:«» only Ih; wlmt Ui*t littity lui* rriii<li} 
H to I* ; Mi4 Jl in wtiMl It Jm, ii<fl<:ly \tf.t'.uwu: Im: linn cli'ini li ro 
to inmtfnd u^eontiniii: it. Jir: ilii^rcfore inti:itfl<)il Uxnukf ii. 
vHbl KM fi«f<-«iv«; tbiil It IN, ImKutui' it m not fMMftihk l'#r «iiy 
mi0f M iumIu! wittMHit int«ndni(( U» iIomi. iiut ifiAluiiffojuiiily 
lokfiltf!* |jf«rvioijii «l«vjiiinf{ Mild |iiir|MMf , and « fjuriiculii/ «i<-i:i^fi 
m4 iiorpottif ', for unyDiiiiK '"^*: tttii^lit Imvi: lH:Kn di/fi-ii-niiy 
tm^t or mH nwdi; ut nil. 'J'o Im wtunt it u, inift^aui of luitui 
•uyihinff •:l««-, it inubt Utf.rt^iotii liavi: Inr^rn n|H-<:i«lly fl«r>.j//ri(^<l 
i« bft •lirli, kfid Ouit d«'»i^n niii«t Imvi; lf<ri'n ftf/cf:iiiriy tint] at 
eunUtiy «•!«■: uImI. iiut «ll mitM'.tul d«:ieif/ri» ron^int ol lAan 
m4 |i«irpo*r., knd, if anjr.uUui, Out i-xenjtion i« thf? r«*f;r<-i:(f>ta 
tiMfi— HiiM rt'kl tuition of iImtm in iMutf. |f<rrr(Tpubltt form 

ft !■ of r«M!ntiid iin^MtrlHiy.f. Ut urn th«l oii/ ■M-.nliniMi'n ofi 
fkm ^mit •iil»)«^:t almuld li<? rorrf' lly hikI <?arly fornix '1 , foi 
ytpi Mill fiiifl Owl th<7y will virry inurK KifluMif-i: himI « <floiif 
ywir sfti-r lif« lutA mind Jt m in tht firnl fiiiri of our v/or|(]ly 
ckrrcf OlkI w** Iimvi: m«i»t li-ikiiri* to think, fend, liy mim ntuni, 
ti« Ir^ 10 in<-dit«fion Mild iii'jiiiry ; we iir«r ih'^ii mImi nio::> itdl'- 
•nd fliafi^Mrd Ut think kii'i jii'iffi- f»i/ly l(jp;ht o|/jiif';/o .tn 
l\^ flminfu^m of nil true wiMlorii, iiii<l f.vhn ttf nui/jil <<iri(]-jf t 
lO^tiittdi- of mind mi'l ifiitudi: of ii<;tion hsivi: u. |H-i«<ifi;i] r< 
Uiion to t:«r)i fillii-r, wrhirh in not i:ai!ily nhnkirn f}'- /i^'h*, 
Itif-rt-fffTf, III your rofii-«'|;li<jnn und kiiowl<-d;/ir of your ('itn^ni, 
«• •<#«in kn you < an, lh»l your iniitd nniy h«i iii:lll«-d "n 1*^ 
firo(«fl?r trii»i« mid atntion for iht; miutindi^r of your lifi; * 

* Tlw^a i« • pM«'if* >n Mr II . Tayl'ir'M " MmickiiiMi" on llir, 'i#firii!« 
hMi iMlwiwn vtrtuan'iH wia4«iffi llinl i(<-«i;rvr« m tAurr. m your iiii-fit«f y 

■* ir ihcrr l«« in I ill! I hariuiar iiii« on y mmm mid M<in<1n<-.«a, ''Hi hImi 

•ifiM* <ir • bigh or4«/. il'rTf, Ituwtr^tr lillUt uptirMaiu't^ i\irif- \i\«l \i*. i«\ 

ial«fr/, • f*fuun f0tftiun *tt wi»4tnn iim jr tm rttlUiA uinmi aXiiimA \u%\i\^' \v\i 

*«r f*«r ini/ meemntMy mek mImt I« ui Im mfarivA, WM. «*«'^1 ^' 




Tki Plant pf the Creator are adapUd to the d0erent daetetofl 
^ loAicJk ow World is composed.'-7%e dietmetion q^ these mto 
rial SiiManeee, nummg Powers, and living Beings. — The PUm 
the Unman Race different /rom those itfthe Rat i^ Nature. 

My DBAS Son, 

In considering the Divine plans as to our world, it if 
portant to observe the different classes of things which it 
prises, as each of these must have a design and a i^ 
correspondent with their nature, and adapted to maintau 
continue it. It will be sufficient to sketch the outline of 
in the most general manner, as it is only with one depart 
of them that our present correspondence is particularly 

Our world may be viewed as consisting of three ge 
classes of things, very dissimilar to each ouier, which we 
distinguish by the terms material substances, motive po' 
and living principles or beings. Each of these has its ] 
liar laws, each 'has been formed upon a distinct plan, 
each is used for purposes which only its own class can i 

To the latter, of course, the human race belong. Bi 
will glance slightly on the others, as we are always conm 
with them ; and although each has its own apprc^riated 
yet they are all parts of the great stupendous whole, \ 
our ceippartment of the universe comprises, and are thei 
subordinated to that grander plan by which every memb 
our system is constantly regulated. 

Matter is motionless in itself until moved by a m 

men's wisdom makss them good, bat also because tbeir goodness i 
Ibem wi>>e. 

** Altboagh simple goodness does not imply every sort of wied 

vmerrlngty implies some essential conditions of wiadom. It imp 

fiegstive on foliy, and an exercised judgment wiibin such limits i 

fare shall have presented to the capacity. 

** When virtue and extent of capa^\ty «xe eoKabVcied^ there is in 

#te lUgbtk wisdom ; being thai w\i\o^ Vac\«Am >3m iraAAiLi ^ 

mUi OMs ifiiieiaitl/wTayiDi's " TU fttaXMaavC* 

or THB W0ELD. M 

power additioiitl and eztrinaic to it. Of the mothrv powi«i 
r which affect and regulate the material aobataneee of naton^ 
we know hat little. We hare attached variou namea to what 
we have remarked. We caU them reapectiTely attiactioii, 
^ graiitatioii, impulse, cohesxm, a fliuiti c a , macnetism, electri> 
city, caloric, crystallization, polarizatioD, and bj aome oth« 
demmunations, all very useful in Hi«^»Tim^ftjnig their phenoan- 
ena, but explahiing nothing of their natore. 

These tmree sreat classes of subsisting things are probaUy 
everywhere in &e universe ; at least they so completely font 
the character of our world, that we can hardly cooceire aiqr 
other to be without them. Life, motion, and matter aeem to 
us indispensable to all created orbs of beings. 

Motion has been thought by some to be inherent in mat- 
ter ; but this is veiy much like supposing that two veiy dis- 
similar things, each independent of the other, are yet one and 
the same tlmig. It will be therefore more accurate to keep 
them apart, and to consider the motive powers as a distinct 
class in nature, of then: own kind, though always comhinable 
and usually combined with the two other orders we have spe- 
cified — ^material substances and living beings. All the three 
are in frequent union together ; but always separaUe, and 
frequently separating from each other. Each can be, and at 
times is, in the distmct and independent state, but always ca- 
pable of resuming its connected condition. We see them 
about us perpetually in all these modes of subsistence. 

The earth and stones we handle are material substances 
without life or motion ; clouds are material particles united 
with some of the moving agencies. Trees, animals, and 
mankind are living beings, conjoined with material forms, and 
also with some of nature's motive energies. Within our sys- 
tem we likewise continually behold the |^n(Hnena of moving 
powers, without the addition of either life or matter, as weU 
as in constant association with them. Light, heat, storm, and 
the electric fluid, whether as lightning or as magnetism, or in 
its other modifications, are familiar instances of subsisting re- 
ahties, which we allow to be distinct from any living acency 
and firom the material particles which they so strongly act 

The most splendid instances of moving powers, distinct ss 
wen from life as from the matter which they actaate, and 
operating in their own way, and according to ^Vt own «»• 



and nature, appear to ub in the diurnal revolntioii ot 
earth, and in iU annual, or rather continual, circuit wi^ tbf 
other planets around our central sun. We perceive 
also in the, at present, inexplicable visits of the coi 
travellers. Some marvellous motive powers, two at 
the impelling and the graviuting, actuate each of t] 
Their movements are cognizable by our senses ; and it is tbf 
glory of human nature, by its persevering observations tad 
intense thinking, to have descried and described the lawn of 
their motivity. But with the nature of the movii^ power, 
notwithstanding all the penetrating energy of our science, we 
are absolutely unacquainted For impulse, expansion, attrae- 
tion, gravitation, projectile force, and such like terms, ate biit 
words by which we ticket and catalogue the facts we so dis- 
criminate. They disclose no knowledge to us of the esaen- 
tial nature of the powers which they signalize. We uae 
them as appropriated words, fully intelligible to others ao fiu 
as they mark the phenomena they allude to ; but they alwaya 
denote unknown qualities or agencies, and do not impart any 
elucidating knowledge of what that reality is, whose eflbcti 
our mathematicians and philosophers so correctly state, and 
have reasoned upon with such surprising sagacity. To them, 
for what they have done and are doing, we cannot be too 
grateful, or estimate too hi^y the intellectual ability which 
Siey display. I appreciate it so much, that it is quite aoffi- 
cient to prove to me that the living principle in human na> 
ture has an independent thinking property, which ought never 
to be confounded with either motion or matter, or even with 
the other Uving principles that coexist with us on our tene^ 
trial surface. 

In our solid globe, if it be a compact series of maaaea, or 
in the solid roclu and strata which compose the globular to- 
perfices on which we viralk and act, whatever be beneath 
them, our Creator has made and placed the compounded 
masses, which he designed should be permanent without 
either life or motion, in such order and shapes, and with scMib 
several compoeitions of substance, as his plan for ita con* 
struction required. 

With equal care and selecting power he has united the 
living principles which he has assigned to our earth with 
ouch diversified but specific and continued organic forma, at 
also raited his ehosen dentgns, and which giviB to eaoh ibt$ 


dmmtiaii, aad those enjorments and seiuatioiu of conMious 
life, And that reproducing power, which he had decermmed 
the? should respectively cxpenenci* and {xwse^^. The mo- 
tire powers which he has commanded to attccid our gioue, 
and to be associated with its dtrersided comMrtsnenia. were 
selected by him, and were added to oiir w.j.-id Sy :r.e same 
judging skill with whxh everythin/ cointtVni w/ri i! w* 
been made. Tneir force and er^c-r^y peci:iiA:.-. r,^-< ii.a.^ 
and goremment : we may therefore i.* *i:re :.-a: :.v.r --dr.- 
tity, force, modincacion^, corttiau'.y. pty^Liiur.A. i.v: Iaa-. irA 
course of movement, have been a.L w.:h *:.»:•■:"... "*.... -.--»- 
Tiously adjusted azid apportioned ro •-^ :-:-:. .: r-r ..--. a.-i1 
to the effects thev were to orodace ; aoi -:■.' ■.- i.. i.-- ..-. 
execution of the great plan, ar^i are *'::■:.. .-.::..i:ri; iri»i 
guided to do so. ar-d are rwrramed fro.Ti ir.y ^r.^.-: .■-*.:.■.- " 

When the ma:enal «uri*>:dn«:e-s anii Me .t;«.-. .r.j :o'.v.*r* 
were produced, and :heir arrar.ztnnfir.-- ar.ii la*.-- -'■■%».:•. -..r :. 
and the course of nature i:r»«ier ":::'■..* o;*?n*.-:r. w- -.-■--. -il 
and put in acnon. the de^igr. o: *.".■* Cr-^i:- r ..-. ■:.- : i-.r :.\- 
tion wa:* so fir comL-'.-^rr':. T:.*- •■■-•-■ .". : .■: v. * :" ".- 
livinz or2ar.iza::oii.-5 ■:■:' :.i* ::■? '.rr.r.j i.-. . ."■ ■ : : ■ ■ ■ . 
in their several k.-'is. "■ ;: ■■/ .•; i. ^ i ;• . . ' -. •. ■ • : 
varioi* repr.>i :c'.: jr>. :"'.': «.::. -v.- i.- ■■. • ■.• v. v. i '•■ ■.•-- 
sumed to have r-^er: ad' ■.-..■..>•-. 'il -;.- ■-.-■ .* v • ...t- ■ -. w. 

the Uws of '.heir eiiiV.-r.-:* ■•=-.'.1 -'. .v-.i:- v.- " 

to be aiways and o:..y *i.i-. '.vy ■:-••: H -■.••- ■■■ : rf • " 
soecics o! vejetaj/.^'s ar»u t."': .. ^. sj- i.-i . .:- 
tries svihatiri'.ial-y alike T;.r: ..:.'. ..'. ". ..• Z-.-. ._". i. -■»..•- 
dens resennble* ".--J lijr. '.ii*. »: lei.-':'! ... -.i^ i*. :■..:■.• .i-:-» .:" 
Rome ISiJ«) yea.'* i^'j ; c,»."t. :^ s:... -«: v_*. .: «■■»- .-. --.r: ;.i:t 
of the Pharaorji : a-r^l t.'.e •..•■»e^ j: : ..• r..'*^'..*^-.: '..:-:'<rjt i.«* 
not dissimilar ^j tij^se wiici si«.:e:ef: -■..• \:.x'.\r-y.^ti:^ \r^ 

• Tb« pcriod.cil nefam^ offtr.* wckm •*'«r-. v. .re v, «r.i-.-* m -.* 
witb wtiai comrnan<Lr.r«n'i tii.-aMtt rrr: xr'} "»• ■-■rrj^rjV.i. i -."^nt -.^ 
Ibrces of naf are are go-t^iri^rf -.:« % -it •»!••.- ^ ..-••■ .^tr.v «••.■•-. 
lecurrencca lAJ.^raxi* % --i- -^f i- i.-.ui,-; *;>:■.■. v.- *.:.»". r 
ihe space it ma« em'srare. I -M -■•<: c.v; « ■s-.-^v'' : ■■. »■••? i ■*■■» .*.. 
Sir Iftaae Newton, wao »!i»ri -.ri :*cr ^ <».:a: -.7 ^A". «.-,r v, .i»* ■-»- 
ilicteil ibe •ppearsBAie of r-^ •x.TJiBf <if '.'y. ■ .v-i V » ■■ 's *."■"'■» ■-■« • 
the w^rrjirjt man. ari-i :.-.-» .* '-^ 7*r. /.t* .:.-^r.\:y.t -•-.«?* ■-"i* *^ ira 
Afacncnec hM bwi pr^.n^ ••►for-- 1. :. ».-•'. "Jta a«ia-J ■«=* ■•• 
.cording to that pretcLoo.'— Wa:*w:^'i aa^.- Vm.- 


But the human nee is that order of Ibiiiff beiqge fHnib 
ha* been created upon a different plan ; and it is thia o- 

S minted difference which separates us from all other aniBaa. 
ur bodies indeed are, like theirs, made upon an abidinffgyi^ 
tem as to their external form and interior functtoBS. ^Bf« 
since the deluge, the human figure, in its material at i wtui i 
and with its organizations, us nerer essentially Tuied. 
Colour and other accidents of the corporeal firame may TSiy, 
because many natural causes affect our skin and eztenor ap- 
pearance ; but the internal likeness is uniform anS unirend. 
it is in our moral and intellectual natures, and in their 
chanffes, enlargements, sensibilities, powers, improTsbilitiei^ 
and destinations, that our dissimilitude to every other kind of 
living creatures particularly displays itself; and from theat 
the sacred history of our species, and those branches of it 
which these letters will treat of, take their rise, and with 
these are perpetually connected: To the sacred history of 
man all the other classes of subsistinff things on our earth 
are subordinate. In this the plan of uie Creator as to our 
world seems to centre ; and for the completion of his de- 
signs, with respect to the ulterior state of his human raee^ 
the present course of nature in our system may be supposed 
to bcf carried on. 


The Invisible Agendee <u certain 
Nature.— -TTke Dtvine Agendee _. . 
Divine Plan as to Human Populat 
trevieUion of Life. 

Mt DBAS Son, 

In the preceding remarks on the Divine creations I htf 

directed your attention to human operations and fabfications, 

because they will give to your ideas on this mighty aubjeet 

the moat sensible Sad experimental realities to refer to and to 

rest upon. Nothing on earth so approachea tne modua oper- 

andij the forming agency by wbic\i tbe \>«>iu^ '^aa cncotecoKStMl 

and regulates all things, aa bumaxi NvoxkmttDifiDQ^ in^> ^Binwot 


09 nU WOUD. i 83 

MW Mil in w M It i|ipMn to hmn Mtod in him ; 
fai w inttnbUf tUnbiif in Mm; oar moimer of 

^ - .^ to wtfai utaMof Uf Totttioii; and by 

W9 ooBtRfo and do in tbo iMo of oar intoHoctma powen, 

I how bio aobUmc ipirit \m» dcMgned, and 

Uo doiigiif. Wo can, in the atme manner, 

pOTBoifo what k diroetion, guidoneo, and gorenunent 

li Urn, bf o«r own aeto of tUa deacription. Even the invia- 
•iUaa Of Uo hitori a oan co a and adminiatntiona aio made in- 
iMUalonobyovrown. For tba ordora of our eabinetN to 
iw dirtaat gOf«nMNBa» aa thoao of tha imporial fanoral u> hia 
MaMa aid oflfeora, aot by inviaible impulaaa and* motivitiea. 
IMr IMI hoor tho abond of worda, or tbair tjm may trace 
tbi kmn of tho writton doapatcb ; but the efiaet of iMth, 
tiw powor» tha actuating cauae whidi produce 
wad exact obodienco, ia entiralx toteUectual 

bk tho nind of tha diraetor, though bundrada or thooaanda 

if Hlaa diatant|Whioh morea tha mind of the directed and the 

the other, nor tho ruling impulae which 
^'9m tianamita and the other receivea and confonna to. 
1W pweooa ia one of the imriaiMe inteUectualittoa which tlie 
ba— ifaciihioaran pot inaction, and be conaciouaof and gav- 

Of thia kind were the plana of Napoleon and WeUingion in 
Ibiir aofoml campaigna ; unaeen by any, intangible by tlieru. 
Hliaa. Thoy were ideal realitiea, putting in action all tlie 
ftHenal aubetancea of cannon and warlike munitioua ; all tlie 
po^Ktile ioKce and moving powera of their inatrumt-nts of 
wuie, and all the living principlea, both in anirnala and men, 
«bieb they Ofdered to move and act, correiipondently wjth 
tkiir deloniiinod plana, to execute their determined puqKiHca. 
Tbi pvociaohr-operating and unreaiated power and motive in- 
iaonce by «vliich the natural qualitiea and apontaneoua wilN 
ef their armies and impleinenta of warfare were put into ac- 
lion* and eontiolled and reoiilated into the apocific a<:tiorm 
which woio intended, and wliich were made to achieve the 
daviead and appointed enda of the comiuaudera, were noihiiiK 
liho objoeu ol eight and contact. It waa aa idviaible aiui nm 
jntailarlMil ae that JDivine agency which guidea and Muuiuvu 
naUtfo Mod ite moving powera ; inA ^\iic\v, v\\ \\\» 


maoDcr, eondacu iu ao o iwij of ' 

all Its i»rt3calar interfefenoet. 

OcrlegiflBUoa u iDOUxr insuim of nmahke. 
ini^Iicctokl affCDCT npoo us, of the 
nuii^ding edec L by wuch our actKmi ai« continaallT ;_ 
We 8c« DOt liie iegal or poktical fence wiuck we obey. 
belioid only the insuument* which execoie it, or ikm 
wo.-ds which reiaie to it. Bui the agencr, which, if wi 
will put tne whole socieir mto operation ogainsi no, is om : 
reality, eusune in no pinicuUr place, confined to no 
ye: pcn-ading. Kipenntending. and rukng the whole ( 
111 'A.iirh we reside. 

WtiAt thus occurs between man and man will aem li !■ 
lustraie what is always taking place between ua end Gii 
His presence is eTerywhere in effect ; hu plans g«iide» Mi 
miTui actuates, his will gOTerns all thinffs ; his 
h:n:t and saape the coune and results of aU that he _ 
movement : and yet all this agency, eren in its mooi 
able impulses, as well as in its gentlest aitraction, cen be M^ 
ther seen, wx touched, nor subjected to any cxaminBliaaof •■ 
material sense. 

It is as invisible and as wholly intellectual as the effect m 
our sensibility and rational qwit, of the d«aited pool, Mfr 
tor. or historian. We read words which of themselroB M 
but marks or scrawls; blackening the paper ther are upon, ft 
is the unseen ^nius of the writers which adecta our ■■! 
through these, its petty instruments. It is invisible mind i^ 
dressing invisible mind. The process and the operation «t 
ideal, and by our oz^anized senses imperceptible. Tho reeoft- 
lection of these, and of all effects analogous to these, will oi^ 
able us to form a rational and comprehensible notion of ihi 
nature, mode of operation, and continual efficiency of the K 
vine agency, which guides and governs us. and which is con- 
tinually executing the plans and purposes that have been del» 
mined on as to the economy of our human life. But while IM 
use these illustrations, it is for us to bear continually in 
that however assimilating such things be in the point of 
in which they are here r^resented, yet all that is Divine 
above what is human with that immeasurable superiority whick 
infinitude, and perfection, and eternity unceasinriy conte. 

In considering the plans and purposes of £e Deity, m 
must make thia distinction between taem, that althouj^ boik 

^^HtrhMd to MB 

be onr l A wtM nmwufcg AMtnl th« lit- 
n7> iMi M M tea tki femv. Ttw pUn (■ 
to MBtnte di« PMpBM, iad b eSBtfami^r dltpliying 
n iha jinwcH of Iha HanUoB. B« Ih* mipoM S 
iiitf diHaniitila uniil It liM balB inOBpUihMfi antl 1(, 
ii'Ti then, (rfuiri ■ aubjMt of dlfBndt dtdnetioB ; neitber ta 
n the hcavcna, H MM of Ibe Um or u«|dM of w 
but <riiM )> BMtW ta ■ fdiiKt of OUT 

^"ram. Pfothuji but MM l> turn 
GKoml mM tb* •Obet, but ( 

MN«t ItdUbn otdT 

i«MiL««M tb« •Obet.bqt tomttaitMM do not 

• l>«M mvDd object ndHT dim to nothK ^ tlw deed. 
tmalov tadgmnt W* dlMan faj thb lb« Ml eitarlor 
ttw «Um hu aActtd u. TUi li an inAratm of our 
MpML Bid thu OBT knowbto ofnitatd uid TJilblo, u 
mTm af taMlMftMl ud fawitUft tUnga, itwHi nffM 
i» y WMMOBi Md InAmcM of oar mmMl henh;. 
w iV« k our <yJnloiw wbon 

f*tagi to bi ib« lofamcM (nd jodpr 
fM ipMk lo na, It ii Ibb nuonlng u 

t)P faMT ■PWtwWii which Iwd mo to cmwiauu hikl iin 

1WH oMMt DOn TOi>> and not IVDm tha chair or titilo ; or 
nkm I baw Iba nmn rini, that it iiauea IVom tha Urd inMeid 

0» taAMoaoa la l« plana and pntpoiaa ire la much true 
tavwla^aadeartanliaau tboaa wedariTo (VomonrMriHriii 
ii aMai eaaa at* tba; auoh, nnlaaa joatljr mads. In licith, 
«a aaal Ikm to obaerra icauntalj, naton praporly, and 
frifi aooadly. Tba comlualon, Inen, becomaa a pii'itiva 
Mb I aa aanlf In whal we can paioeiTo onlj bjr thn iiili'U 
bit aa In wfaat wa babdd ood liandla, Wa ara frri|URnily 
■ring ta ear daolaiOBa an tha anwhance of our aenie*, iind 
«M dtaoN diibr fna olbwa in iha [nrormatlon tba]> caMcf. 
tmm lit Ibwi f o r i, not a moia certain guide to truth thui 
iMMd talilhct,faa ft la Ihia which ia mr rati Uw:V.Q( kt& 
*wMr * m^rwv w* iuow. 
(k *b mMAw Ot bnUbUitioi of mn woAl wA <A v-M 


universe, whore they are in exiHtence, and become deaerie^ 
and are rightly inferred and stated by our investigating mind 
are as certain and as true to us as every material thing wfaid 
we hear and look at. It is not the bodily organ, but mn mind, 
which, in our sensorial impressions, perceives, feels, leami) 
compares, judges, and knows, llie nervous organization ii 
but an optical tube which it uses in sight ; or an acoustic in* 
strument, which collects for it the vibrations of the sonoraoi 
fluid when it hears ; or the numerous implements into whid 
it converts iis fm^crs when it handles and operates by theif 
agency. It is our mtellectual principle which, in all the effecti, 
that we call Hensations, is the acting, feeling, moving, perceiv- 
ing, and knowinff power. The invisible things of nature aia 
thus as cognizable by us as the visible, though not so soon or 
readily. They require a cultivated mind, exercised on such 
subjects in proportion to their difficulty and remoteness ; and 
this is necessary in all our recondite studies. 

The more you observe the statements and arguments of 
those who exclude a Deity from nature and disbelieve a en- 
ation, the more useful you will find it to be to recollect and 
apply the ideas here suggested. These writers are strennoof 
to banish from the mind whatever their senses cannot ex- 
amine, on the fallacious theory that nothing else is existing. 

On the topics which we will proceed to consider, we yn& 
first collect from history and nature the main facts which 
mark the plan and system of our Creator with respect to tht 
subjects of our inquiry, and trace such laws and principlef 
concerning them as we may be able to discern ; and then at- 
tempt to infer the purposes for which they have been estab- 

The POPULATION of our world will naturally be the first ob- 
ject of our attention, as it is the basis and material of all out 
other subjects. The circumstances which have actually taken 
place enable us to notice the outlines of the plan which com- 
prehended them. 

Intending at some period of his eternity to have a human 
race in his universe, the Deity chose to make our terrestrial 
globe for their present residence, and to place this, with tho 
associated planiits, under the influence of a central sun, in 
that compartiuont of unbounded space which our system 0C« 
cupiea. In what portion of the woudcrful whole wo are situ- 
Mieid, we kuow not, and have ^ao xdavoa oi «Ac«i\AaxCnk%. ^ 


■nmnribla bodiei 0A1M niii«fie«M of ligM aImv* mi4 «bvui «m, 
irHiich indnce us to coiwidor ibwii to Im im^Uttimi ftuiMi, mjImIi- 
ited by living beinffv. 'J*liii Bimlutfjr u fMrMMMv« m^ mIm- 
factory ; but our opiniuM aliuut Uinm ecu wJf Ijr afMrkuis.- 
tions, •■ we faaTe nothing but tiia lij«:lH MmiUiriy u» i^mmm 
firom ; and comotn (mmomi Umir di'grftai of ibifl 'lualiiy, ai^ 
yet are 00 unaubfltaiitial, that tiie atan tiicry 1 ova/ < mi Ui mmw 
throuffh the ccntralixed nucleuH of mtvtni wliirh liav«! tmUiriid 
our puuiotary area. W« know not whatiitr w« iir« gJidiiig in 
the middle of a living univitrM or in a ttmmr ; of v^lmihmt 
our population it or in not the chief, or tti«t only inialliginit 
beings which our iiolar avatfim contairM. It i« nnwi i^uimkiim 
that we are not the excluaive viialitiiui wlnr-h 1m v* a III vine 
intellect as their distinguishing propf-rty ; but it m rifit rarUiu. 
We have not the least inff»ruwtion wluih^f our di-|Mutwig 
spiiit is removed Utf or wlifttlM-r Vnnns, Msrs, and the Mmm, 
whose material masses seem most to rfie*mbl«i our own, re 
ceive it as their iuhahitaiit, or have onginsl |ioMilstK«is el ihair 
own. In the absence of all solid grounds of judgment, tJti^ 
jecture would be niislesfliiiff, anfl it la )i«:tt#-r to leav« ilie quas^ 
tion in its natural umrertainty. 'J'lie salnat iiui/.y woiikl km 
to suppose tliat etuih has a |Kx:iilisr population auiud Ui it, a(i#l 
therefore not so suited to any oUir^r. 'J 'in a niunl tie aa rfiii«.h 
the case with ouraelvda aa with ihrjn \ only, aa Lh«i o^n-ration 
of death manifestly and uni vernal I y tak<--n us away, our living 
principles, which mere M;[iaration from tin-- \nH\y tnuii0»t rle 
•troy, must go somewhere. Thft anr.if'nt (yhriatian faihi-ra dis- 
posed of our disirnlxxlied muln by convf^ying Uii-m into tlie 
central regions of our earth ; hut as our prf:a«:nt grJrilogiale 
make that a red hot> or molten mass of fi^sry rnstt^'r, any other 
location of them, while that hypothesis jssta, will he s prefer- 
able supposition. 

Our Creator began mankind liy the pair whom he pU/.«rd a 
while in Paradise ; but on their determination U9 do what 
pleased themselves instead of ot>eying him, hi«; triin«f« rrH 
them to the general sn/face. ()n this p^/nt^'.nty rnu Im- 
plied, and continued the disolicdience, until »he iri/.r*«airiff 
perversity disordered their social communities with univfirsaJ 
corruption and violence. TTji* state was v# much at varianre 
with his wishes, and with his purposes in Uieir ^ijriatftnr^, «s 
to make it necessary, in hia c/>ri<»ideratton, and ac/;ording *^» 
his plana for this order of his livmg brings, that tb^ sn^/uld 

VolTiII.— D 


all be remored at once and together, kiatead of dying 9K, n 
the^ would otherwise have dime» gndually and eucceerively, 
while a young race was rising up among them. The oror- 
whelming deluge we formerly considereid executed tlus oi^ 
dainment on all but that single family, who weire preserfed 
to begin a new series of population of the earth, with hmi 
and under circumstances very different from the antecediqg 
ones. The sudden removal of all but this &youred fragmMl 
allowed the first generations to grow up without the deterb- 
ntions they would have imbibed from the degeneracy of their 
predecessors. Their future errors and tram^iressione would, 
oy this plan and its execution, originate from themselves, as 
they would have their immediate parents only before them for 
their educating models, and these had been selected for nrah 
ervation because they were the children of a moralizea and 
{Mous father. 

That the renewed population misht not become the same 
kind of evil beings as that which had been taken away liy 
the simultaneous death. He placed it and all earthly naturs 
under new laws and circumstances, by which human society, 
ever since, has been materially affected. He produced a new 
surface on the earth, from the dissolution, fractures, disloca- 
tions, torrents, subsidencies, and devastations of the old one; 
burying, amid the convulsions and changes of both land and 
waters, which accompanied the tremendous yet governed ca- 
tastrophe, vast portions of ancient vegetation and of animal 
races ; most of these being suited to the preceding state of 
things, and not continued into the present one, of wnich they 
were less fitting. He abridged, also, the life of man to one 
tenth or twelfth of its anterior duration — &n alteration which 
made a recurrence of the former state of human socieW im- 
possible, and which has caused it to contain a very difilerent 
species of human creatures from the antediluvian race. 

Our present population thus began under new laws of life 
and death, and on the principle thereby of beinff a succession 
of shortlived generations. The former plan, of a continuous 
individual for eight or nine hundred years* duration, had been 
tried, until it had prevailed so long as to prove to their pos- 
terity that the first stages of a human being's existence were 
not able to receive such a lengthened vitality beneficially to 
Every day that I look tioxind me, 01 igcrQAft ^Sdi& vaGou^^ 

<#V TUB wmtth 3{| 

•M«r« y«r« tma I »iuu0A ^-^tmtiimtHnuMy my fti utty ii^I/yi^J. 
mim Om« I«i*< ftif^fMl t*n Urn hmmn wM, Ihut j( w«/*il/J f<«v«: 
U»«i *«««iil*|fft*/<i«, tMkm Uf li0^t^U»i9 i/f I// Oic rmmutui^y, 

bKM«»J •ii«MMnftiMI# him} Ui«:)f |/r«/. ti/.«i um «/f t»M;Mi ; Uau 
mM-ifrt'ettmtfffd, hi$m$Uiy, |/*^<tkriM-.M, uriil iAn]MttHtt'tfiy tm 
fUf*»A 9ii4 mtvui^ M til*-!! 7«-kf« wci'? rfit<Jl((/)»«i4 hut 
yfti ttrfy tniH m H Ut UiA hm ttt*. yi^^t l(y».« «mi Otf h*. 

Uw4ptwk«t |*!«<i«A{r.», v/i'J «tLi^jii/»r<« t^* *Mt^i%, nifu^H\ H/*^',im 

(«» imm p$trptAttMi li<74«rfti/.i//f ' J>M-. frttmttm *-i\^tUn*i j«, 
b^ ImmA ftAl4Mf< Utijrt*/iHKtti*'iii* Ifi It r ft* Hilt tiUttit, f/i«t mi 
tM^« M/ UiUtit ritit ii0l'*iif*t04'. lUi^i tiikdrm iltis U»i\, im4 
\0**M*t^* *tm Uw Httfi lutittk 'hi niyfy UUt Urt )(« (jfikhU'*. 

y«v^rr4il »ftMt**Ui utul ^tttuAi*.*'. , «ri/J iiimi i\t4i tinif. lii* / n-- 
II.M.; tcfttti m*»*ifittMij ill Ui^ii Ill/Hill uiA iu^*'\U-i*h»\ \tt^tvn.!^\ 
,*» »M Us^-y 'U*^ i,*ii4**: f.ti*iiuAy tM. I* tt^iiaiiiii^ 'A \.{: 
Om9 iy/» »^, * uiuii^iiAy tilt 11- 4**- UiK fi'f'f'] 'j*n*ii*fn ui ii>.;.i,<s 
vf •;<• .lAi^y* ««I, *t9 \/9*'.\'UU. *tf ifiintit- ),t% ui.[i\*-**tu'^ 'II it, 
l.*ff*n tftt^M, •M *** ti0 Ut>t. <ia *// tf<l;« yt. ^u** i* w/'«!/' t«< •>.'./ 
*M'i»4.* •// tf** u*y •// « lU'i^I */■«/ |//< «< /.* </,tt4-f,/i *!' f'.i.'l 
••-4* f'/«./k««/f«- '// '//^ Ifiit/U*') ytti*, ^t wj,jM». ffi j»* (//«^««ft» 

^'^lU *.//!,, I* *• Ifltd-I4lly iniiiUitA Ik mUf* 4t9 »» I«j«:» •>/ 

f<« it^otuin*>'A* iMr.iri « w(»»i//ri '/f y'fif^V. tf *'•<-'•''''''«, ''••'»' 

!•/;/,.«• .»#?,*, c;//i 4/!./.;^ </./! rrt j;*j;/^;.r.j/ < vi /jr a/.«/« . */,*; /..'/. 
'■-i' ;/f'*/f* a* •#»! '/i !• ifi»4/i f»i'-./« //.'..Ml !,*« /*i'ii«/''# '#,"/ 
»»tA*»*t tiitii* tftih lUiti i**iK lr,<«t h^yt K'ft'ihfif 'ift >r.4'< l/'<(fi 
(/^ t>4 rfi« 'M-jr r.«y' * iitt f^f\ U»tiu t* j« i f.iij/W** riifif/ *'> '« •! 
v/!f rv' «/>>!. f./ 'fi** '••« t/***ih'i1 (/!«•.» !'//./« yj'jr yy4K ''''J. 
f/v' •• r<«c i««'r< «f. Ji''>4ri<4|/< *^« N'jrr>«ri }i<f |/]/ir<« «c, hm! *'/ *.'.« 
yr*r; .«! ./i/;/»'/y«-Mi"i* 'z' U'liimi ii4*-il* ^ titd* i» vir** i«*/* ''i/.' i. 

'rf^: li*/:i«'i. (/ i ^<•'2 >m. t/'^wi/ «// tiuiiiiti*4\ n.f '•'!■ 

Uiiif^ftmt.t m «f«^l rnjrMff k* iiw« ihtrtuiuX nu *tut |/i<.M.ri* t„/>ri, 
fr. ,* f. '/f. 'M *»i//l«, •• ►/^i/ •/« , '/'<• •« I •*1\1^l *i*^^i ^'..i •!. i.'A 


eternity to our social world, in its pres en t chsncter and coo^ 
ditioD ; for that would be an eternal perpetuation of failio^ 
errors, vices, ignorance, defectiye judgment, violenit V^^ 
dices, wrong hSiMts, and much obliqnity of acting mind ud 
peisonal ten^ier, all of which I should rejoice to see aliBWt 
both from mys^ and my coexisting fellow-eTeatiires, and 
which, I believe, will diminish in oar sueeeedmg geasratioiMi 
At present, it is certainly best that such an extremely anni 
number reach or pass beyond a cantury in the state in wU^ 
human nature appears in our present world. What hnau 
violence can do and will do, we see in the regions wbtn the 
lawless and the bandit prevail, and in the cities and countnsi 
where persecutions «r rei^ps of terror are established. Whit 
human corruption can smk to is too disgusting to be d^ 
scribed or thoueht o£. The cessation ui antediluvian longev* 
ity lessens the duration and the evila, and intercepts the pro* 
gross of both these calamities. 

Let us now contemplate the scheme and laws o£ oar popo: 
lation which have been estahhshed, and endeavour to ases^ 
tain those which are really operating, and avoid the miscflD- 
ceptiooB of them which have erraneoosly been cireulatod. 


SitUmeni ^tkt Tluerf of Mfr. MaUkua m Ppytclsfesa.— O t m ns f i ' wt 
vp9n it.^-Mr. SadUr^a eotUrarf Vitw§, 

Mt dear Son, 
Near the beginning of the present century, Mr. Malthos 
excited a great sensation in the public mind by somesting, 
and afterward by more elaborately maintaining, an idea not 
wholly new, but, though surmised by others, very little at- 
tended to before, on the subject of huiSaan population.* This 

* ** The cadstence of this principle was first remarked by pdUksl 
eesDoeiists la the eooclading half of the last oeotury ; and sUesions is 
it assy be foand in the writings of Wallace, Hume, FranUin, Bniltb. sad 
partiealariy of Mr. Townaend."— Bishop J. B. Summer^ " Beeoras of 
aMtUja," ml, U.,p. IQH. To ihsaeiiaBMaiBKs^ edited that of Arthur 

09 THI WOftLD. 41 

tna " Um eontfant tondoney In all tnhntted life to fnrmiiM 
htymd the iwumhmotit prepared for it.'** In his work on 
populaCion he propOMxl, an the finit point of " our inrjniry 
eoncrmini^ thu improTrmrnt of Miriety, to inveiitifnito tho 
ciw wi which have hitherto impiMlfHi the pro^^refw of inniikiiid 
. iMrvdahappinem."! Hfirrfirnimntcd Ihmiiuppoiied iriiflonry 
I lo be one ot the chief of thone caimoii which nlmtrnrt human 
feiKitT, and aa a caiine romhinrd with our nntum, and nlwHyH 
ictinic KlronKly on encicttytt hut nrtinj^ mi iinfortnnaU'ly rh to 
•rciMon vary lar^t'ly the dvilii w« inont lampnt.^ lUt pro- 
Miunced unef]nivocaily thin trndiuiry to tio a {Mir|>etnnl tnii- 
irvny to incniime our popnlHlidii in n f(rfiRMttriral ratio, or to 
douMt! in rvory twenty-Hvo yrara,!! whiki th<^ moaiui of our hiiI>- 
■lelrnce wore atrintly liinitiMl to an arithmfltiral auKinoiiinlum 
onfy.Y The roiiNrqiunirf) of thin niirfiriNin/;; diflfiinmn-, Muia 
allrirrd to tie CHtalilinhcd in nntiiro iN^tworn tho ratnn ul whirh 
oiir nnnihrm and uiir focNl rrfi|ifintivrly niiiltipty, lieromrH, on 
hi* own Htatoinfnt, friKhtfiilly oppiiIhnf(. In Uiroo cniturii*a 
the fcNKl will not mifficd for a thnxi-hnnilrfMlth {uirl of tht^ pop- 
ulation to which, HCTordinK to thcHO ]irct(MidfHl Irwh, thn 
hiMiMh rarffi would, in that N|Mirc, at any fKiricKl or region of 
the w<»rld, HiiMMinl.* * On liim hyjMithfnin it would liavi) bfoii 

' MiUlliii«'a " Rnaay nn Ilia Prtnrlplu of runulalkin,*' 4lh ed.. vol. I., 
p. 3. Ii wa« flmi iniIiIinIiimI In 17W, augffiatou by a p«lMr In Mr. (icMl- 
win'a Inqiiirrr.- lb., prefluw. 

t Maliii , p. I. 

I " Tbr iirinripal objpri of Iha praMint MHMy la lo fixamlna th«i nflnrt of 
tmm frrai raum tntlmataly unltml with llw vary natura of man. whliii 
haa brmn rnnirfanily and powrrnilly o|Mtraflng ainm the romnirnrrnirnt 
•raorMy," p. 8. "Thfi rauaa lo nvhlnli I allndii la Ida ronalaiil Irndon- 
ry in all animalad life (o liMrnaae boyoiid Iba mHirMunant prriiarrt! lor 
II" Ih 

( " TliP naiaral and norwMtiry nflhrln liaivn hann almoat lotnlly nvrr- 
kMkMl ; f hcMina pmiiably anmnx ihaan nllhna may b« rerhonnl a very 
ronaidrnibln pm|mrtl«ii ut thai viro and nilanrjr, and or liiat nnr«|nal 
dMfiliuiMNi «if thn iMHiiilira or nature, whirli it haa bf>rn the uiicnnmng 
oli|Mri Iff till' anIlKlitriMid philaiillirojital In all agaa lu correct/'^Mnllli., 
ih . p 9. 

II " It may aaft'ly \m pronminriMl, thiir««A>ra, that population, wtirn 
unrbuchMl. giNM on doubling avrry tt yaara, nr lnrrnaa«!a In a ftromttrtr 
cml r«rifi." p. H. " A Ihoimand inilllona an* fUMt tu raatty doubliMl nvnry 
ISyvara by ihn powar of popnlatiiin aa 1,0(10.'*- -Malihaii, lb., p. N. 

1? " It may fairly bi> iinHHiiinriNl, ttinrflfurfl, tbat.ronaiiUrlng iIh' prrarnt 
avaraoa of ihn aarth, inn maana of nubMiatanim, wmU^r rlrrumaiaiirrii tba 
flMMM ftivourabin lo human mduairy, raa/'/ nut imnhiMh >mu\ivv\«\V\\\w- 
craaap teairr ikMusa aritAm§UrjU ratio. "—Malln., p. 1^. 

" "tHtppQ&in§ tk9pgmmi population equal to one \^mMafk<ixiv\\\NOT* 


InopoMible for manVwiJ to last eron 900 jmn from their b^ 
mmaogf unless destnictiye checks were et all times eitiip»- 
Ui^ h, St a rate so i^iid and so enormous as to alloir onlf U 
psanKxis to be ali^e out of ereiy 4,006, who, if the cnvi 
of natnze should be left imrepressed, wen certain to be htm 
m 800 years. 

But eren this incomprehensible disproportion and defiila- 
tion, which are calculated on the assomed doubUng in efsy 
twentf-fiTe years, do not express the full operation of than 
fital laws of reproducing nature, aa Mr. Malthns intennii 
them ; for he declares that population has doubled itsdf ■ 
fifteen years ;* and not perceiving the j^vsical inqxMsila% 
of such a multiplication, he has allowed himself to inafiM 
that a still greater augmentation might accroe,t if Indians ad 
uncleared ground were not to interfere with it ;% not obmn 
ing that, to enable any population so to double theraselm 
oivery fifteen years or less, mfants and children most bacoi 

The mind startles at statements like these, so extiaoidiiiaiT 
in themselves, and so melancholy in their reaults ; and wim 
peiidexiDg wonder would reasonably ask, " Can stich tUngi 
be r' Tney are so incongruous with the science and beauty 
of the natural creation in other respects, that they would sesia 
certain of provoking immediate disbelief; but tiiey were pat 
with so much ii^nuity, and their novelty was so strikoi^ 
that they obtained the assent of many able and ezcelleui 

lbs hQBMni spades woold inemas as lbs miiBbtis 1, S, 4, & 16L tL IL 

** In twoemwrtMtbe popalatlfNi woold be to the means af sidialsMMi 
08156 toe; In time eentnriee, as 4,006 t» IS; sad In 1,000 jFsaiB tfes 
^Ubranee woold be almoet inealcnleble."— Maltta., p. IS. 

• *' In tbe back settlement^ when tbe sole emph^ment Is agriedCWi, 
■Bi vldoes eoMflms and unwhoteoorae oeeapaUons am Uttlo haefva, 
«w popnlaiioa has heea feud to donUs Itself InMeeQ 

•'£r«i thfamtrsordinsnrrateof iaeissseitproftafthf shorfsTAi 
It power of popnlation.*— 4b. 

> vsiy severe laboar Is reqoislte to dear a fteoh ooentry ; seek ril- 
I avs not, te iieneral, eonoidered ae partiealarty bealthv, ead the 
mu sre probably oeeaoienally oobjeet to the ineardooo of the 
Indians, whieh may deatroy socae lives, or, at any lato, dtflrintah ihs IMM 
% la hilndnges to the perseBSI iwposBMllty, It seems tiutt tcmtktr iMt 
sa hss fofie rsther greater lengtha is his coajeetnre. 

'Sir WUUaai 
ic VQSsttila bk aaidtei!i%>2»awiUik'' 

Btitftupptmm a doabUof possttAa bk as idba«i%>2»amuik 
M. Jfif - 


who, looking only at hia lyum e m i and in i Unri , liikaif 
these for flnnted, and not ■earcluoff berond tbem witii au an- 
laiged and in^iaitial inyeatigation for themaehraa, too baaliJy 
admitted hia principlea to be true. Tbey eudcaToufed, with 
hi^ and Jandahle pmposea, to abow that tbej wck even wmt 
in tlwir deaign and beneficial in their operation ;* othen, lakiqg 
a difierent view of their effecta, eapouaed them with a vcit 
contrary apirit ; and their genetai cHBect haa been unfavoiif^* 
Ue to oar philanthropic aympathiea for the larger maaa, of whick 
every community consiBia. 

Tlie piospecu to aoc'iety meaented br these leneta wen 
little elae than increasing ana unrelierabU wrctciiedneas and 
depraTation to ereiy future generation ; unleaa mankind da- 
nated from aubaaqnent repmuction, or unless a portkoii oohr 
were alknred by the great majority of the reat to be the sola 
pazenta of every community-'a portion which the geometii- 
cal law would be evexy year requiring to be made HBaUar. 
Policy and benevolence might ponder in vain for any other 

The author unhesitatingly aaaured us that this overwhelm- 
ing tendency of population to outrun its pruduciule food m 
this formidable disproportion could be couniencied only by 
adequate checks, preventive or positive. These clieck* were 
acknowledged to be those of vice and misery, unless maiiaiud 
would impose upon themselves, perscvenngly, the moral re- 
atraint of abstaining from itat connubial association.* But 
even this abstinence, if submitted to. Mr. MsUhus allowed 
would also produce vice, while it would be murmured at as 
an evil by those who were compelled to practice it. 4 Mel- 

* BuuiiDS f'S "Beeords of the Creation.* part. ii.. eh. 5 and 6. 

t ''On ezsmhiinf tbese obstacles to ibe iDcicsae of inpalaiioB, 
Wliieh I hsvt elssoBO onder tbe beads of prBTenuve sod posiuvc ebseks. 
It will sppesr ttasi die>- sic all lesolTsUe mio nnrsl resiraiac, viee, aad 
ariserr "— Malch.. p. 19. 

** Tbe cheeks which repress the su per kit power of popalaiioB, sad 
keep Us eflhcts en a level with Ibe means of rabsistenee, sra all iiaolTa. 
Me iDlo moral rBStraint, riee. snd misery ."—lb , p. t» and p. §n. 

t ** If he stieods 10 this nstaral ■ncfesiion. the rsstrie U sa lae fra- 
qoeotly pradnees vice. IT he hesr H not. tbe bomsn raee will he eea- 
aiamly emleavoanng to ineresae beyond ibc mean* of aubalaiMui. 

** This difBealty (of aeqninng foodj must fkll aomewheia^saA wmk. 
mmisssiilj be oeverely felt in some or oiter of \\w viiTWia Uvraa «^ 
miasry, or ihs Aarstf niawy, by a large poniaa «C naaiUBAr— ^m*^^ 


ineboly dilemma ! Whata wd dteriMtive,if Uie ■yttflnU 
been a Terified hypothens ! 

On tuck Tiews, mazhage, although the appomtad afraice flf 
the continiiation of the human race on earth, and their mat 
«nivenal and improving cause of happiness, becomes th)i 
means of accelerating general miserf and depnvity, and i» 
YoWes cTeiy one w\m enters into the state m the penond 
criminality of assisting to produce such erils ; iot natme ni 
its Author give no r^t to any one to marry more tfaui ifr 
other, nor l^ve authorized any to say, ** You shall live ain^ 
that I may wed." There is no chsiter or law from He 

for wealth or properly to produce the new senerations that an 
still curdained to succeed, and no command for poverty to n^ 
main in unoffending celibacy ; all have the same natnnl ridbl 
and liberty to unite or not in wedlock, as they may ptma. 
Hence, if this system were the true one, the man ofpfopor^ 
ains as much by mariyinff as the man of none ; for as it ia nt 
progeny which is the evu, whoever has the oflbpring, wilethflr 
rich or poor, becomes the criminal producer of the miarhirfi 
by the addition he makes to the human race. In these neir 
instruments of multiplication, who will in their torn foflow 
his example, he contributes to ensure to society an acoon- 
panying succession of vice and misery. Mr. Malthna d^ 
claKs explicitly that the principle which keeps hie overwhefaih 
ing law of geometrical multiplication on a level with 
ence is " the ffiinding law of necessity, misory, and the 
of miseiy."* He charges the veiy system of nature and mn 
with the imputation of being thus con8tituted.t 

The theoiy of Mr. Malthus was contested by seveial, baft 

* Mslth., Yol. iU p. 14. Htt repests this aentiiDent as bis own Mfta^ 
ate Ttow €f hia syaiem. ** It is a perfteUy just nhsenrstioe of Mr. Osd* 
wis, taat ihero is s priBcipte in human socaecy bf wideii pnnelslise Is 
ptniniosUT kepi down to the level of the wueum of ootaaiolSMa. TkS 
asis question is, what is this piinci^ ? bit sooMoteeaneaaesI Is 
H soSM in3raieriou8 Interftrenoe of Henren ! Or is it a ennse whtoh has 
eeasisntly been oboenred to eperaie, thoafh with Tsried tana, in svsrr 
atsts In which man has been placed ! Is it not jfUKnv, and iIh ftw 
of misery, nm iiscK«SAav jlkd inkvitjlbui nneDLTs or Tsa laws ar 
MATvan, which human inatitnilons have tended eonaideiafalyioi 
thooch CAqr em nner remeiwr*— Malth., vol. it, |». SS. 

t ^The truth is, that, thou<h human InstHuiione appear to bu, i 
4sed sllsn are, the obTious aud obinisiTe ranaiie of much 
■t a a kt n d, they are. in reality, light aad aaperteial in inmiHw 

' Mdseipsraeatsdeattsssor evil wtaickieMk fleam italawaeTi 
^ !*• MSMM sf aaakiBA.*--Ib. a. «k . 

or THI WOBLD. 45 

MM uvweffuJly by bk tbliwt tod kiciit atiUfgntNt, Mr. Nul- 
ier, wIm rigliiljr KttM:lus«l Um lUMUiued |iriiiiri|W«i iuelf. 'J'iuM 
■ MrfUriw w lUjiiifMl Um lutlunl Uw to b« luf U iwd imtm vUtttd. * 
iIm iMifeUid on tilt; afiTOiMuuMMiM uf Um MlliplMCd fulM atuJ 
didui ; tiiii n <ii rtfUUvM (y Um NUUm of Aiiiifru:a, oii wtuch Um 
gMMMUM: UM^ory wm fouitfUsdf t Mid eiilMfed into inucb di^uil 
M Uw triMignttioiiai to North Auiencn, whi^h bid ho liiuirli 
coHUdMiHsd to tfuliirgi! iiM i>o|Njliitioii,i Mid wUiich Mr. M«lUiu« 
Ud MiC iMiK<|uiii«ly <:oiiMid«*ri^, but bud i^nrntly uud«frr«tt:d. 
Mr Hadler tiiirii iit«trd Mt b'ligib bin own vu^wii of ilici iM-tii«l 
Imt oI i^otiuUtion, «iid copiously diHCUMed uttvtmi inijioilitiit 
I4|iy-4i ■iid cjr<:uiiibtiiiii.'i?ii by wbirb it wim illu«triil«d.^ II i« 
wofk «u too di((r«iMtv« mimI dilluift!, mid wiuited iwliKlion and 
umcrttCratiofi, with «<iiii« <;orrM-tion«. it wbm nuiusr • utrnau 
fd iftfuMocm, witlioijt duo ordi'r mid ronnttiion, Uiftn « wkII- 
d^yrated tr««tiiit; ; but it wim written witb rJf(bt, iiwmi^ vturm 
ittAut^ Mild on jUHi |irtitf:ipi<rii. It iiboofc witb gr«iit iwvM 
Uw iin«t«hffii uyUsin it o|i|>oM'd, iKJ|{gMit«Ml iiimiy vduiililo 
idbsa, Mid b^ tbit iii«juin*r Ut iiior« fiilarK*^ vicwM mid to 
ftviuidiir rrnatoiiiiiK on m nubjiii wbti'h i« bfcomiiiK evtfry d«y 
oMm* ufiportanl in <:vi-ry country to \m Mu:ur«t«ly iiud«r«io«d II 
It woulnJ b<* unjiMt toiltrprifctiitfttbtt intfiitioniior tbeabiliiy 
«f Mr MidtbuM ll(^ brou|fbt forward luv tlwiory «ti|/rt'i»Hly 
Vu rtnuiU'tm'X mnne. jH-rnn'iouM KitrnvHgMMreii of Mr. (i'Kiwin, 
tk|jfM« ** foblKMl Juaticit" iniMl<j lor m tnnn ncurty mi f^Kjat 

* "^ IImmmi lurrmm, uuiUtr iIm iimmI flivtMriUiUi viniMiiiiilaM'wt Um it« 
4M«Ui|irfimi, «!</#• M«f pf'ji-tMd iii k (MHnHruiil falio, bui hi <mii«i«iiiIv 
N«ui«u4 Mi • iiKMly diAwreui ifrKM-ipla." MadUifif " l4iw of fufiul /' 

• h. II 401. ; fl« . vol. I., p 497, aVJ 

^ " WliM I ifrrMUiif Ut vull ilir law of iMpulaiHNi Miay hm Uiu« lirit-fl] 
naiM-ratod. IIIik (ifoliflfiuMM iif Imiiiaii Mtiiaa, othtirwia* aliiiilaily < ir 

■ ■•»iai«i imtn»tM»lu MM lltvlr iiiiiailaor ** iijil II ■• Vl/I *' iliimlia 

r«aMiaiicc4, varu^ tMiifftflyitm ilirir (lUiiiiMrr/* vol. Ii., p. IM- " llninan 
l«uif« Kirrraww in a 4iftrrt:(il pruytHiUM, aiid mm wliu:b mi cunsimiily 
"guiMtrd l/y ili*ir iw^itting nuinUmm," viA. i., p l(^. lia thati uinkum 
•a4 MMMi vwi'rtia laiiim fruui iIm pu|fiilaiUiti (if acvaral r<rtiniiic« lu 
|i*w«« liM law, an<l raaauiia largrly mi ifiaiiy iiiplfa wbli'b ha fi/iiki<l«ia 
•« uanrurriMi lo MrtaUuli il. lb , ti. 41% 4lT Iii* a«CMi4 vvtuinc la 
4irn-ir4 Ui aUMW ihi'i Um pcikiiU m dupllratiMi aaaiaiMrd by Out ami 
p«p«lafMiiiiai« "aa IImmw in wlili-|i maiiiiiitd wimiM hirmaaa, if uriin 
aifirit4, af« 111 fevury iitaiaiK-a, and uud«r Um iimmK lavuMabla cin um- 
wanTM, iifiijiMwitfi I It U'a." viil II , p 4ft 

Mirti*, llfiljiMWilfl I II U'a." viil II , p IS 

i: llr iruly aaid. "iiir wlwlti aiairin of pupulaiiMi la imdar lU uu 
aiihg liirrffUMi tit Um llriiy, ciiftrr lUruugU iIm iit^ratum uf IWmt. m.> 

rauMW n-0«Uttig tmut hiM aUrnial |ir«M«'teiM», Uf tfUUI \i\M VKiyA- 

tj.tflM9a4uig /V'/r/dfr/ica," V<||. u., y. Hi, 



•n impression as the publication of Mr. Malthuf, and win) 
meant to subvert some of the most established truths in bodi 
religion and morality. Dr. Parr and Sir James Mackintosh 
Tigorously attacked him ;* and to overthrow one of his do»> 
mas, the natural, and self-producible, and advancing perfectibfl> 
ity of the human being, Mr. Malthus produced uie contmy 
hypothesis, that this perfection was impossible, became so* 
ciety had, in this ever-acting law of its population, a conthraal 
principle of demdation, misery, and vice. Eager to vanqoiih 
his adversary) he did not at firet perceive the conseqiiencti 
that would be deduced from the doctrine which he used is 
his victorious weapon ; and when these began to appear he 
had become too fond of it, and he found it too much applaudsd 
by others to believe it to be defective or injurious. It mart 
also be stated, that the advocates for his new-started thean 
have comprised men that have been eminent both for knoin' 
edge and philanthrophy. It has still many patrons, who think 
that, by upholding and applying it, they are rendering mueh 
service to mankind. I respect their motives and their chv- 
acters ; and have only the same desire of truth which actustei 
them, when I express in these letters the thoughts and enp- 
cumstances which have led me to the conclusion, that the 
Malthusian hypothesis is unfounded in fact, and therefore a 
fallacious misconception, f 

* It was hi his celebrated lectures that Sir James sttacked Mr. Gtip 
win's doctrines. " He now came forward to defend the very Ihaodaltass 
ef soelefy against the fUry of a wild enthortasm wbicImsarpedtlisasBS 
ef reason."— Memoirs ofhis Lift, vel. i., p. 110. On tbene ezertioos Mr. 
Haxlitt eays, " The modem philosophy, counterscarp, outworks, dtsdil 
and Bll, fell without a blow, by the whiff and wind of his Jbll doetiise, 
as if it had been a pack of cards."— lb. Sir James aAerward acfcoowl- 
sdged, with a kind candour, that he had been too strong in bis laognafi 
on this occasion " I condemn myself for contributing to any daniosr 
against pbllesophieal speculations."— lb., p. 134. 

t The ability with which Mr. Malthus urged his opinions fbr allttlt 
while impressed me in his Ikvonr ; but its manifost inci>mpatibiltty with 
the wisdom and beauty of the natural creation, ajid with what I ecHild 
disoem of the economy of human life in other respects, graduaMy Lieliiiii 
me to the belief that it was a fallacy. Further tliooght increased this fM- 
tng, but 1 had not leisure to make the lATfstixatioas which were naees- 
SBrjr for a fhir judgment. In this state of mind, Mr. Sadler's bfxdK muaai 
ms to examine the question as ftilly as I could, fbr my own infbrroatkM, 
by independent researcbes, additionnl to his, but I was benefited by hli 
rsasuningH and statements. What was thus begun for my own ssftto- 
(hetiun my present work made it a duty to continue, In order toaseertaia 
wAsr WM9 f As exact truth on the «ab^ ; vkj VM^tduri «gAkA \sELtte is* 
«Af which I will jMOCSsd to apeclf^r* 



VtgeUtim^ Thar rdahm i» hUtUtOw^mmdAnUtamt. 

tkt PUm md Mmd ^ the Cnttar^Amenem a* #v»^ to Um 'JM' 

ffaUMm Sc<a*.— CotnOrie* rtaorUi U kp hmmifrmmU. «r tnlvg:4 ly 

Mt DBAS Son, 

The qnestioDi of population sod «nbiiiM«iie« favr« Wira 
genenlljr intemiiii^ed m the discumkiof adioul «iti«rr ; t^vA 
to undentuid them accuratelT, as natOFal reaolu pnvMdmtf 
from the natmal lawa which bare Immti afipooiind to pntdvtom 
them, it will be better to eonsidcr them aeparateljr. Thtf 
onginate from very distinct processes iu oatuie* arjd vudsr 
yeiy diffeieiA laws, aJthoan^ both are meant to have a jmy- 
petual relation and alliance wiih each otfier. Jiut iJittry aie 
not visiblj connected together, more tiuin Vht; iiiKaJ wiui tUe 
grain, or the bird with the cattle. Thejr aMOciaUori u» a 
mental conception of the Creator, af*d JikewiM m us aud m 
his animal creation. No tangible linkb uiut« un witb uur 
food or poll ns to it. This is made a»d inurtjidijd lur uuf 
sustenance ; but we, like all that ose it, have to letm its use ; 
to search and to find out what we are to csat, axKi, from the 
experience of the necessity and benefit, to estabhsh a con- 
tinual relation with it. 

Independent of the original relation formed in our Creaior^s 
mind in his {Jan of our creation, and indeperideut of the 
subsequent connexion which mankind, as they gradually dis- 
covered the use, have established between thonselvea and 
all the means of subsistence which they have fourjd to be 
provided for them, there is no posztive connexion in nature 
b^ween animal life and the malenals o( its sustenance. 

The com and grass grow, whether men, sheep, or cattle 
are or are not in their vicinity ; arni animals multiply from 
dieir own bodies, under laws and quite dissno- 
ilar to those of vegetable rqnrodnction. 

This&ctis another indication of an ioteaectiial crsalion ; 

48 THl lACftlD KISTO&T 

for if the pnmwm had not hem devised hflkm 
which prodoced uiimal Ufe, and eo fomed tint it 
haTe the relation and nae to animal life which it hee ktm 
found to poaiBii, no anch relation would have fiile^i d kk ifr 
tore, or have heen dttcorenhle or appli c ahle hy wf 
beings for their nntiiment. The origm, pro c eaa, end 
forms and anbstanres of Tegetabka and aniiwile hi 
tirely different from each other, and Jndiywiilel cf" 
other, and the plant being so wholl j nncomiectsd wUh 
animals as to floiuiah most ahondantly where they an 
the relation between these two kmgdoma of _ 
could not hare existed except from the plan, and in the 
and by the consequential operations of a thii^ing end aijpH^ 
ing Maker. There are, accordingl j, no relatione of tiM ■■§ 
sort between ns and anything else in onr worid. The el 
the earth, the iron, and the crystal are not rnnTfftihh 
Bobsistence for ns, becanse no relation of that eoit 

part of our Great Author*8 deaigninga, or has bee 

bshed by him. Thus the relation between ea end oar foil 
prov«;8 itself to have oiiginated entirely from hie 
and will. 

Our reason may rest with the satisfaction of 
this conclusion ; for if anything can have been plenoed' 
soperintended, or be a subject of the care, directwii, end 
sisting govermnent of its creator in human aflbira, whet 
we more rationally assume to be so than oar popidetm 
our subsistence 1 

It is daily essential to us that these shoidd be doly 
ed, as life on earth has been framed on a subaisting end 
mentin^ system. The coincidence between our food 
multiplieation must be, therefore, an object of the co 
attention of onr wise and benign Sovereign, till he 
that no more human beings shall be bom. Whenever hi 
reaches thii point of his arranged plan, we may he earn ttal 
he will signify it to ns by some direct annunciation ; Bon 
especially as soch a revohition in human nature wiU bo te 
precursor to those ewfol chaiwes and conaeqnencee vAiah 
may be expected to arrive in that period when *< Tiiae ihill 
be no more.** 

At preeent we have the evidence of nearly 6,000 ^ 
that he has never failed to keep our coexisting muikbeie 
our sufficient enbsiitenee in fltataal fitness to etch nth* 

or THB WOBLD. 49 

Vcf«r hM iMtura becoiiM ineompetont (o suppljr tli* Uixeit 
■nnibcr of inhabiUau which, duriiif^ this long lapse of tiiiiu, 
hiTc been contempormrice of each other, tinitnt have more 
kHMn beings \n^.n on the earth than that earth, wheriiver 
Mf cultivated by them, haa always supplied — always, fur if 
Iba barvcets fail in one plane, they abound in anotlier, as in 
Iba present year. America, that usually seeks to pour tier 
t mb ei a nres of produce into Kuropr, is now* drawing from 
Ewope the anpfily which a (cmfiorary deficiency of her Isiit 
ataaon orrasions her to nrquire. Ho Russia last year, and 
Iidaiid occasionally ; at limes also part of India. Hiich vi- 
ciasituAes only pronHitu the intercourse and friendsliip of 
maakind with each otlicr, and tifach even distant and the most 
hoeCde nations the gn;st li.>siwm, which th«t sinsUest so<:i«rty 
feels, snd whirh ev«-ry individusi should remember, tlial we 
all need each otlier*s aid snd iiitiTchsngcKl attentions, and are 
to do so ; snd tliat this kind nifcf ssity is kept in fre- 

quent ofierstion upon us, thst we may ncvctr foiget that we 
aic by naturf , srNl in our relstioti with our ( 'rcator, all brutli- 
rm^all tlir children of one univisrssl Kath«;r ; and tltat it is 
kia desire and syntfrn of our being that wi; sliotild always 
feel snd set as such wlierHfV«fr wi? an* UigcUii;r. On no otlier 
pntiriple could a lieavrn Iw a lii'aveii, or any human licing l>c- 
eume fit to rrsidc in mw. On this tirinciplc, if it steadily actu- 
ated us sll, our prfunit earth would, in no long limct, be a ce- 
lestial preludf! to tliat conrifntratioii of glory siid fi'hnty winch 
will diwtiriguish the prfmiiw<l kiiigflom Uiat is offered to us 
w»w, if we rlwHwe to use th^ cxplaiiiMl rncsns of securing it ; 
bet wiurh It IN li'ft St our |iriMrnl option to avoid and lose, if 
wr f/Tfffr t«» exiiit eliM'wiM're, 

In si! our dmriiHhKHis on tint Inws snd elTects of fiofiulation, 
we »hfHild liavf tiKf pniififili; of the Uisiw. siii>eriiiteiKliiiro 
•ll^ifntly in r>ur ri-fiiliiirtioii ; Ih^suim; wi* sliaii not t)i«*n Im 
hasty or i*sgi'r to ado|it any tlM*ory tlial is inconipsliblv with 
It It IS <iiir duly sIwsvh to dcNtri', simI only to vslu«: lh<; tisl 
truth, whatfvfr thst Ih* ; Init until wi* liave fully ciplond this 
mvsluahle jfwrl, snd with tlwi saiiii' nsctiicss willi which wo 

Cirsiie onr iiliilo<Mi|itiH-sl dfinoiiNtrstioiis, tlie pniiciph; ilist 
>ih our iiK*r«-ase and our mibsistence occur under Uie gor- 
crmnent, and according to tl»e n'gulationa of a praaidin^ and 


coMcknis Deity, will preserre us firom thoM mimaid^ 
and gloomy prospects of society on which even our k^uktov 
hue been solicited to act. Such alarms and excitations an 
iirational in all who believe in an intelligent Creator ; most 
unjust to him, after the abundant testimonies which he hw 
given to us, in his splendid and beautiful works, and penoB- 
ally to ourselves, in our individual life, of his guardian wia* 
dom and goodness; and not a little danserous, unfriendly, 
and prejudicial to those who will always be the majority of 
all communities, and who, like the great rocks and mitses of 
our globe, are the foundation supports of all that are abov« 
them, and the human producers of all the conyeniences and 
ffratifications by which every class is gladdened. Most of 
Smso were not on our earth till enlarging numbers mad« tht 
arms that provide them, and gave the stimulus to the hnnn 
mind to be thus inventive and creative for the oeneral good. 

Let us, then, regard the system of our population as a poit 
of the Divine plan, which has its own objects as well as its 
own laws, and is as much insulated by these from all otlMff 
living beings as it is from the material substances and moving 
powers about it. All such things are materials, and assistantSi 
and instruments, and means mkh human beiries are to osa 
for their benefit and actions in their earthly life. But oar 
population is not multiplied for any of the ends and puipooes 
which attach to other objecto on our surface. Our mentd 
capacity, notwithstanding its similarities to its inferiors, is, in 
all its greater powers, universally superior to every other living 
principle on earth. With this, the laws and system of on 
population are chiefly connected. All that is bodily to as 
nas been framed to be within our material substance, solelT to 
conupose and support a mechanism for our intellectual self to 
emplov &nd act with. Population should therefore never ba 
considered as a physical question only ; it is always a monlt 
a political, and an intellectual one. Its scheme, laws, porp^ 
ses, and conduct have always this reference in our Creator'a 
plan. It has been made to resemble animal life in the mode 
and causes of birth ; but from this moment its similitude di- 
minishes, and, in most things, ceases ; and all that is diflforant 
after its birth begins with its first infant cry, and continues to 
enlarge into essential diversities, except in its system of feed- 
n^, respintionf circulation, vnd axick \&a fumctiona, as long 
MM it euata in its preaent evxilk!^ couKnoognMia. TMk 

or Tm woBiB» 

comes tt kat wkh te don^ aflninkfeiaa; boc 
comnnmitj of likwiw is eoufiu e d to oar maunil 
Hiat decompoMS into the gaaea and diwriike pticlw wtudi 
cmiatitiited its TisiUe figure, as every ocher anuaai finaw di»> 
solTes ; but the taught, and trained, and thinking, and fcaiinj 
soul paaaci into a state which nocfaing below itself can s»* 
perionce, because n«*HT»g else can be what it was m as 
trilectnal nature when it commenced its hnmsa hie. nor 
it has become by the time when this di s ron ti nnee . With all 
the apiiitoal lesohs of this stage of our being, our popoiBCioa 
ia connected ; for in iu indivianahtics it eompnses thsok and 
'will always consist of them, in addition to ita onginai tntafaCf 
wad capaci^. It ia therefore a small Tiew and a eoa idem M 
suppose that it has no laws or objects attached to it bat rfaoea 
which concern ita animal prodncibdity. Yet, lookug far a 
moment only at these, I am fully sariififd that they have besB 
misconceived and missfatrd. 

The founding error of the theorrof Mi. SCahhos was, that 
he made the population of North America, as iu ■— ^****** 
were exhibited at Tarious successive periods of increase, the 
basis of his su(^x>sed law of the geometncal maltipLication.* 
It is the fact that the numbers of persons lifing m the 
United States, at the soccessive periods of their enumeration, 
display, when compared together, an unusual augmftniation.t 
From such appearances, before 1798, Mr. Malthua was led to 
say, ** in the northern states of America the population has 
been found to double itself, for above a century and a half 
successively, in less than in each period of 25 years."| He 
did not duly consider that continual streams of emigration 
had been pouring into this continent at various intervals 

* Malttaas's Letter to Mr. Godwin, p. 129. I bave noc this pampliIsC, 
bat Mr. Sadler cites it as his aathority for saying. *' The very extsteoes 
of the theory is professedly thence dedoced."— Sadler. toI. i. p. XT. 

t The popalaiion of America was staled, in 1770. to be I.SOO.O0O. 
The census, taken at Are periods aAerward, declared the following 
series : — 

I8t,ial7g0 3.919.398 

8d, in 1800 5.309,759 

3d, in 1810 ... 7.939.903 

4th,inl890 9,W8.1M 

(White . . 10,530,044) _^ 

Ath, in 1830 . < Black . 2,009,050 V . 19,858,070 

( Free ccrfoared 319,576 > 

Geo. View o( MviiiA tti«flubs,»r». 
^ Maltli. SoR. oa Pop^ roL Ut p. 6, 


fram iU first colonizatum, and that the increMe he nmufced 
had not resulted from the multqilicationa of its original set- 
tlers only. He treated this important contribution to tke 
American population as insignificant,* and thus settled faimi* 
self in a delusion from which he never emancipated himsalt 
But in searching out the true laws of population, it is ob* 
vious that no countiy should be made the standard to wUdi 
emigrants were resorting, f For unless accurate registers hil 
been kept, discriminating the ancient settlers and their pm* 
geny from the yarious new comers and their descendants, tke 
comparative amount of its whole population at any mseas* 
sire period would not exhibit the effect of the natoiil bh 
crease of the original numbers. No such separation hsl 
been made, and therefore it was an illusion at the outset ti 
take the doubling of the numbers in North America, if diii 
were proved, as an indication of the established and univeml 
principle and law of nature for the human increase. But 
even the American population, taken in its maas, immigfBOti 
and all, does not, in its chief separate states, justify tba d^ 
duced ratio of Mr. Malthus.t 

* Mr. Blalthos allows onlv " 10,000 per annum fbr E u rops a n SBttlnb' 
wliich, be eaye, would be 90,000 In the nine years Mr. Sadler uwiiUnaSi 
vol. i., p. 560. How inaccurate this estimate of the supplies ftem asri* 
gralion is we may infisr ftom the stated fhet, that In the eifhi yMS 
flpom 18M to l&K there went to the United Statea, flrom Great Briiila 
and Ireland only, 130,813 persona.— Herta County Preas, Itih Oct., ISHL 

t The Acta collected by Mr. Sadler of the aerftea of immigialkOBS li 
America, which he had found mentioned, are euriooa and dedalft li 
show that her population waa continually eniarglnf flron this eanaa.^ 
fiee Sadler, Tol. i., p. 438-510. 

t Thua Mr. Malthoa atatea that the population of Nsw BseLAD 
waa, in IMS, only SI,S00.— Malth., toI. i., p. 550. Mr. fladiei^ reraeiks 
tend to prove tliat it waa then far more nuroeroua ; but taking it alibis 
number, if they had doubled every twenty-live yearn, they ought, in 1819^ 
to have become S,713^600. But ibe cenaus of 1890 ahows that ersa two 
years later tbey were only 1,434,000.— 1 Sadler, 493. So In the Slats 
of RaoDB Island : in 1730 the numbera by the oenaua were 17,iMBu 
Theae, on the Malthuaian ratio, ought to have been 143,960 in 1801, 
and 387,030 in 1830 ; whereaa they were only 80.038 in 1830; and as 
more than 97,199 in the last census of 1830. In like manner New 
Jbrsbt. In 1738 the population waa, according to Dr. Price, the msia 
authority of Mr. Maltbus, 47,369. These, on his ratio, should have be- 
eome 378,953 in 1813, and above 500,000 in 1830. But in the eenavof 
Ihia year they are aiated to have been only 330,833, and in 1890, 377,571. 
So CoffNBOTicuT, according to Dr. Holmea, had 906,870 parsoos la 
I78L These ought, in 1831, to be 835.480 ; but in 1830 they waie bat 
Mf^d79. ViaeiJfiA, in 1671, eoatataiM. atevta A&ffift 'wm""'^'« ^ 
IB IS90, aught to have been miilUs%VB& ai\iMai Vft\4f«Ajm\\Nk>Ba.'^ 

or THI WORLD. 63 

Wc havo an iiwUnfio in onr CanadM how miirh wr Nhoiitd 

Buali'iul ourNuivi'M if wu tuok thu law of iN>)iulatiun from ita 

nni;rri*iuiivu aiiKini'iitatioriM thrn*, or fnmi otiior pniviiiccN of 

Onlinh AiiicrK'H, an Mr. Mailhiia did from tli» niiiltiniirations 

ii the LhiUmI SUtra. In tho Hritiiih pcMnciNMonN, thi; wholo 

MnilN-m of th» iiiliahitaritN wi!r«i iiruicr 11(),(MX) in tin; your 

17H4, biit in 1H:M) tli<!y had hitfoimi l.OM.fMN).* 11 ins in 

leaa than two 2A vvarN, t\wy hud not only twirit doiiblfd, hut 

Ulny tiaci nH:i!ivrcl ■ tiirifbid niiiltiplifalion. No that, if w» 

took uiir viiiw of huinnri iniToiiiM) from thia nxampUi, wr nhouhl 

aMcrt lliat it pnicfMKjf'd in a trnlohl niati'Md of a fourfold pro- 

poftion. Thi; inuili|iliratioii waa aa ccrUiin in tho one chno 

aa in the otlM?r ; hut Ihi^ rrror of Inith wouhl \h\ thai of attrib- 

utuilf to a naturiii pro^rnaNion what wan principally derived 

from the adventitioua circuniatanco of aucccaKivn niuiiigro- 


thry wcirn mily 1,911, 40ft - Tti. TIiuNi In lh«Mm flve rhinf atiil old Htatea, 
wiih all thrlr arrriMhiiiN ft^ni IminlKniiloii, th(* ariuiil riiNiiIlN niiilrfitlli*! 
tbf Bwiufiwtl fmHimtrlral liy|NrtiiRiiiH. I takit thn Mrtlnr dai«iN fVcKii the 
aullMiriiy i|iiiitnl by Mr. Hatllrr, viil. i., p. 4(14 U3, and liin rriiNiiN ol 1H30 
ftam tlMi Aiiirriraii iiiililiralicNi, 'M;miiTal Vinw ol' Ihii I'iiIIimI HlnlnH."p. 
47-90. Mr. Kllni, in hui " MimritMlppI Vallry,'* HlaitiM tliii |i»puliiiiu(iN. In 
IMIO, ID llMM nnnilmni : MnnUn Mnwl. U7,VIS ; Nnw Jnraiiy, S'2(),77tf ; 
CJnniMrtir.ui. W7 71I; Virffunu, l,9ll,V7V: vol. l,p UM-i. All imarly 
On aanifi nutiilMira aa In llui uilinr Anirriran autliurlly. 

* Mr. Kivbarda, in Ida mport to Um (^lUiiilal Hw:re(ary, thua atal«M 
Itaaa IkKla .~ 

17M. I'ppar Canada aliiMNit nothing. 

I^iwer Canada Oft.aaH 

Nova HroliB M.INIO 

Naw Jlruiiawirk and Newnmndland 191,000 

flail Ibr total tn I7H4. 110.000. 
In inn It may Im laknn aa lliua : — 

i;»Mr('anaila 900,(X)0 

I j^iwnr ( aiinda M4.0<N) 

N«iw llruiiNWirk HO.IMN) 

NnvaHnaia 130,(XX) 

f :b|mi llrpiiHi, Nnwfbundland, and l*riun« 

£dward'a lalaiid .... 100,000 

A irnfidd inrmaii In fiirty-iili yitara. HirhanlH*N ltr|Mirt. 
t In Mr. HirhardN'a tr\tinl Im ralrulan-d llin |Ni|iiilBiUjn of Liiwnr 
f 'anaila lu br Ml.iKX) ; but iiir arlual crnniia, taknu \\\ Wi^^*•*'V*\\^^v:A 
ilM Jtrmrim matirtuu lo b& OiH,HMt wUlch won tUua cui\ttu»\l <^i>>M^ 



I( from the whole of British America, we ■honld eelort Ph 
per Canada only as onr atandard, the rate of incieaae wowi 
be still more prodigious. At the paasinff of the Canada Le- 
gislation bill m 1791, the population of mis pnmnce wai «■ 
timated to be only 10,000.* In the war of 181S it had mp 
largedto60,000,tandin 1833 it amounted to abore SQ6,0004 
Tlkus, in forty-two years, its inhabitanta had muhipliedt not b 
a fourfold, or even a tenfold ratio, but in nearly a thiitjM 
proportion. They were almost tlurty timee as num e nw i b 
1833 as they had been in 1791. What a glaring aelf-daloMi 
it would be if we should build on thia event a hjipuihwli 
that population had a perpetual tendency to inereaaa m. t 
thirtyfold ratio ! Yet this would be as rational as it wis tl 
make the doublings in the North American States the beM 
for deducing the law and principle of human multiplicaliai^ 
and not to perceive that immigration had produced the eiMMV* 
dinarv numbers in the one country as well as we can pnfi 
it to have done in the other. It would be indeed more ntiatr 
al to make British America the standard than the repabUea 
provinces, because the additions from immigration were aoR 
likely to be more numerous into these than into onr ul eiw t 
colonies. Our immigrations have been from Ghreat Britik 
and Ireland alone ;^ while settlera from all parte of Eufopt 
and from the West Indies, snd a continual inqportatioa of 

Chvreh of England 48,088 

Cbnreh of Scotland 90,901 

Methodists 7,«S 

Presbyterians 8,979 

Bspcista 8,580 

Jews 108 

OOMf denominations .... 5,880 

Romaa Catholics 468,938 

Brit. Msff., 1888, PL 80QL 
• Bishop Tomlins^s "Life of WUliani FItt," vol. li., p. 380. Lonv 
Canada was then computed to eonrain 100,000 pwaoos.— lb. Bat in 1811 
Che nnmber bad arisen, as above, to 501,863. This was neariy a sUMd 
inerasse in fbny years. 

t ** In the war of 1813, Upper Canada, with a popolathn of self 
50,000, repelled its invaders.'*— Un. Serv. Jour., July, 1883. 

t Bv the returns to the House of Aiwembly, Upper Canada eootalBsd 
In IStt, 150.169; in 1837.170,059; in 1830,334,865; and in.l83S, 396^511 
— Montf . Mania's Colonies, vol. i., p. 207. 

% Thas Scotland alone has neariv peopled Prince Edward's Uaad la 
these parts. This island contains mim 30 to 85.000 souls, most of thsm 
mai^witM, who do not speak any other Vaninaffb \rax that of thsfarnattva 
^9muy, Ito GMtfie of the HighUada.— BKh. eae^YavKSVenh^^^^ 



ihvM from Africa,* have fwiillttcl the nuinben of the North 
Anencan |iopulation. 

Nor call tliore Iw a doubt that our Canadian au|{nientii(ion 
Im ahaoii ctiioAy from uiuuiKratiun ; for wu Itavn iioniu uc- 
couma of tbo actual enii^rantii who witnt ovur, whicli iuiitify 
Itw aacnption of tha inulii|ili(:iition to tlioir HuixmNivu uiflux. 
Id Um four yuam froiu lN2tt to lHa», no fawi-r llian 140,000 
«M|rants arrivod in Caiuida,t and a continued iitreani liad litfcn 
lowing to it, ttiou^li in lum nuinbum, during lU« procmliuff 
Mrioda.l 'liui incnuiMs of tikii |)0|iulatioii of tli« United MtatfH 
(aa baen ao much proinotud and pruducitd by the aainu i-n- 
laqpag cauae which liaa thua advanced the nuinbera of Can- 
ada, that th« reaauninj( and infrrencua wliich apply to the onu 
an aa loat aud ncceaiiarv to tlw olher. Tlui uiulliplication of 
•idMr naa not ariaon aolely from tliat of the oriffiiwl aetiU'ra, 
•oeoidinK to tliu natural law of hunuin |iopulation aclinf( on 
llMaa ; but bkrwiae fnuu tlie rontinual influx of now coloniatii, 
and fioin tlwir ueqNitiuil reiirodnrtiona and exnaiuiiona in tlicir 
poaCarily.^ Tim i^'ueral lawa of human multiplication niuat 

* h la acarraljr neratiary to Inlbrni th« Aaiarlrin raadar, that tn ma- 
klag llila autaoiciil Mr. Tuninr haa cuininllled a great urrw.-^Am. KU. 
t I flad Iham ibua wiunierniwl aiid dlnUiiiuUliatl : — 

** Kmlgraaia to Caaada ftir the laat ftwr yoara. 

INN. im I IHSl. 




Hcttiland . . . . ' 
NuvHHnMla . . . - ' 
N«w Bnuiawiek aud iHlwr placaa 









QH,«00 A 1, 154 4V,0UA 
., vol. I., p. 898. 






Maklni, In ill, 145,004 ■mila.''-M. M«rtlii'« iU> .. , , 

I In Iha tan yoara baAira 1H9U, Uie ftilluwliig uuttibcra haf« bean alated 
aa arriving at Quabso. 


- »,M7 




. ll.93tt 






- 10,791 


• 10,4IW 


- ■ ifl,fMn 


. 10,SM 



N«w KamMm' Juumal.— Iftth Juim, 1H34. 

€ Sa rapidly do numlicra Inrroaaa IVoiii tiniiilgrailon, iliai tlia Uovarnur 
af Uppir Canada, In lila apeerti to lla pBrlluniem on Slal Ortobar, 1H33, 
BUlMirihal Ha pupuiaiMi had Inrraaaiid one fourth ainre ibo pmvUiua 
i or ibo l§gtMiauf9 body ; caai m, wuhlo a/cw moatki. 


not therefore be deduced from these countries, not from nf 
to which immigrations so largely flow.* 

From the same cause of artificial multii^icatioii, fiwi 
sources distinct from the natural increase of the original eteOHb 
RuHsiA, though it has been resorted to as a prop to tha sw* 
metrical theory, cannot be exhibited as giving it any co p& m- 
ation in its augmented numbers; because this coimt^ Im 
been, during the last century, gradually enlarged in its popnii 
tion by conquest, as America has been by immigration. Tht 
Russian population in 1724, under the reign of Peter tltt 
Great, was about eleven millions and a half ;t but at the En- 
press Catharine's death, in 1796, it had become 89,177,980^ 
and is now supposed to be from fifty to fifty-foar milliOBa^ 
But one third of these are the present amount of the inhabi- 
tants of her added provinces,^ which have been successirdf 
obtained during the last century. The amount of these ■ 
surprising when put together. || Even those which she Im 

* The augmentation of particular towns flrom settlers la slrihta^ 
Thufl Mr. Dunlop remarks of one, ibat, sixteen years ago, tbe lowa rf 
RechcBter consisted of a lavern and blackainith's sbop ; U now <«""•««■■ 
IC.OOO inhabitants.— Tbe lltckwoudsman, cb. 3. 

t The first census of Peier (he Great, m 1729, ffave the males psf> 
ing taxes at 5,794,938, which, with an equal proportion of ftmslsii 
would amount to 11,589,856.— Pink. RusHia. Tt»e males In ITM iit 
stated by Sievornl, in the Arkh., 1825, as 5,373,030.— Bull. Univ., 1. 11, 
p. 307. 

t Sadler's Popul., vol. ii., p. 484. Dr. Pinkerton mentions tbe Ba» 
bers in 1813 as 37,700,000. Mr. Sadler, nrom the additions of the annail 
excess of binhs, makes them 36,707,331 in that year. 
^ Dr. Pinkerton, in his '* Russia," states these to be, 

The Poles and Lithuanians 8,000,1000 

Finns, Livoninns, Esthoaians, and Germans . . 3,000,000 


The CancasiSB, Crismena, Kacan, Astracban, Bask- 
keer, Keivjizian, and Siberian Tartars, all Moham- 
medans S.OOOJWO 

The Memphian, Kalmuck* Manjnr, and other heathen 
tribes of Siberia belonging to the Buddish snd Sha- 
man idolatry 1,000JXI0 

The Georgian nation, with the recently conqueisd 
provinces of Persia, and the Armenians . . 1,500,000 

He reckons the Russians themselves to be now thirty-six millions, ssd 
thus considers the collective amount of all to be above flfly-foer mlUkNML 
II Tiie author of the ** Progress of Russia"* remarks that she ** has mads 
acquisitions fh>m Swedkn greater than what remains of that aneftsat 
kiogdom; kw acquisitions Cxosa ?oijl2u» %x« aaVaxiit sa\k« «B*ote Aas- 

or THS WOBLD. 57 

ri«4 ■irir*' 1773 k«vn ifK/rr Oiiiri dwbM tlm |ir»;irw»fj« «!|. 
I vf \i0-t u-muniml fiiipir*! in Kur</|»t< * 'J')i«r numi'ri'-kl in- 
M» uf bi^ pitjri/'iliii if#n ''uniK/t Uii'rflor*' li«7 •diJufMl m ■!/!>. 
t gf ttir M«itfiiiai«n riilM/ iNur i» it likf-ly, if it wi'fti cor- 
iljr Mf •YUiri«-«J, ih«t It roijlil Mr«Y confimi it, on •«'rfitint of 
■rnrjk rt«t'' </f ita fM-Of^*: ; /'/r it M'i'inB ttml » v<Ty immn 
f cnly (#f tiinn «rft rxH in thiw rl«M f 'i'hti rf«l «/» mIiII 
rat, wiili#/ijt Buy rivil ri|^hi« ; sriH m ttif)r taniKH rimrry 
kwA tlirir i/wftf'i** l«-«vi', wr iiuiy Im^ nuri* ttuit aufh in««l^r« 
old iir«fr Ut tttfir niiilti|*ti<'iition kiti ifM-onvfniinit Utt^miit t 
N yunlul Ut «ftH itmt tUtrf in «i |/r*tiM!nt iki yttmutirX tA 
m krifiif ff-lifirMl iumi thin r)i'l/ri*««in|; rc/fidiliim 7 Tb* 
TNwal k«i«Ji(i'ifM of KuMia, arHl Itf Mfrvik imlfitsctiou of 
' n w y lr, ««# iiiifav</iifiibl«'. u# ruffid iiMTtriuMi i/f iiO|Mliiii<ifi, 
ewik krr froffi li«iri(( tti«s fttJimlMii of itii wUiiriil wwn II 

ia«l«r» , llwt llir iwriUfrjr nli* liM wrt«t«d f^Mn Ti'Pisr la Ktmtm 
fwl I* f M 4«tMiiiiMM«if fmfwa.'Af-luaiviKif Iwr Nbaniali fr«vlnnM, 
■■fHiMiiMiia frMii 'J'laacr !■ A>u ■/• M|utJ Jn r«i«ni u» ■11 lb* 
liar taw wf ttmtnmuy, ttim Rh^iiiab ytuvtw^m ut frumHtn, Half luin, 
lMI»irf lakaii UigHlirr . lli«nMUhlr)r»h*liaa r4Mi^iMr»4 Ifttut fa a at a 
MM ika Mv «r KfiglaM, aful b^r a«|uiaiii«Mia In 'I AaiAP^v bave mi 
•|iwl Ut 'f vik^x III r.ur>#|ia, Uttmrm^ I'Bljr, ■n4 Nfmn* Maa Iba 
iH NuMM IH Hit Kaai ** 

"TlM utttiMry mlim baa aciuimd wMhiii lb* iaM aliiy Umr yaara J« 
iMrlaiiMi ibaH iba wluila i-nipira aba bM Ih " 
r» iiiai iifMti" Iti 

tftr la *iumi mtyi iMiMrlafiMi IbaH Iba wiMila i-nipira aba bad Ih Ku 

Ut fidhrriMft w4t»mm Iba l^rlTikgnd <M4aiH In Riiaala Ui tia, 

TlK fi«»*#iliix, nialaa TlAJ^Hl 

7li**l*rfx »l»i4 

l.iv.l «4n««ra TWi^Kl 

tr.utmitt i^tt 4 [tfaaaiilrx ..... itTAJM 

if^tMiiii f^itmmiiiiy . . . • , VJ.tUlti 

M'liiary fi«f<r VMi,t^lO 

w iAa**« art. m i w«i riftrra, itniM fjf llir rtifwu aii4 ilMtai* of lh« iw 
p "'il^ ala*aa ij»l<f«ifiiig !<« it**. ri<#t«tliiy af« i'sIihimiwI at atM/*a 
■ly <MM fiiii.MMia JlMiaf <W ili«i (jowii •! |iffjrii«ii imllMifia " l>r 
«fUitia llMaaia 

hi fiiib«-rUffi ihfiirrrfa iia ilial, ** ituitifily myt-nkiuf, ittr fluaaian aJaTn 
U0» nglii a«4 tail ]^tHm*m ttu fifrimtty Jliiiiaiill, tua ¥nU-, ami 'bil 
.•Mall iImI b« |ii#M*aaMi, ar« Htm ytuv^i*f ut liia Iwi lla ran 
iwr'l»aa». ftfii' r ifii'i irarf*-, «rf mtttty wtliutul Ai« /«/#!'• I'tn^tnl " 
"Til* f.ffi(itfifr Ali ■aiMi«:r liad a gf«a( ib«ir» ii» raian (ti« alava frMn 
^%imA»A liffi'liiwffi , i«iii ilia plana iiksi wiili a flMMlnl uif^mOvHt 
U^ priiMiiial ifMaia ih ili«! mnutt*, anil aiii"- liia 4*aiii uu aii*Hi|H 


tumAi. uy f'«««fMtri«-iil Id (utibut liia rfiligfaunw} pur|^A«a 

I'a Miiaaia 

4 llMaaia» «fc«a a^al«ia iMf murt^mm^lyti fii|art«<mrn\ " Vii\)P«U V«*> 1 
tvkm tUtmui, fba aitont uf HwiaM wm VUyflH v^v'^*'^ 




Tkt ttate qf the Ameriean Populationfrom. 1800 to 1810 Mi^u m M 

to tk$ MaUkuMian Tkeoqf. 

Mr DRAR Son, 

As the MalthiiBJan theory originated from calcalatioiit m 
the apparent population of the united provinces of Noilk 
America, and has been adhered to chiefly on that account, I 
think it right to suggest some further considerations irm 
seem to indicate, from its own elements, that it is not poMi- 
blfl it can double itself in the alleged ratio of twenty-fin 

Human life, instead of being longer, appears to be brieftr 
there than in most European countries ; ana yet the marriagH 
are not much more prolific than is necessary to keep m • 
population to a subsisting amount. As the general impressm 
nas been very contrary to this, I will explain the facts and 
reasoning on which my conclusion has been formed. 

We find, from the North American census of 1800, that ii 
the IJnittid States at tliat date nearly one third of the whitt 
|>opulation was under ten years of age ; that above half of it 
were under sixteen years, and nearly two thirds under tww^- 
six ;* so that not much more of their living males than ana 

loairiim ; tain eonqnents adilrd to it 30,000 more. Cstharfne I. and PrtV 
II. also flnUritml it. llio Bniprem Anne obtalnmt 88,000 sqasre 

that, at thn end other nugn, Rumia contained 041,048 square IsaiMl. 
CJatharine II. extended largHy iie aggrandizement, and even FSHlLsi 
Ihsl In I7W it rominiiied 01)8,044 eqnare leafues. Under Alenndir,ly 
various events and treatleN, and eitice, It was m enlarsed as to ooinpilsi. 
Ui 1834, 7t6,7H0 nqiiant leaffuoe, having gained 310,000 square leagaasli 
one century, snd all rich and fertile provinces.**— Raasland'e T ei i llui M 
Vergraeeerane. It was then under Ibrty-three eparchies or g of wi i i iisstfc 

* III the census of INOO, the ft-ee white males were returned as being 
•JIM. 335 ; of these, the flmt class, under ten yean, were 715,040. Thost 
SDOTS thie age, but under sixteen, were 313.ri50, msking, together, 
1,058,000 malee under sixteen. ThiiM of sixteen and under twenty- 
six were 803.034. Thue the malee in 1800, under twenty-six yc«rB 
old, were 1,453,030 out of 3,104 335. This was rather less tbsn two 
ttirdMf g§ rbew would have been \^QRt;iift.-^)«&. VS»w of Un. Btaisib 

s . r 


JK !• iSfft 



00 THB tAcuD Himsr 

The e«afiif of 1880 wu takm with « diftte 
th« ages ; but the results sn of a similar comp 
•Im no^^ one third of the males wore undei 
•ge.* Tne next age distinguished was fifteen 
teen ; consequently those under fifteen did no 
moiety; and it is prohahle that those under 
also less thyui half at this penod.t Above £ 
nearly a ninth more than a half, were under 
sequently not four ninths of the males had n 
years of age.t Nearly three fi>urths were unde 
above one seventh were above forty ;li and nc 
had reached fifty.T The proportion of those v< 
and above was not one twenty-fifth part ;** a 

* Tbe summary of this eeasos is given in tbe *< Gen 
UntMd Snues," !». », and slM in Flint^S *«MIaBiaaipiii V 
fUi tn thus : ftee while peraons— 

Males imderft 91 

" or SandanderlO 76 

** of 10 and under 1ft . 61 

<* of 15 and under SO . . 67 
* of SO and under 30 . . OS 
** of SO and under 40 K 

** of 40 and under 50 3C 

*< of 50 and under 60 . . 22 
** or 60 and under 70 .IS 

•• of 70 and under 80 . . fl 
<« of 80 and under 90 • . ] 
M of 00 and under 100 
•( of 100 and upward' 

t One iMir would have been S,679,SB4. Tbose entm 
flileea amoontcd to S,426,510 ; and if we take one fifth c 
flftBen and twwity as an average addition fbr ttM«e one 
WMild make the number under sixteen to be 3,541,643. 

t The males living under twenty were 3^008,133; fi^ 
have been S,9764W8 ; those, then, of twenty and above 
finr alnchs wooM have been 8,881,591. 

^ Those under thirty were 8,955,035; three ftmrtb 
woaM have beea 4,018,987 ; so that not one fourth were 

U Those under forty were 4,547,631, and only 810,0< 
nme ; one seventh would have been 765,509. If we a 
those returned as between forty and fifty, for tiiooe who 
woQld make those above forty to be 808,446. 

If One tvfsUth would have been 446,547 ; the numt 
fifty and absvs were 441,758. 

** The naflri)Sts under sixty wvre 5,147,311, leaving i 
afttntw aad onward: one twenty-fUNti vexv oC «a\ ^ 


•i ion:: ixi- eia^i^. ac ::• • -t"^ ^^^"^• 

5« r: a' rt-BS. :.. '.i^i ? •:*:• -- .■■:•*-. .— . 

a- iviULi- ■»■•:* t ".I: :..!- ■?..--• e ■ _ : •^••- . -- 

•"Hit Z1^2T: ILLi: v':- -.-J .-r .... .. t, .rt- 

iAiio: V :»r:_ p-.i-r . :;■ ... *•■ *'.-■• b.. --•■ 

:. ET'T";::." t Zj.- ^-i':- .u*'-. .*. •- ... ■■*.•.■..• ...- ■■. ,*•„ 

.TDirra::.''. «• ;. ■-.•«■ -a- •--...■ 

: Trv'ji,: ' : .!•■ •? b'- ■■■_■ .- z. • ■-•■ ■ . 
?; . tti-Tit. w:: w ^.■. ; -• ■...■. .^ 

a" :imi;jm. .•"■ »rf'- ■■ ■. :'»e- . ,« 

:. Ul*. rPI15l»> ' j>: .1- V „ ■ ••ruji.- r ••- - tir»u.*^. ■: 

afti 7r: ""- ifcr*- ....r i*. !^ .:• ■ ••. • •'. - -■ ..■. •« 

;. o!»- ic. ..■:':' ".. 

75" I'WITHI- •!*■ !•■■ *• ■ ' • inl'.**^ !•■».• -- •■ ■■ 1 

' IB- ncL- :.u.i4-*! tAt -•■• .IB ■-.-»■..••"— I 

p>i.a.-W'r ::-_.. .4js. . .- _ .- . ,--,■•■ 



coocnn, wUh th« iborUnad livM of the mils mi, to IM 
dmibling in twei]t)r-&re ym* phrnctUir impoMibla. 

Id tbi emaat o( 1810, Iha j«iiul«( who then conk 
aothsn Eonld only replua their contamponriea Bod tl 
■eWet bj Bf erj one having fire chiUien ; for then, il 
ona third neie under ten,* neul; one half were ondBr 
teen,! and oot two filUu were between fifteen and fon^'^ 
For Iboae who Only conld be mothem to ranew the cxiHiiu; 
nlttioo, erery one nuut have abore fiva childian.^ Su 
teaolla uiae from the populMion of 1830,11 and likcwia 
the altered acale at 1830.T la the laM, noariy oiw i 

etUaBdi^wart . 

1^ wa lad aa frM wUM A 





were under ten ; nearlv four ninths were under fifteen :* aol 
much more than one fourth were above tLif.T ;* mere *.2:An 
one seventh were above forty :t not one twelf'is were fifty ;) 
and only between a twenty-fifth and twectv-s.x'.h a".u::ied 
sixty ;li less than one in seventy-one had becos^e icTc::tT 
years of age.T Their vital duration was a lit'.Lc \'jz,ztz \LiZi, 
that of the male sex. But we may submit :: to ti^e }-^' 
ment of our statistical calculators, whether it is pot^.ilc. w:*Ji 
these established relative proportions of the djferen*. hv.r^ 
ages of our North American contemporaries, that tbey co':M, 
firom their o>Ki-n qativities alone^ enlarge their pop<:!ac:on :n a 
geometrical ratio. Instead of this, I cannot avoid thirJkic^, 
from all the above circumstances, that if there luMi been no 
immigrants to them, the United States would noc have don* 
more in the thirty years we have been surveying than keep 
up their own population, or but very gradually increase it. 

Both Mr. Malthus aiKi his followers have made a distinc- 
tion between the multiplying ratio of the older states of 
America and their new or back settlements ; because, on 
the comparison of their numbers in the latter at different 
dates, a greater increase was vi:iible than in the former Bat 
here again the effect of immigration has been mii'.akcD for 
that of natural birth ; the new states have not swellf^d into 
their enlaigcd numbers from the successive reproductions of 
their original inhabitants. There has been, and is &t:U, a 
constant influx of new comers ; the travellers into America 

* Under ten were 1,671,753. One tliird would have t»een 1.793.433. 
Under fifteen were 9,310.816 ; four ninths of all would be 3,996376. 

t Tbe females under tbirty were 3,834.191 ; three founhs woald have 
been 3^^5,473. Those of ib'irty snd above were 1.343. 1 U8 : lakiof frooi 
tbese one tenth of the next class as tbe number who reached thiny, 
those above thirty would be 1,387,563. One founh would have beeo 

X The number under forty was 4.379,756; and those of forty and 
above were 7S7,M3. If we take oflTone tenth of the next class as Ibose 
attaining forty, the number above thai Sf* would be 7flf9,U0l. One 
seventh would have been 738,1^5. 

% Of fifty and above were only 433,1 IS out of the 5,167.399 ; deductinf 
one tenth of the next class for those who reached fifty, those above that 
age would be 409.^^. One twelfth would have been 43U/<)6. 

II Those under sixty were 4.958,109 ; addtng to these one tenth of ths 
next class for those who were sixty, those above sixty would be only 
196, l(U. One twentv-firth would liave been 9U6,fif92. 

■!! Under seventy were 5.i«,975. One tenth of tbe wexl t\sm "^'^^^ 
mske those who attained seventy 5,0*4,778. Tboae abox« icx«nVi ^w» 
be 79,521 . One in sersocjr-ooe would have been "tV^^* 

Kbntuckt. Imlay says, " I have known upward of 10,000 fanal- 
grants to arrive in the single state of Kentucky within one jraar, awl 
flrom 4 to 10.000 in aeveral other yeara.'*— Topog. Diac., p. 84. Malta 
Bran mentions of it, "The people conaiat of inimigranta fhwi av«y 
atate in the Union, and flrom every country in Europe." — Geog ., L InSt 

L109. Sadler, vi., p. 486-^. How can the back aeulementa aflbrd aaj 
lis for the law of native population ? 

t Reasoning from the official returna of one of the nnoat floorMiliig 

of the North American atates, in the year 18S5, that of New-Torit, tt 

would lake above flfly yeara to doable iu population. TUa waa tb«l 

leturaed to be 1,016,08, Tbcimndien oC maxtteA.'nt 



•m« in this ; hence, if their numbers hsve dooUed in tcOf 
fifteen, or twenty-five years, as difierent advocates of the g«H 
metric ratio have thought, the greater rapidity of their ng- 
mentation is a mark of the unceaaing accession of new roam- 
ers thither, not of their maternal prolificness. To them tlis 
unpovided, the necessitous, the restless, the entei|>riiin|i , 
ana the dissatisfied arc continually movins ; and firom thai ^ 
fresh tides of human life, originating in omer parts, theiieip \^ 
Urging multiplications liavc prineipaTly proceeded. Mr. Ssd- 
ler has collected some authorities on tnis point as to fonui 
times ; but the fact is so clear from all the accounts of Ameritt 
since the present century commenced, that only the '* Qni Tolfc 
decipi** will allow himself to bo influenced by any contmy 
supposition.* The hardships, diseases, gross food, and gmt 
use of spirituous liquors in the dreary back settlers, moit bl 
unfriendly to large and rapid increase of lasting p<qpiulatMn.t 

* Louisiana. " The population in thia atate increaasd In tm jmn 
more than 600 per cent/ ** In the upper aettlementa the InhabltaDtt m 
principally Canadians ; in the middle, Germans ; and In the lower, Vn&k 
and Spaniards." — Carey and Lea, Geog., p. 281. Warden BB«B,lbil» 
habitants are composed of men of every country in Ehirope.— Slat. Mtt^ 
vol. ii., p. 531, 567. 

Inoiana. The increase flrom 1810 to 1890 waa upward of flOOjMr 
cent. "A migority of the people are flrom Kentucky, TOnnaaw^vbh 

finia, and the Carolinas. The remainder are flrom every stale m At 
Fnion and (torn every country in Europe.**— Carey and Lea, p. 100. * 

Illinois haa trebled ita numbers in the same time. Thia territory If 
principally peopled by the French, with numbers of hnmtgraiils mi 
Doth England and the United States.— Warden, vol. ii., p. 57-0. 

Ohio. Of this state Dr. Drake aaya, " There la no atate In lbs IMn 
which haa not enriched it with aome of Its most enterprisinf dtlaiBi; 
nor a kingdom In the went of Europe whoM adventurona ezilen an sol 
commingled with us. To Kentucky and the states north of Virgtaria, M 
England, Ireland, CJermany, Scotland, France, and Holland we an BMl 
Indebted."— Drake*a Nat. and Statist View, p. 357. 

TBNNBfiBKB. *' It has Rcarcely any uniform character. Its m^NilsHoa 
eonaisting of immigrants from the Carolinaa, Virginia. Georgia, and tkt 
New England States and flrom Europe."— Warden, vol. 11., p. 351. 



pmitneei Jnenaa* 9kiM)M the rtdl Natural Laum, wkiehannoitka 
ybr tverjf Ftriod qf SoeUty^—HtaU and Fragreat <f PopuUMem 
mflmtdt SeoUamdf Ireland^ France, and aomt other CamUriea y 

It dbak Sydnby, 

» natural coune of human population ia represented to 

its actual progresa in the nationa around us, in its 

il and general oi>eration. A j^ood example of this may 

in Its advancement and Tanations in our own laiio, 
tbc otlier civilized countries of Eurono. In this, as in 
igB, the excffption must Ih) distinguisned from the gen- 
ie, and never mistaken for it. 

are not only best acquainted with ourselves and our 
eao neighbours, but wo are certain of finding in our 
tions the practical operation of their appointed laws. 
thebT, they liave b(;couic what they have been and now 
ind it is with the practical operation of any law that we 
litically conccnieu. We may leave abstract theories to 
Quaivc Hpi>cuUtionH of metaphysicians. But we need 
iw the acting laws of our daily nature fur our moral and 
tive guidance ; and it is from the czi>crienced effects 
icse can be most correctly traced. We must seek tho 
lOt the pOHsible. Wliat may occur may also not occur ; 
bat lias taken place and is taking place is most likely 
tinue to n;cur. It will not, therefore, be wisely done to 
rum the n-gular ex|>ericnce of the Old World to any pe- 

to bfl 900^1 ; the femalni between fifteen and fbrty-flve were 
I: ihe marriages that year 11,653; and the births of that year 
W^.— Nat. Gazette Hhilad., Feb., IbSO. Therefbre not one 
ribe married wonten had children that year, and between three 
If ycani would elapae befoie at thai rale they would have children. 

1 married wooMin weie not quite one eighth of Ihe whole population. 
M would be nearly ihlrty years before all their married women 
have produced a number e(|uai to this population. Hut an *Vj** 
r would ofily replace iboae who died ofl*; and as a generation die 
II tbirty-ruur yearn, it would require between flfiy and sixty years 
Ibe actual ;Mj|>uJaljaD of HOD would, at lUks llUu, Vm Uwl S\» V«^ 
rd tm Nfil- 



culiar or imagined anomaly in the New one. Hie 
reaults of life are our best instructers as to the natural ndfli 
or means which produce them : on these we shall moat aaiUf 
act, and not on extraordinary eifects, from extraordinary cnh 
aation, if such should be found. 

Hence any theory of duplication would be very little di^ 
serving of our notice if it were such as very rarely was nut 
ized, and if such an effect could only take place uodei con- 
tingenccs that seldom could occur, ft is on the resolts wbich 
have been regularly experienced, which come, as if the nswl 
sequences of steadily acting laws, that we should deUbenlt 
and act. 

In every department of nature, we found our science Oi 
this principle. We do not argue on lions from the suppott* 
tion of what number it is possible they might produce it t 
birth ; for if we took the possible accident for the natuzalkiTi 
we might contend that they would, in time, overrun the woridp 
to the extinction of all other animals. Instead of taking i 
contingence for the basis of our reasoning, we seek for Hie . 
common and experienced fact of their usual fertility. We 
then find that their possible power of increase is so regnhteA 
in its habitual operation, that no more oflfspring occur torn 
the lioness at one birth than suits the coexistence of die 
other quadrupeds of their country.* Comets, accoidh^ to 
the law of their projective movement aloue, might, at any time 
they come, rush on in the hne of our earth, and whirl, dieM- 

Satc, or melt us in fiery destruction. This is never impoifl- 
le. But we know from experience, that by agencies unkoowB 
to us, but potently guiding them, they have been always k^ 
from our actual path ; and from this practical fact, the never* 
ceasing possibility of the collision is scarcely even tboogfaft <d 

* Tboagk the fevmen of the lion's progenj has been deemed an aiga- 
meat of hi» DoMf naiare. vet ibat Iiods mag be an proiUk as cats, wf 
nuT peireirr from the foliowinf cimirmtance which I take fimn dM 
Cambndfe Chronte'.e, Not.. 1S36. •* On Tuetdaf moroinf Isal the 
Itonras in Mr. Wonibweirs mensferie. exh.biunf at Si. Andrewls-lriU, 
la thu town, pmiuced r,->ra roatti cabs, all docDf well. Tha liSBCSi 
will not be three yean o*i r i ne^t oianih. An Inninnee of soeh pno^ 
citj is not known in natural bistory. :i befoy ibe optaien of most naiml- 
IM* thai the I'.oneM don noc aciaji maturity tili fire yean nril " firfl 
Chr. ^ we hear occavona' !y of fiKfr cb::<!i*ii bora ai' one tine ; hot tfeli 
amount, ibocc^ alway» w::b':!: her jovrtr. .9 xx tte taw 00 wbidi sa- 
tufr pni4t.\'a:^y acta. TV fcacccaL tigwai-— « iba < 
M cJle«f«ntiu( law. 

or nn woku). 07 

MrfnrisrdfMded^'cfaoagh, for eUtdbat, Ulked of. 
■s lo oar popalation. It 'm quite wrotjg to 
and lo prejudice our judgmente by tiuoreti- 
al bm tod conjeclvnl poenl*iiitiee, even if these were in 
iMh M niinoiM m the promet m Mr. Malthas anticijMtcd. 
The baeM of our ocNind ^uoii^iiieDt sfaouid be, the careiul ob- 
arvMioB of wftiat, in ewtluA countries, the sctusi incn^ase 
tf popu&stion has hitherto been found to be. In this bericfjciiil 
Mw k has hiliirrto glided on, never inundating, and slwafs 
wnWMisniril by itm cuie subsistence as (ar as nature supplies 
JL So ona can surely think for a moment that the multipli- 
CtfaSD will ever be inreater in a savage than in a civilized 
eoBMmity ; mir in s demisavsge one. And if K were, vnch 
• fact wouU be of no imfwrtance, and have no refen'ncc to 
w, erio any nation that in not in the savage or balf-Navai^ 
It is with the actual and experienced natural iih 
of population in civilized countries that wo arc alone 
] ; because we are in a civilized state, and siiall go 
SB to UKfease or dechne by tlie laws of a population in tliat 
ateie, and im« liy others. If, tlierefore, it were true, which it 
m not. arKi 1 tlunk cannot l>e, tlmt the liack- settlers of Ariierica 
douUed in twenty-five years, we are wti Iwck-settlerH, and, 
l^tnion, m'ver sliall increase in tliat ratio. France, .Spain, 
Fortugal, f jermaiiy, Holland, indeed all Kurope, are itot ha<:k- 
sKikns either ; therefore, if they last 1 ,000 years more, they 
will wntir enlarge by tlie back-settlers* ratio, be it aui^inent** 
live or difriiMwbiiig. It would lie aa reasonable to kay tliat 
UfCfs will sasurcdly multiply like guinea-piga, because those 
bttle animal M ar<r ji^vruliariy prohiic. Kach animal hatf jt8 as- 
signed law of inrreaae, and keens in variably to it, a/nl in not 
afltjcted by the rate at which others rnultipfy. The diiU-rtrnt 
stau:« and stages of mankind liave each their reKf>e<.'tive lawn 
and habits *if luultiplicatioii aU^i, which neither of them in tljiit 
stale or stage can ever pass, whatever be the enlargement of 
oihrr conditions. 

As far aa 1 can judge, this appears to lie the rational and 
pract^al view tA the (|iiirstion, and as applicable to Ann^nca 
as to ours^lv«ii. It is mit of tlie coiise<jU<fiice of a straw to 
the l.'nited Statea tlut their aii«:ei»tor» doubled at tin- u"0' 
metnral ratio, if tlut liad been the case, since it is )nioi$nim 
re geueraiiy adiiiilted t>iit (iiey do itol so m\i\V\v\N \i^«'N * 
'lssvwraMssrtic^ia''IMaeliwood*s llagauna** <a ^ktft ^•Am"^*'^ 


lli0T cannot be asain in their put atate; and ibmtkntm* 
not mcxease again by the lawa and ratio which aeompHMl 
thfltf anterior circumstances, whatever those wen, bit nWl 
will not so operate in any other condition. i 

Let na then commence our inqniiy, which' the natan rf 
the present work requires to be bnt a brief and limitad iri% 
by obs«rvinff the experienced facts on this anbject. Ail 
cannot afford space for a laroe examination and detail, I «fl 
select such as seem to be sufficient for a riffht judgmsnt; ■! 
as we know most of our own nation, and, l^ toe nstairiii 
care of our legislators and their official agenta, have oad •■ 
peculation ascertained with all attainable accmacy, this iM 
be the first subject of our attention. 

Our numbers in England, at the time of the Nonnan 0» 
quest, may be taken at two millions ;i^ yet, by the tinarf 
Edward III., no great increase appears to have oeeiiindl,t 
although we had been, on the whole, a prosperona nation ii 
the intcr>'al, as much so at least as anv other at that tiaa ii 
the world, and had not been molcstea by any foreign infr 
ders, or wasted by the desolations which their aimiea n^ 
have caused. The inference, therefore, will be, that the Mi 
of our population at that time produced a continual renlsea* 
ment of those whom death removed, but allowed little niAtf 
advance. No country has enjoyed so long, either in aneiflit 
or modem times, a succession of abler sovereigns, on ths 
whole, than England has exhibited from the acceanon of 
William I. to the reign of George III.; yet in the 781 
years from the landing of the Norman to the year 1791, 

pdnciple, the intelligent antbor remarin : ** Even in Ameriea, 
as it does over the whole Union in Jifty, and in the flnmtier set . 
In twenty-flTe years.**— Dec 1836, p. 791. I would aubmlt to Us '__ 
sideration, that the diflTerence as to the flroDtier settlements may bs «• 

* This calculation is stated in the ** History of the Anglo-8BX0iis,'*wL 
lit., eh. 9, with theporticalars nrom the Domesday enumerations on wfclch 
It was founded. I hare since obsenred that Sir William Petty, Otaa Ms 
own investigations, came to a similar result. 

t From tbe Subsidy Rolls of 51 Edw. HI , 1377, laid before the fSoeMy 
of Antiquaries by Mr. Topbam, and published in their seventh volsae, 
Ifr. Chalmers calculated that England and Wales contained at tbs ds> 
mise of Edward III. about 2,100,000 souls.— Chalm. Estimate, f. II 
Be reasoned also that two bundred yean aHerward, in Elizabeth's nign, 
or about 1583, tbe people of England and Wales were between flwr sas 
lire millions, " thoogn approaching nearer the last nninher than Ihi 
awA^—lb. 95. 


* Mr. FInlalaoB's aecoont contimied is— 












. . . ~ . 




dwt of 0«age in. All the nttonl eantes of its 
wen fn vmeetricted end even befriended ectiah. Ewf 
aodal inflaence wms on its side ; end the national uiyw w» 
nent and prosperity, and the long ahetmence from Nii^ 
warfare which distinguished the reigns of the fint tit 
Geor^res, especially during Sir Robert Walpole's long^adaiih 
istration, were auspicious to our human mcrease. x el, d- 
though thus favoured, the natural laws of population, faHteil 
of twice doubling our numbers in this period, and of bflnh 
ning their third duplication, as on the Malthusian theory iaj I 
ihoiuld have done, only added, at the end of the 60 pm, ' 
one fourth more than the amount had been in the begmnm 
of that century. 

From the accession of George III. to that of his pnMl 
majesty, William IV.. an enlarging ratio began, inczeaainffirilk 
the national greatness and prosperity. No country, as w m 
wealth, talent, industry, commerce, and enterprise, and the 
moral habits and domestic virtues, could advance a popolatiai^ 
has been under circumstances more auspicious to its promolin 
than England and Wales were during the reign of Geoiii 
III. and that of his successor George IV., especially in m 
Utter portion of it. Yet we learn, that in the setkntt y^n 
from 1760 to 1830, the population, instead of three timet 
doubling itself, had but a kttle more than once doubled itself; 
and in the last sixty years from 1770 to 1830, when its in- 
crease was bv far in the greatest ratio of multiplication, hid 
not in 1830 doubled what it was in 1770 ;* are we not yoA- 
fiod, with such an opposing experience as this, in refusing to 
believe thatseometrical progression is the law of human pop- 
ulation ( Inis is so far from being the fact in Great Biitam, 
that, instead of twenty-five years, it takes aeyenty yean to 
'double iu.t 

These numbers " indudo (he army, navy, and merchant seamen.** 

Rick. Pop. Abet., vi., p. xlv. 
/ Mr, Bickaun nmaiks, ** The \iiectAae Qt ^^^MaASCLuaVsL^tvtt.'^Mjibt 

OF mi woito. 71 

Hm ihm ^MuM Uw Imm f/n4mihm»ing te fleoUandl 
giMiily MA ; Utt Ut Unc tliirtjr y«wr« pmrjid&n oat iMt f!«;n^ 
I, Uw immA fl«Mn«lilffff <;r» iif httr iiuUfryf •nd with nil ()m» 
IWM «^ kiMiMH iffffi/f/vifMffit intfft iM'liv* iKuri Imfitni, )iirr 
■MiiaHiiffi. itiH^nA tH uwrt ih»fi <J';«jl«iin({, ImmI ifi^r<rM«4i Jii 

IWI wjtti wImI ft w«« III 1700, w<f riifiJ tliiit ft hiuJ itttly 
mLM «jf««.«; Iff J SCO y««r« t 

Wlwt Imm (f««? Uw iif/f«<r«fM<J U; Im: jff lfi;liiri«J, wUtaU \mn 
9m •MM^M^'I *'' ^f- {!*'* MliMflx i/rolffii: ui )m;( y*Miti/f, putytfaiy ? 

^4 fcMTtiM*, ff</fff nl%ut r/lil, It ^mmI I/ih jij«i iIu/mIiM it^ 

If tft vrvf'fftx fiifi'' x<'«r« ;} »if\ U'rtii OmI tif im;, »lth«>iff(li thi 
NMM «f huifuufi i/r*>*t\frHy \mvf \t*'t^n nt'Mu^ wiUiiff Imtt lutitt 
fmttty *^**" ''V'-ff rMMwftli«l»f«<lfrif; ^mt I'm;*! niplntKifw, irfi* 
4 M#( 4/wkA»4 \i*'t \i'f\M\Hium m tliA /(>jt/ y^imi wtiJ4;Ji yrv' 
4t4 liA-f f:4rM«ij* Iff 1H91 '/ 

■ Mi ^Mi mmu^nity w^UmtM */r Mv4^ i4tnm ttm ymg IWI, Iwr- 

ikmi •lw»y« iilM<«i «if« mi4 • iMlf ym ««iil fwr hwum."— F»y, ikM., 
' » . r » 

\m\ . . . . }jm/m 

Iftll .... IAf«>W 

l«qrl . , . , f/f(^;l» 

IMI .... X;M6,fM 

P'«l». AliM iffd \f Vmr I. 
ttmhmM*4 .... IfiWJim 

w««M«M .... 7W;KM 

t Mr IMr'-<ifl<»».lf «i»uw ib« n«mMrf« «f Hmm fw<; birrM^« f bw > - 

!<«/ . . 9,m,v» 

iMt J H Htymtt, mi M« " f'r«««)'«l Virw," vnuffMrniUw iIm M\«w\itH 

iTHrr^Mi'lb f'^/Mi VMtf/MI 

ri*i 4ifi'f , %W4jitiH 

\;%% 4*«i'f S,> 17,974 

r,y« 4tiK/ %,VP4.\tA 

rM lf*«rfbffiMnr7»i|l*y(»«M , ff.yry.'iM 

i7«yr <iifi'# ft,M4,{r74 

1777 4iit// XfWf^Mf) 

|7»)0 li"* «^0,VW 

17*1 4t'i/» 4.vmiit% 

HiirUlm'm Ui\itu4, if 110 
< 7 i.* r«ffMMw vt 1*1)1 ••iliitHfMl Ih" |«/fml«t)//»i t/f Iwvi imIwimwI i»i«ri 
f 7«T Vf I I'll* 'l«^iW» frf ilM »ifitf(f rM Iff 17ff I winM Im «• Ikwh , ^< 'it li«ii\ 


DOM France, in her angmentation, snppart llie gwou w ti i tt j 
tatio 1 So hi from it, thZt Mr. MatUea mfeiv that ita popo* 
htion, at its present rate of increase, would reqaire 111 jMtt 
to double in. The comparison between its amoont in IM 
and that of 1831 indicates that it woold not advance so SB* 
idly as even this slow increase, for it had only enlarged a lildi 
more tlwn one seventh part in these thirty jrears.* Tba» vtt 
would take 200 years for a duplication instead of only tfas at 
leged twenty-five. Her separate departments display a li^ 
lar slow augmentation, with some difference in the latioit 
Other countries, in the natural operation of their laws of pop* 
tilation, discountenance the universality or piedomittanee d 
any geometrical multiplication.t The largest increase is k 

mmmm^ iB 1894, mads thetotalpoiHiIttkm oriraland then 7.M3^Ni^Mtl 
donUe in fiirty-thne years. Tlwy were tbns distiogoislied : 

Roman CatboUcs 0,497,71S 

Charch of England 809,084 

Pnrt>yteriaiis 643,356 

Otber ProCQstanta Sl,808 

Hamilton's Abat. Eap., bl Ml 
* The p rogress of France since 1801 may be Urns emunefatsds— 
1801 . S8,216,9M ^ 

18SS . aO,465,«IO 

18S7 31,845,498 

1831 . 39,560,034 

Tbe first and last numbers are (torn Mr. Uckman, vol. L, pu Hk Ai 
two otlMrs flrom Fer.'S BulL Univ., 1838, p. 17, 19. 

ooesevenlli 4,^0,803 


ThM the ineiease ftom 1801 to 1831 was ratber mors than one hui— ■ 
t Tbns tbe tocreaae in the eighteen years between 1801 and 1818^ la 
mM depaiunent of L'Aisne, was 33,371 on 496,295, wbicb was aboat aai 
twsiftn : and this rale would take 916 years to double in^— BolL Uriff 

1896, t. 7, p. 90. 

In Ilaut Vienne the increase was one seventh in twenty years, ftasi 
1810 to 1890 indusiTe.— lb., 1831, p. 157. This rate would have doobtad 
the numbers in 140 years ; several departments then varied in their isUa^ 
but none bringing the duplication in less than a centory. 

In tbe ** Revue Enoyciopedlqoe" fbr 1898, the average inrroass tn ill 
France daring 1897 was stated to be 6-36 in 1000, or about one hi 150. 
This would reqaire a century and a half before the whole Freaeh sooa* 
lation woold be doabled. 

t In the Pays bas, or kingdom of tbe Neiberiands, the population had 
increased in the six years ttom 1819 to 1895 flrom 5,649,553 to 9,909,600. 
If. Quetelet slates this to be one oeveoty-ttAb in each year.— BolL Univ., 

1897, p. 94. This rate woold only double once in seventy-flve yeaiBi 

la toa Prussian jwovinees on the Bbk* tto ^mgnlatifoa in 1816 ma 
1,849,711, and in lOS, S,\7%,M&. Th\B w«a «& VoeraM <ic Vft^gu^vx 


but, n I hKf before obterrcd, ihe has beoii so ftB" 
frnttlf aagmenting her territoriM, and therefore her popul»> 
fen, by Uw ■ddjtion of new province* uid tribee to hor em* 
|ve,* and alao inviting and receiving new aettlen from otiier 
ciiiiiinea,t that it is not aafe to rest any calculation of the 
WoraJ law upon Iter augmentationa. All thcito instanri'H, 
ftoB ao many countrica in Kurojie, unrler circumstanccH vory 
&Mimilar to each other, but all ezintiriff in the mOHt proHj)cr- 
008 age that our world liaa kmiwn, and when population lias 
been r»!ceiving iin|>uiHCs highly favourable to it from the gen- 
eral intdligffncc, improvement, activity, aiid incrcaninff proi>- 
erty and employment of all kiiidit, coii«:ur to indicate that tiio 
■appowd law of the geometrical increaKC i« not that gcntrral 
ayalem under which our Creator haa willed and cauaea bin 
human race U) multiply. It haa licen one of thoao miataiceu 
drd iirtiona which captivate from their novelty, and claim at- 
tmtioii by their plauNibility, and are well meant by their nnp' 
porteri ; but whiirh, being too baatily made, from insufficient 

i««H« 7«en.'Biill. Univ., 1830, p. 43ft; and woald not deublo the 
aomM tor nearly arveBty years. 

la Giiel<lprland tbe namlMri in 1115 were fM,7M, and in 1895 were 
9AX1 —Bull. Univ., |8f7, p. 101. Tbls ratio would require a century 
flv iM dnplicaCKNi. 

Coreica, in ilie five yean Aom Wan to 1%S7, increaned 4,731, or 1M).34S. 
TbM rate wuald aoi douUe till nearly IW yean.— Boll. Univ., I82h, p. 

Penmaifc In nine yean, ftom 181(1 to 1835, advaoeed firom 031.000 to 
l,Ha,IM.-Baii. Univ., 1M9. p. 134. This rate wooM lie aborc fifty 
f«n 10 doubliug if II eonlinued. 

Tbe kingdom of Naples in 181 B eontalned 5,891,308, and in 1834 only 
Alor|v4i0 5.W3,I73. Tins BUginetauoa would require otaely-flve yean 
fcr duublina. 

la Palermo tbe populaiioD, acconlinj to Dr. Calcafrii, was 150,^74 
Ml l*II€.and in IfOS had become 107,505.— Bull. Univ., 1897, p. 121. 
This iiicrvaee in niiM' yran would noi double Ihe numben in 140 yeani. 

lu Haiuny ihe pojiulaiion in July, 1833, was 1,558,153, and in I>errm- 
brr, ISa4. wae I.5!l5,0A8, IwiiiK an iiicreaw: of one per rent, per annum. 
Beveniy >eora would b«; r*!i}Uiiiiie fur lU doubiiuf at this nUooT increane. 
— 9fr l*r»Mion lo HuiiMical Hoeieiy. 

Al Fraitfclort tlie p(ip«ilation had increased, in twelve yean precedinK 
IWl. dunns wtiicli 13,754 had been born, only 310, which was but a 
feriy-tbirri |Mn.— Bull. Uiiiv , 1831, p. 50. At thm rau Ibis aty would 
am double lU nunilMra in lee* than 300 or 400 yean. 

• Bee belbrfi. p. 57. 

t Mr Malihue thu« iiienilons those roreign coionlzen. He eay* of tbe 
Taniiais Caibanoe, "Her unmrnne tmpttrtalion of German eetilerH not 
snly ooninbuicd to people her Mate with tree ciliMns instead of elaTea, but 
lo ■*• «M mMMmpim ofindwurf, and of modes of diROina lUui \iA^«^n .n»v 
M/ir tfaAoMrn lothm Rumtma fwasaats.**— MaUbMOarop.t^cA.XM'^ ^^- 

Voi. Iff —G 



iMfnriili deput from Uw mind m toon u fuller nd 
comet information, and the just reaaoniqg on that, ad' 
ineociety. We drop, then, our errors aanatnzaUy and aa 
itaUj as we at first oad conceived them.* 


A Ibtda 9Ugg€9ted bjf wkiek the MaUkusian Ratio nunfbt aiwMift trkL 
—!U CondUUmt have not oce um d anmtfken.—Tke mora pnkMi 
RaU tkoum in the laU Incrtaut ^f our own Pomdation,-~in Auirii 

• MMiisr OradtUion^-^AUo in Pnunm and U thu t mia , 

My dear Son, 
As very important political systems and leffislatiro msii- 
ures have been recommended on the principle and the be- 
lief that the Malthusian ratio is the true law of popolatisiif 
I have endeavoured to find out some simple element l^ wfaiefcf 
I will not say its possibility, because that is not a statesmsa's 
inquiry, but its probability, accordinff to all known ezperieDce, 
could be put to an arithmetical ana applicable test. If I do 
not deceive myself, one has at last occurred to me, which I 
will now mention. This is the rule, that no population aay- 
where can double in twenty-five years, unless the birdis sze, 
for all that time, 65 in every 1000 of the people, and tbs 
deaths all that while only it6. There must be a contimniil 

* Ths English p uua la tlop la tba year 1710 wis, seeordina to Ifr.Fla- 
lalsoB, A,IM.5IA. Now sapposlDg it to have t>een tfiOOfiOO at lbs HtP- 
naa Gonqtisit, a staady ineraaae, at one twentieth in eveiy fai 
at three tweotlstha la a eentnry, would brinf It very nearly to 
oaitalned amouiM ; thus— 

lOM . 2,000,000 





We here eae that it waa ahnve 450 yean befbre It doabled ; 
eoouliy waa coniinually Ineraaainf in iia national tani 
pnoponty, fjotwithsfanaing Us dvu anA ttom^cn 

ysc lbs 

born, and tea one lln^p-aiirili ^ ^ 
nevMirpraportioin to wlfi dris nrie. 
tions froM then mndben «pmU 
praetical bivB of daiij naiare do 
tuHMt M fivM Hj iMjiiuieo Imvo 
Oar o«m popnhtinn, ftr die hit 
of oo Ho ody o 



to Wn 





X ! 

tiM MIKW MrtTM to Mfti»7l 

rf w «M Ml If »-4S «r «w mUMHm, MV 


am not awtre that any has aurpasaed thia anflmentation Iv • 
greater continuity. This haa cauaed a iaiilti|£eation of abtot 
one tenth in every ten yean. Now, to do thia, the s^gahff 
reanlt must be, that the births ahall, on the aTenge, damf dl 
that time, be on the whole one half more than the dealhib 
One and a half births to one death will produca an h 
of numbers hko our own, and double the population in 
aeventy-four years, if the relative progreaa never 
ceases. But if either of these events takea place, if it ftr 
any time diminishes or pauses, the people cannot bto dodbd 
even in that length of time.* 

But because England has m the last thirty yeaxa imntmi 
by one tenth, we are not therefore to infer that tfha hu bI> 
ways had such a rate of increase, or that thia ia the gciMnl 
standard of nature in all times and in all ages ; for tma ml 
not the case before. Instead of the births biing alwaya abon 
100,000 beyond the deaths, as, with two exceptiona, than 
were in each of the twenty-seven yeara after 1908, their •» 
plus was not one third of that number in 1801, but begn Is 
increase in the two following years, f 

If we look at our population before 1800, in the aevettty 
years between 1700 and 1770, we find that, ti^Eing eiriit^ 
cennial periods of this interval, the buriala were, at £m of 

* Tbat a steady increase of one teath in ev^ry Id yean ftar 70 yam 
woirid ia that time doable the popolaiion, the IbUowing flxmes mam; 
taktog the popol^on at 1000, ttala would be :— 

1100 in the first 10 yean 
1310 attheenAoTM 

issi at . . . ao 


1000 at 
1700 at 
1080 at 


Bat an inerease of one tenth in ten years would be an average lOfawi 
latlon of one hundredth every year. Calculate this in the earns nayi 
and you will find tbat it will be doubled about the seventy-third ywr. 
But If the annual increase became diminished in any part of tUi kag 
aeries, the time of doubling would be eorrespondently protracted. 

t Oar baptisms exceeded the burials in the first six yean of thki 
tury by the /bllowing amoants :— 

1801 . . 33,595 I 1804 . . 113,815 

1808 .. . 73,948 1805 . . JloSoi 

1808 .. . 90,380 I 1806 . . . 106,477 

Celwilaiue^ traKalUiBtaa. F<ip. Ahal. 

or mi wouD. 


W« ITIOt I790t JTW, mora IImm tfct buplkmi wnI al- 
p ilw kiiMv i4N»wii4 tSM( Hi Aiw of Unmw iinMw Um Mnln 
•JmI tbn 4miiJm» )r«t tlurir ii4ii|4u« wm «« inimU, tlwi mm 
4iU10 U piii Wi M. ifw 4muIm muimi mo «Imni Umu m»i 
I MiOUO KmI Imimi mvii ImyciiMl thtattt who iliiiil,t ll wm 
Mrttt 1740, ill Ui*«Ni |«cti«di», ihtU ih» Mir|ilmi i>f bfrtlM Im^ 
I !• tf^r^wMl Ui« dtmtkn iu « Mfiull ditgriM, Tbiw bml in* 
■ii III Uf« fi«jii |wrM4 of i7fiO, Niill uMrn in i70O, mid » 
) WMm III 1770. Uut, iifli«r U»jn yMur, «u«h » haw iiii|fijlMi 

I M M WMft, MMili«sflJy giVMl Ul itlH fMlflMuilinK «MIMM, 

MiUiti iw«iiiy y<!i»r« UriwMrti i7H0 mmI (iMO, Um lH»|HiMAH 
Ml iImi 4«tiiiM tty MiniVtt ft ifiilliunt Tim «miimm of m- 
w«ir« III Uii« ifiUfrvftl m» uiiuNifnUy ofNiniliv* wni ndSwit- 
d Urn ithn Utmtn tl oi liMjliiiifig amximii mi Igfmi, m to 

iH LlKf«Mi iMrMity yrnfM tilNivif thiftAon liwM ibo Mir- 

msMlNifii wIim:Ii ilitt Mfvifiity f;rif«!Mliiitf ymira, •«<JoiiliH(| 
itM ilM!«fif»ii»i ifiiliful»iioiM» imd luidttdUi ow yufniMon. 
•MtMi itHH) tUtt ri\tfiHUu'.utii i»WN finvo »eu4 with utill 
rr AlfifiiM'y, iMi «« Ui fiinJiii tiw MiigiiKinUitiou of tlio l«ift ton 

» MIKiUlii l«« lliA «4l4iti(#fi gf (Hiii llfliUl. 'itM long «on* 
Hy uif Ml**!! uri OM'fisftMi im liilM htut \ttMt vitry mm. Hon 
» II con lot i«/tuiil toil Vtety turvly mtywhrnu mim. In Kim* 







140 JM 



rvpAtf,, two. 

TW «t«Mii ftf Wortalu liiryM*4 litiiiikWM hi ih* mJN^« Iim in 1710, 
g OMl I7M| WM 11,910. 't Um feiiiM wT imulktHM Ulifrv^ lioflcl* IM 
Utaf Av* »r»ra WM 11 1, MM, iMUVIntf m Ikn^ ¥1^* (|MM|l||0llyMO», 
«f Itai I J0|,A1O, wbM-U Nil ibirMi imt^minm miKAod Mi Mly W,VM i 
b«l in <w^ «iKM ««i««'M yttir* iIm |w/|iiii«iMi iiieniMMNl wt omr* 

I llMH OlMfllwr, Iff lUH «|UII« Mm ilUfKfllll utri 

Ths wiMla U|iliMiM •ii4 bOTMil*, (fmo i7«P to lOW, tn Kl ig l w ol M^ 






an, theprodncthre refluhabATBTaned. In the aLBwa j 

after 1811 her biitbaeicMded her deatlMlij about one 
In the next year her deatha were more than her biidiB,1 
after diat her natirhies became more nomeroaa than her 1 
ab. Tet ha Taiiations show the improbabilitj of a eoi 
keeping up for twenty-fiTe jeais socceasiTebf that dem 
si^enority <^ births to deaths which a large, and (paa^ 
kttmg mnitipbcation reqmrea. Nothing of thia aort ia 1 
in the diflGoent enumerations of the Koasian "■^ww.t 

* Wnm I9H to MM iudari f a ia tkess devva yean tlie anioaal ^ 
BiitiM .... 15.4St,l«i 


Msktef thia iacreaw hj ber aarphii Mrtte ia thna devea jm 
Fcr. Ball. Uni*.. 107. p. IIS. 

t In ISIS, a year oT war, the deatlia of RoMia exeeeded ber biit 
ir40L— lb.. 115. At St. PHerabarK, fhim 1813 to IStt, there wai 
la ttOM if« xmn aa cseeee oTdeaiho. 

TbebiftbewHO 80,Mi 

Tbrdeaiha .... 107^500 
fliaktag f7,t35 more deed tbao born.— Tb.. 110. 
t Tbas tbe wbole aBMOiit oT ber male wae ten in 1810 than Iks' 

S^ vear* beftto. 

iUleainlSll . 17409.494 

MaleeialSlO . I7,0»,7BS 

Fer. Boll. Un., 1831, p. t 
la 1833 and 1834. tbe biiths and deatbe etood in tbeeo BraportloBi 
1833: Binin . . Malee 041830 

■■banles . 90t;U0 


Deaifea .... Malee 779,MB 



oTMitba ^9ff7f4 

_ ,-^ ^ St. Fttenb. XianMl, Jan. U3 

la UMlktaieeH was nocb larger:- ' 

■nte .... Maim 979379 



Melea 007399 

" " . . 039,170 




noie JTMZ did tbe incrwM approafch to tho condition of 
VM— that the cxcom of birthi tnould amount to a twenty* 
yui of the population. The bigheat difference recorded 
not one thinl of tbe required number.* 
'a have a teat of the Malthuaian ratio, and an indication 
ilBrB*a practical law of population, in the cenaua of tlie 
M and ooaths of the kingdom of Pniuia and duchy of Li- 
nk for aizty-four years aucceaaively, from 1G98 to 1750, 
laivc, collected and puhlitthed by SiiMmilch.t In these 
r-fiDur years, the births exceeded Uie deaths by only a 
) more than one fifth jiart of their own number, instead of 
f , as the geometrical ratio required, accordiuf^ to the rule 
iTC stated, twice and a half the deaths. 80 tliat, in these 
f4our years, the births, althoiifrh nearly one million and a 
, only siiddcid to the jiopulation in all this time a few more 
I three hundred thousuid.t This was the actual result; 
in two of the earlier years, 1709, 1710, a pestilential dia- 
! took off about twelve times the usual number of the an» 
1 deaths.^ Tbe fatal cholera, which has traversed over 

If Baaais hae now fifty mflUons of people, her annoal suipliis of 

m should he two millkms far tbe doubfing ratio. 

Mr. Sadler hse pnnled these, fron Sussmllch's Oennan tables, la 

Id vol . p. IVT-Wl. 

The births were— ft>r 

t4 yearn . 1001 to 1716 M6,0U 

»l years . 1717 to 1749 660.006 

14 years . . 1743 to 1766 384,941 


ha deal he fbr tbe 
10 years 
6 years 


94 years 
98 years 
14 years 


years were— 
1003 to 1709 
1703 to 1708 



1719 to 1710 . 



1717 10 1749 . 
1743 U) 1760 



More birtlie than deaths .... 304,615 
One linh ofihe births would lisve been 907 /TTS 

The two years of uncommon diaeane csuimmI 947,733 to dks, Inatesc 
hout W^uA amrif fhe soaoal average of two othai i«m. 


most of the countries of both Asia and Europe in oar timet, 
shows that visitations of this nature should be taken into our 
consideration when we are investigating the natural laws of 
population, because they have been, in all ages, among Ha 
contingent but occurring elements of its real system m of 
its practical law. In various shapes this operation of di—w 
has been made to attend all human societies at different pari* 
ods. The morbific principle takes various forms. FfattM^ 
yellow fever, smallpox, sweating sickness, cholera, and raw 
maladies have respectively been the fatal instruments ai 1B- 
usual dcathH. But if wc exclude the whole of this eztiaoV' 
dinary mortality, the excess of births beyond the deaths, witih 
out it, will still be only one third of their number, and one 
twelfth of that third, in all the sixty-four years.* Whereii 
the rule we have suggested shows that, to accomplish tlie 
geometrical ratio, their surplus ought to have been twice nA. 
a half their amount in every twenty-five years. My final in- 
ference is, that the Malthusian law has never acted on hunuii 
soci(;ty, and is not the law on which Providence has foooded 
it or by which he multiplies it. 

By this standard the Malthusian theory may be ahviTi 
weighed, and will be always found wanting. We may say to 
those who befriend it, Search and adduce, if you can, a seriei 
of population for twenty-five years, in which the annual birtbi 
have regularly exc<;eded the annual deaths by a twenty-fifth 
part of the whole nation,, or that they have been continuously, 
for that period, two and a half times the deaths. Until such 
a series as this can bo found, our dis1)elief of the geometricsl 
increase will rest on a solid foundation. 

As it is not the law by which the Divine wisdom has con- 
ducted, or still conducts, our national populations, no expe- 
rience will thus verify it in his natural course of things. DUt 
as he always acts miraculously or supematurally when it is 
a part of the plan to do so, I would have you keep in mind 
that ho can accelerate and increase the agency of all his nat- 
ural means and powers whenever he deems such miraculous 
effect to be fitting. He seems to have acted thus towards 

* Dedactina S27,7S3 for the pestilential deaths, this number would bs 
reduced to S5G.()f)7, which would leave an excess of birtha of 639,S78: 
one third would be 496,121, and one twelfth of that third added WMld 
make 5r,474. 


be Jewish people, aftnr he had Mittled thmn fn K|mit, nnlil 
m wu pIcAMd to witbilnw thiim from thrjr Hlav«!ry thnrf^ fi<i 
■ sflrrward aent Ihniii quailii and manna by an nxtnionli- 
mrf opnration in the wilddnMMM. Hut whim hn had rom- 
pleted thf!ir emancipation, tir withilrnw thnMi iixtnionliTiiiry 

Kncica, and left th«;m undnr thi) rour:i» of hiN natural Ihwh. 
may have aluo rnadn hia lawa of iKi|iulation iriom acLivtr 
lite) hr inteiidnd thny alwulfl aft«!rward Imi in th<! firwt fiitur 
itUMM after tlif! dfflugfl. A lioiiRiM tNiaring fiMir wh«^l|iN ;it. 
three yearn old, inatead of om; or two at thn a^it of fivn, nhdWH 
how raaily the action of hia natural lawn may hn mrrfsiHcr! 
rvrn liy natural mitana. flow murh mora wlicrinvrr h<i 
choowsa Uf ifivv. tlinrn a ii|M;rial irnpuUo ! 

flnt we iniiMt ni:vrr minlakfs a natural pONNiliility fur a 
nateral law. Somn fa#:tii in my fimt volumo nliowrd wlint vx- 
Uaordinary pownra of firohiif: vrifraaliori %imu:iunt'.n ap|N-Mr 
in particular niNiancitN, indiratin(( what ttic Crcatfir mif^lit, if 
he rhfMMT, rauMi all our nutriliouN plantM to rzrrt.* Jjiit tliin 
auprrnatural fr-rtility, thoiif^h it proves tiiat tho vitf^otahh; kiii({ 
doin la HO framed that whnrMiVitr n<;rf*Mary it can Im iir((«-d in 
pffNluff Ml antoiiinliini^ly, in not thiit ^nriifal hiuI prarticnl \nw 
of vf|{f:ta>ion wliirli hn rluMincM ut prcHcnt to form and uuv- 
It. Kxtraonlinary iiu|N'rfi!tatjonii (Mxur (NtriiHionally lik(;- 
in the animal clatimtfi, nliowiiif; the immR Ulitnt fiowfr, 
hut by tlieir rarity r.viur.'mn how ntroui^ly thin ability to pro 
dure m rentraiiUMl aiKl rnKulatiMl. Thi: naiiMs natural ]ttt^Hi 
Lility «if what in now a iiii|H:riialural prtNlurtilnlily, wh(!Ti(fv<T 
it takea pla«:«, apfieani M)iMclimi;*i in thi; hniiian ra«;f% provinj^ 
by it« very novelty Uiat it ia not the natural kiw ;t •uch inci- 

• Mm toI I , Int. IV. 

t Rvrry ymir wr Uftar »T itcr^minnnl (nNtnn^fHi of llirnfi or ftiur nhtlrltRn 
■I ■ hirth In wu nwu nirir"fiiflia. TIhi lain ''hall of I'nraia In atainl lo 
kava hail Uy hia wivi** abf/va 90 rhiMran. Hut Ihn inoat ailranr^inary 
Bra4ara (Hmnimtt wifn la inrntttmnfl in iha Ruaaian JiMirnat, " Hnv«iriiiiK« 
PirtMilar.*' I (ivr Ilia (MRia aa I mad Iham ; I havn iki mher anilifiriry. 

la I77S. Jarolf Klnlo, a Huaalaii, waa I hi- fbthnr o( A7 rhildrftn hy oiin 
Wife, all of wb<im w^rr. Iivirif. Thf wifn had, Oiiir llinna, tvur rhilrlrrii 
M a birth; aavan Itinf^, ihrfw «htldrrii ; and inn llnifia, twina. Ila rnnr- 
rw4 a —wind wif**, wh» had niinr thriw nhlldraii al a hirlli, and aix liiiiMa 


I iiMl annthfif Huaaian aifnaltMii T'lribla uiinoinm'Mi fmundlty, whi«-h 
I rm^ Tm jrn« aa I lUid il|irinicd, WKlMiut any fiintHfr kniiwjrdga of kia 

PpihiI WaaallliTWii/, or Halija, had a flrat wirn wtui Uy in ff7 liriifa 
mhm bmd twr ebUdnn ; aavaii IIumMi lUr«ia ', a\«.\Mtt \\\vii»^ 



dentt likewiM marking to us, that, aa such thingi 
place in human nature as w«Il aa in animala and 

there rtiMni be a ntead y governing superintendence of P^^ 
tion everywhere, whirh makes that moderate degree ^^^^ 
spring the universal rcHult, which suits in each coolV^^S^L 
fitted and improving »Ute, keefis the numbers and tbs -^^ 
in a constant mutual adjustment, and has hitherto ' ^' 
favourable to our wxrial comfort and to national 

If the Malthiisian ratio had been the created 
multiplication, the world would have been overwhelnMll^Q 
the immense; manses of its population even before the Cb^ 
tian era had begun. * 

iierto bMl^^ 


ed Uwof^ 
whelmed ^Q 

twins. It \% v«rifled by offleial doeumenis, that on t7ih Pdmaiy, 
I bin man had had 87 children, of whom 83 were tbso Uvisf.- 
93d Jan., 1834. 

I have w% irieiina of verifying these ststements or of diaprovtaif Ifem^ 
but I imy remark, that all theae eases show ibsi the posalbl s is HI d# 
natural. I'be puaaibte may hsppen and may riot ; and wbea \\ffm\it^ 
yond the natural, ta exeeedinirly rare. But the natural Is the coansH 
event, and la ao contmually occurring aa to mark it-elf to be ihsoidisatfy 
snd the oMtabliahed law, with which tlie ultra possible should Dsirsrli 

* An eaay calculation will ahow that the popalalion of the world hM 
never been conducted or permiited to occur upon the ifenmetrieal isilft; 
fbr if it had w« mixht aav, almost without a hyperbole, not neralj IM 
the producible food would not have auaiained the msrveHous smsaal if 
the femrationa that would have been Irarn, but tbst tbs sorfhss sf dH 
earth would have hardly contained them. 

At the ceaaaUon of the deluge there were six parenia Ibr Ike ismmI 
of mankind 

Now, nupnoaing that, by the Malthuaian law, there was a iSRUlH 
doubllnic every 35 yeara, ohaerve the enormous figures Ihst 
Tbs deluge occurrtNl in the 1654Jth yesr of the world. 

A. M. 

JAM . 


17M . 

1731 . 

I7M . 

1781 . 

18(M . . . 

IriSI . 

IflM . 

Jrlfll • • • 

JV06 . . . 

Jtt3l . 

lUM . . . 

1081 . 

mM . , . 





SU31 . . , 



8056 . 



3081 . 



8106 . 

. 1,679364 


8131 . 

. 9.146.798 


8196 . 



8181 . . 



8806 . 


. i,fl3A 

8331 .. . 


. 8,()73 

3356 . 


. 6,144 

3381 . 



63(NS . . 



8331 . 



3356 • . 1 



\ Wi\ . 






• iMI.4flO.eM 





M3I . 3.9gH.fl34.NN3.3tM 

9n6A . O.M7.(NMi,7AA.(yAn 

SflHi . 13.ltf4.l30.&73.3l3 

S7(M . 9ff.3NN.V7U.WW,(t94 

S73I . av.77ffJ^,l33.»4H 

97M . l(Ja,5A»,llfl3IWI,4UO 

S7H1 . SII.I(M,93'i.fl3'2,imi 

MM . 419,3 l3,4A5,nM,UM 

m.fU3.790Xn eM 

pt mcbed the TRfMAN War, wlilrb Ih placml In lh« 
ilM worid, anil y«t bv thin time. »ii ttm Malihu«iiin railo, 
at Bwnkind would hiiva nnioiinimi lo Toiir huiidrrd bikI 
WIlMw, two hundrrd nnd iwnlvr ihouiiaiirf Tour liiiriiln'd 
Mf-lrg BiillMina. atiijr-flve thouMnd, iiin«i hundred Niid Hghiy- 

'■Tfwrjron ihe ctmipulnllon fo tlin ■cnmwtfHi (rf* Kfdimiiin In 1014, 
2**'MWiliy««r oT iIm world, lliu iiunilicni would run on In tbe 
f iitBlliiilicatKMi :— 




Wmi . , . 3.3T7,f»lMI,:ao.5«7,H73 


IBM . . . V7,m\,un,'!M,Ta,v:a 

fril . . . M(M3,iU.V'VH,415,g.Vi 

VWlMt flfnrra priMent fo un thff riiorinouN numlifr in whirh (tin 
Ml raw. mi Ihr ranli, ninn yrarn iN'nirif llir arrfmaUHi or H(»loinon, 
M feavt wnoanfMt ir lli«y IumI cfHitirinouiily ilouhti-d rvi-ry 99 yfiarn. 
Ma reanll mn ilniiHiiiiilnillafi that iki nurli law liaii rvrr l)mi tut- 
MJatf in haman MMlnra ; hcraiiM' imhIhiik lik«*«!VRii a imllitNiili imrl 
vll a quantity lum iMcn pmdiirf d in mir world. 
1 8«rb law haa thunUHti fmiiilml it, nor any law or |M»|»ulatiun In 
■MlbM drurw a|iprfiarhin|[ lo if. 

rif Ihe law had born that |if»|iiilatUm ahoiild doiititit oiirn In W yrara 
II wiNild hav^ rauard ftiR |ifi|iiilNfion of f hr rarlh al rlfchf yMra Iw- 
mi HavKiur'N bmh, lo hn 3,374 '>r>.47!2 (MsrHonH. llir (H) yrnni' dii- 
tmn would havr iomiIr iiiankind in Mr2, iIh- limr of nur Kf liert and 
iamaffn^. mt O'wrr flian ii)*i\i.mi.iV.nm intmiiih. 
J. if Ibr dniibhriK linil )Ni*n ontr in rrrri/ rrntury only, fha popula- 
of the world, rvfii undrr llii« law of ihipliran'on wrry hundrrd 
I. would, al llii* arrrH«i«Ni ot (itnirfrr III., or in ITIM), have rirrffdmi 
9 IW.IIflf),4V*«.43-i |MT«finM . lor iIiin nniniirr would havr rvolvnl, af 
yrvitrarfHl ratio, by tlir yrni I7M ; and yrf all ihr inliiiliitania at that 
on Ihr globf! wnra not llir filly inillionlh \mx\ nf ihiw amount, rvim 
* aopiMW tbal tlirrr wrrr tlivn oiih thouHand inilliona living on the 


■TOP ralrnlaflooK pnivr ihat ihr donhlins of inankind, by any flmi 
or ratio wliairvrr, m im imri tit thr pliin or o|irraiiiin of our rrra* 
but ihal III" hniniin |Mipnlafiiin in fiiiilifl ami Kuvarniil hy llio 
ne will, wtfli HiMMini- InuN nila|iti-d III hm puriKiMm, and that it la 
.>a, in rtvry ajm ami iiniion, acini ii|.on and iiiih|<Tird lo aurh 
I aa arr mtmi muiteil lu ii, mini ut inul to prwlurr, »\VcT« «n cAm\\w>^% 


&; ,"t' . ?** 

I 'iif -w ■■*■.■»• ^ fwfi-.-fcf; 
>:: : Tuty retam.'X :kK «..' :»f«r . 

aae {.x :orii 

L»» K<9i:aci>< Ami wmjC »c aaw 

isn iTTifrirca* :Ti«: «-jc:-: i««v ^(«a Sura. >«fi ;tel 

A: :r« ^M«t;JlM of :Se ^.;;fir i^nv vnrvr itu 








Of TU froftLo« W 

M whltb Mmil in k whM iti ibiMto h«r« bMB i^ 
Mid jU Mil if 10 eanful eukivstion. Thw b pttipsbb 
Mgbt. The Uwf of natur*, in inanby |{rouiidi« cimm 
ipiiMr M MOD M it i» draiiMMl. IVnw wbieh inlUeUpd 
IT md ciM agiM •!• Mting no mora, wbiU ihoM of 
f tnd of nutntioiM v«g«utiori occupy Uioir pl«c«. l*be 

ruw through all the sImm of populaitoti. Kaoh of 
M ba« iu Mrora] laws and MironU roaulu, l*hii lawa 
and death are altraya oaaMiUal |Mrtii of Iha lawa of 
Ion ; lid, ihtinfon, howovor dMiroua wo may bo to 
mi for una gonoral law, w« aball aoe auflicient raaaoM 
tivo tliat iiofrtilatiofui will alwaya bo govonwd by tho 

Ihoir place, age, and coiidiiiofi. No general kw m»f 
i or nullifiea Ummmi ( btit ibeeo are tho real operating 
■p l(0 which our atteutioii ahould, in oirery inatance, bo 

i ore, indoed, aomo univenMU facta connoetod wHb 
ton which loay bo nrferrod to a anttled anterior plan 
liod iiiiivoraal buira, everywhere o^ierating to proouce 
wch M the followiM >-Popuh4ion ari«M only from 
Milal aaeociatififi, and alwaya from the mother ; and 
a be moUien before or after particular agoa' All ht^ 
nt firat aa baliea ; and tlwNe are Inmi in that wr>nderful 
' between the a^^xea which alone ia auflicient to mark a 
, nod di/ectifitf governineiit of human uattvitiea. To 
ro tUMy add tiie lawa, aa unceaaing, that all who are 
■U die, and that all ahall wti die at tlie aame age, but 
f diveraity of duration, fr«Mn one Iwnir to one hundred 
We alao find it a general rule or law, that thou||h 
nolo way \m in tinui a fatlmr, and every female, in 
I, fiir a bwit4$d time, Ini a iri/iliicr, yet all men and 
do fiot liecome |far<:iitN ; nor tUwu itvmry mother thai 
dfon introduce into mmuiiy tlie name niinilNjr of tbeao, 
Mo to /ear up to iiuiturity all or Uie aame {iroportion of 
iMMn ahe nurture*. 'HieM) circunMtancea are of aucb 
•1 ubufuity, tliat we may call Uieni elTecta nf lawa, 
ig every wurre, wluch have be«;n apecially aijpointed to 
I tlv^n. To general Uwa of tliia aort, ano to a fow 
r thia kind, (Nipulatiwi ia everywhere aulijected } Imt 
•Jl aucli, Uie kwaof it \Mn'A»ntt liiniU^, local, and par- 
Iowa, and never aiich a oiii» overruhtitf <k (»N«tw\\oV\ttMVk 
tk0 Af^UMmtuB theory ouupoaM. 'niM. tn&M^^si^ ^ 



The PflgmlatMfu of tke WorU are mU m iiffkrnu SIoUm, wiUcJk Mr 
d^erent Lam aUing m each.— The three ElemenU of PtaMUMi 
are Marriage*^ Burthe, and Deaths.— AU linked and adjusted i« eoA 
other in the Plan and Sfatem of Creation.— On the Ratio of Mr- 
rimfes^ and of Married and MarriageabU Females m varimts Psf 

My dear Son, 

Let us DOW endeayonr to trace the real kiwa Irf which oo 
Creator and Plreserrer canries on, guides, and modifies ths 
various populations of human society. 

As we cast our eyes around in the worlds we sea that they 
are everywhere existing in different states — ^in states to 
different in all their circumstances and results^ that dK 
same laws of p<^lation cannot be equally affectii^ than; 
because, as the same effects do not occur in every one alike, 
the same causes cannot be producing them. 

Society appears to have been always in this divenifiei 
condition. Our first conclusion, therefore, is, that as Ibe 
same laws cannot occasion dissimilar results, the laws of eKh 
state of population are peculiar to that state, act in it whAi 
that state lasts, and alter into others as the condition of Ik 
society changes. The human body is an instance of tfaii ■■- 
tation. The Laws of its childhood act while that lasts; dioss 
of its youth then take their place, which are sn c c o eded lif 
those of manhood, which again give place to those d A 
age, if the individual lasts so long, till the law of deilh 
comes en, and terminates the action of all the linrs of lifc. 
Thus it is with the population of mankind. 'Tikb Ibws of it, 
in the savage state, operate while that condition luU\ hot, 
as that ffradually changes into the civilized foim of faansB 
life, the laws of population alter into those winch hsva bees 
appointed to act in the newer state of the impro^ng socieij- 

The same changes occur in material things. Tds laws of 
nature, which are in iiill action in an unclesied ceontiy, aif 

UrexMing staCe; and that U novtic wm bft soAni to tenywftMfl 
^f^Mtitaugbt not to be. 

jMit taamwwakmnail id u warn um 
aunwd aad its aou is in cusful culuvKuwb 'IW i& phiimin* 
to oar aiglit. Tim: laws of naturL. u: luanui- uruuuL. (.««»' 
and diM]]^ear as aocm •« it ib oniiMsi. 'J uu**- « mcii luiucbet 
the fever wad tjat agvk art acuus: no iiwrt. miui* iiju»< c 
■alnfari^ and of nntnLioue Y^eiaiion occupy uwii pmc^ '1 u* 
analogy imu tfannigii ali tat- niiirrr o.' iiopiuaiiuL i«w:ii v 
the xonea has its aeTexal laws ano iievenik ruttuiu 'Im- i*i*^ 
of life and death art- aiwayb i—nniiii. |iiin» u: um- mwo o 
popnlation ; and, ihaaian:^ auwever a(Mitrou^ wr uiii\ pi l 
■eaich out for one genezal km-, we aaaU aee iiuUim«u'. rtNUHiui 
to perceire thai pofniiatjone will aiway»- pe ieov«xiMr(. o% lu* 
laws of their place, agt, and coudiutui. So jpzucn. i««« m« 
jiCTiidiw or niillifinir tfaeae ; bni Luwk art- tw r««ii uperauut- 
agSDcifis, to which our atteouuii auouk:. ui ««vr> nmuuii:* , in 

Tlkere an, indeed, aone univecaai lacu- cuuueciwi witi 
jpopnlatiiHi which may W r e fened to k aetiMK; aoi«nv! |m«i 
and to £zfid nmrsmal han, every wiierfc ofienuu^ u^ pruuiM:* 
them ; each as the foUowuK i — Fu|iiiiatuMi ana«A ouiy umj 
the parental aaMciatioD. ana always iniui Um luuuiei . aiac 
none can be motiwK before or after |ianiculiir l•|e«^ Ai. bc- 
^in lift at first af* babe« : auc tiwm- Hrt uuri. in Iuul MuuiMrfib 
equality between tht- sexett wuicii aiuin- ib »utlicieii'. lo umrr. t. 
plarmiH and directuiy goveriuuen'i ui nuuiai. iiaiiviiit:.-: '!• 
theae we may add Uk; Uwb, a» uijvettiitij;;. luai ali muu an 
bam ahall die, and that all ihall uoi die at tut- Muut- aiet . nut 
at every diveraity of doration. fruui out- nuur lo out iiunurec 
years. We alao find it a geuersl ruie or law. tuai Umugii 
every male may hcr ixi tmu- a fatuer. auc every ieiuaic-. u. 
due Mge, im a limited Unie. bt a uiotnei. yet aij met. ajif 
women do not become pan;nt^ : jjur (lue» every molMrr tua' 
laas chiUmi introduce inio aucieiy tin MAmt- nuniPei o} tueu.- 
Bor is able to rear iqi lo maturxiy ali or ur: muh- fnupufUvu o' 
thoae whom ahe nortureb. Tuest- clIcuuulUulce^ af. o- sut-: 
peqietual nhiqnity, tiiai we may call Uieii. efleci? ci iaml. 
opentii^ everywhert;, whicii havt oeeu upeviali^ appoiuuiu u. 
pxoduce them. To general lawb oi tul^ aun. auc u> u lew 
more of thu kmd, popolauoii ir every wpert- aubjecieo . uui 
bigrond all auch, the laws of it becouit bimiec. iuutxi.. luiu y^- 
ticnlar laws, and never aucii a out uverru\um v>\ v>>««^>touk»»nt 
law jf tjif MalUuuuii theorv auuioatsfe 'Vinbi kuk^w^t^^*^ ^ 

Vol. m.—H ' 


pioof of its being imaginai^, in tlie circimutuiee that it ku 
nwer had such a uniTmal lodividiial operation as it oo^ Ip 
have had if it had been a nniTenal law ; for ereiy woomb 
doea not produce children in a geometrical ratio, as she ootM 
to hsTe done if that were a reu law in nature, or in any OOK 
fixed or invariable ratio. The laws of nature are oonstant b 
their agency, and are not partial or capricious in their efledi; 
for, whenever the Effects are of this character, they »"^««^*i*« 
that no one law can be producing them. 

An average is not a law. An average result is an artificial d^ 
duction from many diflferent effects ; and many different eftrtt 
imply, by their differences, that the^ are not the consa^aenew 
of one universal law ; for that, m the same localitj, and 
under the same surrounding circumstances, ou^t never to 
vaiy in its operations and productions. That all births shdl be 
from women, and that women shall always be neaxb[ one 
moiety of mankind, and such like events, are constant eDBCtSy 
marking, by their uniformity of occurrence, that they arin 
from fixed laws of universal force and agency. Bat I do not 
perceive one acting law of \>opulation on this character. On 
the contrary, the state of it, and the individual effects which 
constitute that state, are so varying as to imply that muj 
causes are in operation to produce them ; that their aoency 
is complicated, thou^ never confused, and that the resoSsaie 
everywhere the particular effects of many means ; while Ihs 
harmonies, and adaptations, and utilities which they display 
are continual evidences that both the causes and the coose* 
quences are under a moral and intelligent government andadr 
jostment of a provident wisdom and a benevolent care. 

The state of eveiy population is the complicated result e^ 
the combination and operation of three main elements, wUdi 
are inseparable from it, and have always accompannd and 
composed it These are Marriaois, Births, and Dbaths. 
All tnese are naturally linked together, and cannot be sefwed. 
All that are bom are bom to die ; and none can be bom with- 
out the connubial association. It is a verbal distinction tint 
misleads to call one of these the law and another the chadc 
Each has its appropriated laws, and works out by them its ap- 
pK^Hriated and independent effects, each equally inmortant to 
the other. The laws of death are of their own kind, qnito 
diMtinct from those of birth, but as ^werfiil and mieeeaiitt 
«aff oniuDed to be their peEfcAnii iu«^^ *I>GA\Mi^m 

or nn woiu. BT 

of a diwinifliri»iuiit»M4 nonJuii! to Iht pwdqettoi 
mUU. TiMjriMftiiocoiiiMiioa withthoMOfdeatlif 
of their own pteiiUar tnd indomMUnt ehftractor. 
po of tbo onion which oeeaatona birtho, and hy Uioni 
• dooth, and pforidao in them the nihjeete on whieh 
I of death hare to operate, are, jn their tuiUf nnUko 
r the other lawe, and arise from and depend opon 
ad circiunetancee not retembUng those of either birth 
The law* of marriage are therefore m oeculiar and 
Aent aa any other law of nature ia. Marriage and 
■y aa weli be called the checks to death, as death the 

birth. Ail are the results of separate laws of na- 
d their laws are of euual importance, both in magni- 

1 agency. All are alike fundamental and indispeiw 

slate, increase, and decline of ewerj population are 
the joint effects of the concurring agencies of all the 
iws ; all these co-operate to produce the elemente, 
B» and materials from which it arises. It is their 
1 action which caosos it to be as it appears, and is ever 
the living results of which it is successively composed, 
oill briefly consider each of these elements, begmning 
It of Mabbiaob. 

desire of marriage may be deemed universal, but the 
of that desire are not so, because all do not marry ; 
the consequences of marriage either universal or unir 
eeause all that marry do not liave children ; and thoef 
re issue have them with a diversity in number and io 
nrability which is not at their command, but which 
lace iridfrpcrident of their will and clioice, and very fn* 
at variance wiUi iIkmms. I'iie connubial association 
sibre, manifrstly undor no nirif(lo law, but is under the 
M, and control, and df^iding ofMsration of several other 
causes, co-operating with ttio desire, or opposing it, 
liecting it to tlH^se more fiowerful regulations. 
variabC; opc'ration of the law which occmsions inaRiages 
ingly shown l»y th<: varying effects in the different lo- 
I of the Mme country, and in different years in the same 
\ aa well as on the different individiiaU wtio prefer or 
to marry or to live single. Of the three elements, it 
Daly one wlii<:h is left to human choice. Wat \»:^% ^ 
as io htfUu utd deaths take ibaii Ktnvk c«MnA> vd& 


3Bir*- K TBrr 7i«MH : Mft All 

TKT- T:d IT nv. rShr .&«•» if 

zun J c » ^uBciM n .at .^jdiccuuub m 
js 2*nru A-Jvsw !?i« >nnuiiiir« ii s » 
luT. ]i:^-:iMi. '3a£. TBUi« nAir aw» 
iraa.nt;u u j« ^vwr"»-wrif n nMraagiL, 

iD«ru:«in. ina wme ic 

I: ~.ier? x la^ tnn a^w -H 
3U-- !<: siai :u 7« -JUk :av>>i *iibl >*:m jn»' 

jevr m^sz n^nenUv *:» :ae ive -«Jil <m ::M :na&^ 
w'-^^iw ~u iiiuiiirv. miuufif. jc T^wcnai Jimtt h^xum 
itf -sacn ±iiia- v na mMC ."mmuciv* tf 4k» **iiim ^ 

act niiTic M piac^ AJtmwc -jt SM nmA <M 4 
=119 rec ;•*»:=. imi zois s. rottC ^wtfo -j 
xep«!iii JU7R ja '.ot! cik/ictf Athi JciertiutMUtm <m 
:aan :a -2ikZ if znts 'vmotie. Phf tt«iitt • «»w«^«ii 
poser .f rme uuuiu >ec3iiM m » :3m ft^^rra^n «t^ 
IT -aid -vurxL ::: 3 :ntf iotui«MC^K>» «ic ;on^ 

nui "zie z'Toacipudot i:v«rMc:««. 7f lae 'XVfMnMtk «m 
It sarra^fn fefwmly -q Utf >«(KMi^ :aM« ^ 
vnac latf kc'ittvhz ji jut v^wu cimuktv cwocuniuM li 
-ve -.idul imi ::uc iiurjij{«« Juccuam <i«^(n 
smn n -mnmer imi ui :aeir w>tMtSMtt w aw 
■■con. Tie ?>^nKere«i outmi^e* ua Gh^hmt .^lA 





p h— iitJ* wnfaw IiwmBk M A^ «m bum 

«b iumm« w Mb mo hi ti 

■ nwliim HanKB of 
mmi if* af Dmm *Mn, tbo anMint wu lUo round to ihow 
tm, tmtbm wfaolo, dalBg Ikk ipKo of tin*, Ibaro w«« ilwajri 




«(, atM BUHiMai. •• Ik* MtMUMk yw «■ 
B^MtanArnvwM«,M HIT, <t,a« 1 ui Ml t) 

M iflk* MrlMr ]wr. 


Mil M UU 

Mtuiuo lorm 

■In ■eoamd Mnn IMM utf IMD. wtan, Hmmi or 
m MMKHH ikM la ilM an prMdlaa jmn, ihwa ••• 
■ilaMct If ika karaau vniiqiMinM factadnitan ' 



Yet fltill tha pnustiee of mankind diffen Teiy mnch ia t|i 
amoant uid proportions of their metrimoniel unioni. lA 
Rickman'e calculations have ascertained that the aTenfa € 
all the niarriages in England and Walesa during the lastfa 
years of our latest census, was, that one had taken place h 
every 138 persons in the population.* In each year two pat 
sons out of this number had united themselves togethsr; 
But, on looking into each of the counties of England, we Sm 
that the wedding disposition greatly varied ; and by all tb 
proportionate numbers between 103 as in Middlesex, and 17) 
m Hertfordshire. Scarcely any of the counties were aHb 
in their proportions, t Nor do the dissimilarities seem reAi 
able to geographical or statistical causes, so much as to i ~ 

daring the five years flrom 1831 to 18S5 wss st tlie rate of 10,000 bejoa 
the preceding lerni, while in that and in the subsequent one the adfaas 
was about 4000 only. 

* The annual proportion of marriages to the population dorbig dl 
last five yeare preceding 1831 was one to 118 in England. — RlefcMB,tt. 
p. xxxiv. 

t Mr. Ricknian has given a eorrected table of the anaoal iiiiijwUm s 
all the marriagee to the population of England in the seversf ooaalia 
between the vears 1706 and 1800, between 1800 and 1810, betwssn ISM 
snd 1830, and between 1896 and 1890, separately enumerating theai, p 

t The proportion between 1836 and 1830 may he classed aeoording S 
thair numbers, thus:— 




Torit, East Ridiug 

York City and Ainsty 

Warwick . 




Leicester . 




Yorii West Riding 

Sonthsmploa . 































York, North Riding . 












Weatmoreland . 



• • • 





• « • 



m., xxzH 

The comparative proportiona in each of the other three periods of AfS 
d(Ar ilvn tfcM and fton es«kk QtiUK Va. sssaA^ vraei eaaatf. 



tooUier eonatiiw, we iod 

Ib Vttmtmt m 18S7, Um amuMl nur- 

nlrrit>»<d to tw AM Ib 148, but 

BputoMDls froBi 1 in 100 in the 

in 108 in that ef La Manche-f The 

yean in FWice waa 1 in ISl.t In 

froBil inllOiolinliS.^ In Den- 

I m to 1 in 108 ;H andin the Netber- 

nnaber of 1 in 00 in the Ftonnce of 

^wuitity, or 1 in 160 in Eaat Fknden.i' 

lh« MeptrtlMM of lh« vtelt, fa aU 
m$ iitlM tahae loeBlber, was m one to ISS betweea 1796 aad 1800 ; 
«ila Bl tatwen Uto aed 1010; aad MO lo ]f7 betweea 181«aai 1890. 
kaHHteMM hai tkmtm ■arriiam la tiM line Ibe yeara. Mat only 

■ lamxaniWWma ao aMay ao oea la 99 ; Md^iadia eaBlivo 

^■LaealaOft^— JUdnn. flk 

fedadiqf Pafla. 9« la 1060. or 1 la 109. 

' voca 6^1 aad 8-Ot. 

•• 7-97 aad 7-00. 

*• O-OOaadO-lO. 

9*98 aaa SvO*,, 

., the ■Mlliif, wai Iha iipartaiiil of U lianehB» 

«9m I ia 198 only iMi anrriod.— BolL Uair^ 1898, p. 17. 
I nam 1817 le tsn.— Mr. Foitei^ Eaaay 9Mr tboPwUoL 
$ Itaaa a evarafBoTtety 9«m,on«BC 1919, la ibo Alyiao 

aei III; la Iha lawar dMcia, 141; bat la tbo aMilo mi 

1 la 118.— BqIL Uatv.» 1811, pu 


tiaa aoHcod it to the Blatiadeal Ooelecy :— 

179610 1900 
1809 to 1919 
1019 to 1890 


lie 191 
1 la 191 
1 la 197 
1 la 198 




East ditto 
Autwoiu • 
nriaialt • 

LUnlmrg . 

. • 198 

. . 169 

. 199 

. . IM 

. . 90 

. . 190 

. 151 

. 190 


The divenity it m greit elMwhere.* Of all tbeae naii* 
tioned proportions, the two extreme limits seem to be 1 in If 
and 1 in 176. 

Our own average proportion of 1 in 1S8 may be tekoi M 
the most general medium of the number of annual 
in a very prosperoua and civilized conununity ; bat at 
rate, only one fourth of the whole population would have i 
ried in thirty-two years : and if every marriage had an ai 
of four births, which we shall see in our next letter to biTft 
fair general medium, all jthese marriages would prodxaem im 
more than would be sufficient to replace the departing |HM^ 
ation, without adding to it ; and if we allow a generatton to 
last, on the whole, for thirty-three years, the addition 
be but a hundred and twenty-eighth part. Hence, with 
a ratio of marriages, it is impossible that the geometrical 
should occur. 

But while the proportion of marriages in every eonotiyi 
and in every part uf a country, is left to the aibitraiy wfll oi 
the one sex to propose and the other to accept, and to aD Iha 
variations which occur from the differences and fluctoationa of 
individual inclinations or decisions, yet there are obvious Un- 
its in the practical exercise or effect of these determinatiQai. 
These limits appear in the two extremes of the proportions in 
which marriages take place, which I have just noticed as the 
greatest and the smallest of those I have referred to. I om- 
not state, with decisive precision, what the very lowest and 
hiffhest of these two extreme numbers are ; but I can say tlwt 
I nave not found marriages anywhere to be in number to 
great as 1 in 80 of a community, nor so few as 1 in 190 taf^ 
where. These great extremes rarely occur. The more nsod 
proportion seems to be, that from 1 in lOOtol in 140 of 
most civilized populations annually enter into this state. Hit 
most numerous proportion, you will observe, does not ap- 
proach the possibility of producing the geometrica] ration nd 
therefore the quantity of marriages in any country need neftC 
alarm us into any discouragement of them. 

But there is one decisive limitation to marriages, nrnver- 

^ sally produced and universally maintained, by an unvaiyiiv 

law of nature, specially appropriated to this subject, and nzM 

* Thus, in Fceland, 1 in 133 ; in Russia, 1 in 198.— 4 Sadtar, flOL la 
^wtdea, i /o iJjS; in Norway, 1 in 130 *, aa^Va^toYa^ teVwai, 1 la Mil 



>"-dhniia werid ban imI bcm nconlMl. 
<i irf «»ahfad ■lU rthydrtti gi, ib«;r btrs 
» MntUot oftUbijjiKj to 

InjMikB PHironcof thHn,MlrCf •jwitimier b 
^HiMtai ynu Mid &• Mniv TMT or tU« ray w 
■IHpIm AindM of llbray dadlHi and w 
HiM« | ywtwlli»wrMi«flUg«BmleoallBBtty. Tlie 
mmAmmbOUj «f baeonAf awthm ImO, In ow regiona, 
Im MlM to mt*4m nan of m*. In tte •Mttrn tnd 
Ml W|<Lal MBBtriM, It eonmMtiGM M»d MmiMtw aootwr. 
lU A> MM ■bnw niMlioiMd rnqr be eoMldcNd u Ibe ordl- 
Mjfcili oT lb matwrnt «Ut«. Conaaqnntljr, Ow IncreaM 
rfw f fulaHaw anywhaw caa nvrei ba graalar than anch aa 
te jiMWlOM of «a Inalaa albnra who an batman ibeas 
■pit Lal«,aaa,aMe(naUaiwbatpo(ti(mofwaiiunina 
■Mrm Moal^ in tUa Miiad oTlbaii lib. 

fa Ifotk AiBMicB wa nad, from the eaoaaa lakan >l foor 
In—id pMkMla, Hat In IMW abma iluaa alabiha af ttM r«- 
■ha wan batwaan Ift and 40 ;* and naat^ a» in IHIO.t 
laAar BWra Ibaii tba aama piaportlon agipaarad ia IBM.t 
la MM Iha canwa taUa, auiing the agaa, gl*aa tham in a 
Mhm dhlaton, tDd nakaa no dlaihetkin batwaan 4o and 
H. I aawMt pmava tba aaact eompwlMni Ihara^ but dw 
AMaaawading propoitiona will be milFvient lo l aaaan apan. 
IfeMa Ana ^ptba of all ttw American women ba*a had lo 
Miaajaea a MW fanaiatioo of aa many aa theoiaelTae, ■■ Ihe 
Mw tea ai(Uia of their own MX and ■■ all Ifaa aale popula. 

•Tka MkNa aapaWlaa 1 1tW ww( tmni m oanlala MlMll b- 
MMtarifeMTuw hwalw «f M aa4 an4« a wwi iM.TN; ibiM 
iMs.^ ife. _k^ •_iM »ida w TBa.»>. 

t%Sli,W>; modal liml,l.Wflt* 

( Tta wtMemwiaiMn of JK 
>M If U aaiHiaw 40 wm 


Mlkal^rtH wmiia M» tan (.neaJtlR. ThgH<r Wurfumlcr M 

•HBM»4H Bw*. TaMibair*rihH»tou,taiiHiipi>wx iMNii 
aaaw «fc — wttaB^ ™m iw, a» Iwa aaa »w Mrtw * »^^. 

d4 TBS lACRXi) aisToar 

turn. We can radnce all theta to pndae inmihii% taA} 
whan we do ao we find that OTery AmeEkaa woipMi \m^. 
tween 16 and 45 must piodace 4 1-4 childien, in ohUr tow- 
nee the axiatuig population and to pcerent ita dacfiq*.*^ 
Thna, if eTery American woman who could hafa chiUHii' 
were to have 4 1-4, they would only ke^ up the popnlatk^ 
but not at all enlarge it. I take America aa the sCraagMl, 
case that can be adduced on the aubject, and alao aa thtf i^ 
which the numbers have been so diatinguiahed aa to allbid tkt 
elements of an exact calculation, t 

Let us see next what a country in the Old Wozldt <>» Iha 
German continent, exhibits on this subject. I wQi tdoi 
Saxony in 1834. Her census has not given the »pi«ff*li«M 
from 16 to 45, but it has noted them from 19 to 60, wtiA 
we will take as the nearest substitute. Here we find tkit 
the same population could not be m ai n tained, eren withMit , 
any increase, unless every woman between 19 and 60 hadL 
upon the average, 4 1-2 children ; but, as a large part of thMt 
would not be in wedlock, each of those who were mnat haft 
many more than 4 1-2 each in order only to replace.! liut 

*Tht whole white popolatioo of 1800 of both ansa I 

amounted to | 

Dedoctinc ftom this 8H^ni 

as the number of sll in the eommnnlty who ware not 
10 and 45 ; thia number is about 4 1-4 times the 800,700. ▲ 
salt will be fbuod fkom the amoaot of the ocher years, as i 
pieeeding notes. 

t In the state of New- York the eensns in 18M lecwnad the 
lation as 1^16,438, consisting of 8SS,807 males and 701,861 fti 
Of these females 301,694 were under 10, and of thaes abave M tta 
married were S00,481, and the unmarried 130,101. TInm lbs woisal 
fomaieo were but one eisbth of the whole popalatlon, aad aaaily sia 
Iburth of their own sex. In this luroportioo, those actasUy mmft 
eoold not replaee themedves and the rest of the eooMMntty airiMi 
eaeh, upon an average of the whole, had eight dtfUbrao. 

t The whole population of 8axony on the let Denen ib s r, IflM, mi 
l,50ft,e08,or775,M4 males and 880,4^ tbuMles. ThsmnribarsTftMlai 
between 10 and 50 are thus stated :— - 

10 to SI 18,871 

SI to 80 124^487 

80 to 40 110,IM 

40 to 50 87,78P 


4 M to each of these would produee 1,560,850, belif asariy IMP 
alfort oftiie actual populstlom 

' « womLb. 95 

^MrftoMlilillaA AaMri8taB4 Suony Mem to ap- 

Mte hiif* lie on tlwee Mints in our own country t 
tdenoliiiielBlile of the femeletgee between 16 and 
Ifc Bmi llir. Rkfanen Imm made one» wuh divisions, for the 
WVlHlv timt win eiMhle ns to take, as tlie nearest substi- 
iailk efebv i5to40,ori0to60. Letns inqaire into the 
•f btdi. The resolto will be found to be, that every 
15 and 40 most bsTs above 6 chUdron to re- 
•lie UHf population ; or every woman between 20 
Ml. on m sreiage, be mother to 6 1-7.* Yet as a 
pMtion of these would not be in the wedded 
Bomben eould not be kept up, miless the 
had each as many as the American and 
Jnsfsnpee, eo distinct in locality ftom each 
«• sneh hk and sufficient specimens or the general 
and eoone of the renewal of population, that it is not 
to iniuife lor similar results elsewhore. These 
mve this iiiyoesiWIify of a geometrical {KMpulation, and show 
W whel gndaal de gr ee s all national multiplications must take 
■Mil ena lead ne to infer how much more likely population 
■ to keep stetionsry or to lessen, than to make anv great ad- 
Naloie Idibids the too rapid increase b^ her two 
i fimeles only riiaU give ths new generations to so- 
dktft end thel only a peculiar portion of thc«e shall, from the 
■ n quii n d , ever be the proaucing mothers. 
• wuk point of in|uiiT vomj be, what portion of the popu- 
of a ooQBtry is usually living in the married state ; and 
rate at which we can generally estimate 
this eppeeie to be about one third. In some nations there 
then one third who are married, as in Spaint and 

• Ths whsis BijeliHsB la BnslsDd sad Waloi Is ISSl wai 10,530,671, 
•.ItUW BBSlss and U7B,AI» ISmalM. TImms of Um latter 
) and AO art thw siatad :— 

Ulsie 616,500 

• 001,tW 

• 040,607 

• 600.007 

1 Rlek., xxxTii. 
or IhsB^ Ihs U IS 10 taelaslvs sn 8,066,414, and those fkom 10 to 49 are 

^biMt scsMd tlM poiNrisilea or Spain ta IWI la ba \Q^C^jS\^\ 
SBi insr «r*os» J^MMei wen ■srrMTeiiA sT Ite «nwmS«^ vx^ 


Saraj.* Inothfln,z»tlierlM«thanaMdiiid,MfiidM , 

provinces of Prussia ;t ina French departmentl and a MflthHl 
tend province ;^ and still less in New-York state.!) Tbai|Mi{ 
general average, we may cdculate that about one tkodof-W 
whole are always living in the united state. This Myptuai0 
have been the case pretty nearly in England for tba infe1M[ 
years ; f and when this is the proportion, then one aztk of W 
contemporary population are in the condition of heeoaiif. 
motheiB ; and tins one sixth must be the reprodneen of Iki 

t^fim were nwlss and S,a0S,lM wers Ibmstos. Ons WMefilp 
wbcOe people would have been 8,400,050; so that the smsisd WHif 
little above 3 I-S. 

* In December, 16S4, oat ef tbe Sazoo pomriation sT ljnt0B *■» 
were M6^ oarried and 1,088,831 UBmacrML The one thM flftf 
vroald have been 53 1 337. j 

t In 1888 the population of the Pmssian provinces on Clie Um wm 
•,171,545. The married couplea were <KM,nO peraons. Tbe SM MM 
weeld have been 794.181. The departmeot of L'Aime In Fnmm li 
1818, bad 184,814 married persoaa out of a populstion ot JBBJM Wl 
Univ., 1880, p. 80. One tblrd would have been 153,988. 


t In the department Da Dooba in 1680 the jiopalatiMt waa Wi^i 
•ad tbe married of these were 88,871.— Boil. Univ., 1881, p. Ol. Hi 
one third would have been 84,771. 

% Giielderland in 1834 contained 883,407 petqile ; of wbOB 8M0 
were then married.— Bull. Univ., 1887, p. 101. One tbini wooM kaiO 
been 94,400. ^ 

U In the New- York state, as before mentioned, the avmbsH sf d L 
were 1,010,458 ; and the married were, oT course, twias lbs aanM r 
women, or 400,008, which is not one fourth of the whole. 8e tbsl, li 
thiaAoarishing province of the Unhed States, men do not marry as«M 
or so soon as elsewhare. . I 

IT Tbe standlnf marrisfes, if doubled, ftimish os witb the wmamtt 
the married population in every year, aa thaa calculated on Ifr. MM 
Hatorihem in Eoffland,vol. ii., p. 840. The marriafes sT lbs javMl 
baUig teeludad awl eonvarad wHh tbe pepalatlDa Mlbs4lBM^*v«» 
Uhit to ns theae numhera :— 


1781 8,457,444 7,f7S,600 

1701 3,035,072 8,175l000 

1801 8,850,554 SJBt^iM 

1811 . . 3,970,810 * . MM,fl8» 

Tbe eanet oAe third of the English population in eadt of ' 
would have been :— 

1781 8,401,009 

1701 8,785,009 

1801 9,777,144 

1811 8,183^909 

So that the married, in England, at each of these periods, 

000 CbM ar tbe tehabitama, or rather Imss than one otand In ttetvpslM 
Mf/ecm; rather mera in lbs two Vwa. 

CflMtqatmlf , to 4p ta •fw^f wtdM ib* 
ftp M tW w^mag^ IfMOM ehfldno, fa ordw to 
*• pfpobtlM to ito «iMm Boii^bw, •■4 mora dm 
Ihfa CM b« cMBintoi. 1fiiMftkii0tTtnM,aB4 

• |2^ to lh« poMiU% tff ftfMMliied 

aeeodfaf todMMtonl tewfof Mr^ 

• mdmuj habit of BMnritgo unioiio. It loodt no to 
wmlmf that popoktioii Imm booD moeb oftonor it*- 
faa nnltipljruig fa tho •aeeoofffo ifw of tho world. 

Ifaynrtono tfiowditt omr •jrotom Imm boon km^ 
mtM pfan if to tUi great pofot of oor popdation. 

• fanpliea and fadlcatea ragnbtioii ; ibr wboii nato- 
riaa and tbeir ofteta ariao from apaetfe eoBilraettoBt 
H that ttmito tbem but tbe eonatnietorl and why 
i4» aobnt Ibr aomapurpoae and aeeoidfaf to aam« 
k Pigular aad eontfaoed Hmitation k a mm «f • 
jaafan and of an and atoadfly pwoBoA Tha oiiat* 
ncB a faet aaauaa Hi of tba aupeifatoadiBf atlOBtfan 
PBBlor to tbo aubiaet §o gnaidad ; and wo may tbai»' 
ttmAAuA, that wbatbar onr popolatioiia faeraaao or 
dto ofamonto and laws by which eithar ovont ODOoaa 
ya db«3rfag the direcikm of hia gnardian banoroloiieo. 
' i l wa ja mif tfat iwno mrfmrhi^ to hia diapoaaLf 

ar CM aMfftapMf I bafa sndfavodfad ta ttOM aot 
tlMa, Mi wtU add wIhi tea tiiawid lo awta 

m^mjnl m loa, mm •aacia aa la at jb t aai p a y a iii aa lar 
aM^wfeMiaMirMiflMii imim aiwaOidavacMa tvaafaavailtaf 
^mwnuft MM mhn of /Mfiy m cImm nMla. mm iMrd sT Um 
awM bava aiarrtod. aad tMaparaaaar aaaiMrwIII tavaill 
laf ika MttaCf ainaaf tlMa. 

maHymmrtmdt In dw waiw of a iwnrMlia 
I •» il !•• tIaiM cl* MHNMl aaaNNv. 

w mta didaw m a rate, itai a0r«rdlfia ai dw prtpartteaaf 
I to aMVf ar iMi ihaa I la 100^ M iMi ar aMia itaa MM MN af 




Or the Proportion^ Birtka to Mmnit^^.—l%t Tmi 
Countriu,—Tkt etta b l i o ko i Limuia to tkoot «Ml 

My dbar Stdnbt, 

The proportion of Birthi to nunitm will be ahngtMi 
of the chief lawa of human popuUtion, oecanae, u tbaj m^ 
arise from the connubial asaociationa, and are ahtrnji 
by the laws of death, they are limited by our netan ~ 
both in their oriffin and in their depazture, and mui 
be duly adjusted to them. 

More cannot arise than the maniagea all ow m ow 
be at any time on the earth than the locml, netimi, mi H* 
porary laws of death permit, in OTery district. TIim.M 

fined in number, on either aide, by causes <»Ter wlock Afl 

have no control, the continuance, as well •• the ii 

the human race, will depend principally on the 

ratio of the nativities to the wedlock of the peicute if Al 


From this glance at the real state of this TOhiti>t^ |ii 
reason will perceive that the births of the hunea -watt ^ 
every country, require the adjusting and providing ean^ M' 
only at the commencement of the creation, bat alw^ lAv 
ward. The adapting government must not ceetoe ae hi|i 
the human race are to continue here under their ptWMft ijl 
tern of bein^. To make continued care on thi^ poi^ m 
necessary misht have been easily efiected by eotabUiH^ 
as a universaT and invariable law, that every wmuiTSiV 
years of marriage, should everywhere, invariably, Iwfa Ih 
same number of children; and consequently, tint tftf 
marriage should always have one ratio of birtha, 

one temb of the one third. When the ratio Is, as la BmlanL 1 to fl 

then lees than one third are married ; leas by the flJlfcf aiSiifa >■*■ 

and twenty-ei|htb part to a hundreiUh part. 

The births, if known, multiplied by their nrnportian la tks 

eopulatioQ, will gire the number oTtbieee ; and lUa aomhar m 
y their ratio to thepopolatioa, will, of ooorae, ahow tta wtole i 

oftbo community. 

IViieo ilie doeummu axawni cooqMtaNia^^aM 
may assist the calcuiittoaa ftomtSbMa. 


•r m wouD/ 


H fk$ ymi 9i lit doBitioii. But tliit foAty of number and 
wuvwmUj sfokUd. It » one of the laws of 
on tfaio rabieet, that ovcnr woman and every mar- 
BOi bnvo an oquaiitr of offiquring. The annual 
of hnnnn birtha and their proportion to marriages 
onilbrm ; not onljr aa betwoen coontiy and country, 
kit M b o t if o o B one part of the aame conntiy and another 
MrtioB of it, and alao aa between individuala. There is no- 
mta§ Kho • aettled and analteraUe ratio in thia respect any- 

tUo eatabliahed diversity, deep seated in the very 

^ ioQ*of hnman natuio, the uierences may allowably be 

ihnt the Cvaator did not mean to make hia future at- 

iad aup ag int ondence unneceaaary ; and- that, so far 

^Jag a geoBietrical or any tyrant ratio over a subject so 

ooneoniiiw individual aa well aa social comfort, he has 

M^ loft tma in a free and floating state, untubjected to 

aooHMMVo nocoaaitY, in order that ne mig^ always shape 
jmoah it, as hie plana ahoold require, as to each com- 
MBJty al bifgo, and as hia personal providence and adminis- 
laliM aa to ovoiy one*a domestic ufe should deem it to be 
UbiduaOj expedient 

Hm proportions of births to marriages continually and 
mhmmluj diffor. I will aelect a few inatances from authentic 
itions to show this remarkable circumatance. 
vaoations In human birtha fully appear in those of our 
iIhmL During tha thirty years preceding our last 
^^ they wore never in the same annual amount, nor al- 
ma is a staadv progreaaion with the increase of the popu- 
hni^ though, m the general series, they augmented with it. 
oeeasional vibrationa may be seen in Mr. Rickman^s 


TIm p w yo f tM Hi of these births to the marriagea of the cor- 
la Bi^laad iw thirty ysan, bstwssa 1601 and 1630, 

. 106,8ftS 

. 104^7 

. lOl.OM 

. SU.482 

. S18,i'U0 

, M4,031 



1610 . . 


1811 . . 


ISlfl . . 


IMS . . 


1814 . . 


1815 . . 


1810 • . 


MIT . . 


ItU . • 




ratponding year ii it times Tery itrikingly alterad.* GimI 
Tviations are also sometimes obsenraUe, if yea compin tfet 
nativities of the following year with the weddings of the |»- 
ceding one ;t so that, ^ichever way you view the siApd^ 
diversity, and not fixity, ha# been the law attached to mtm 
in this department of its operations. 
The average proportion of births in England to the po^ 



1819 .... SSS^l 18t5 . 

1820 .... 343.600 1890 . 
1891 . . 355.307 1837 . 
18SS . . . . 373,571 1898 . 
1893 .... 309,760 1890 . 
1884 ... . 371,444 1630 . 

—making tocetber 9,887,404 baptUms.— Riekm., xxi. 

Ilere we And an increase, in the second y^r, of 90^M, and In Ihs 
of 90,971 ; Uien aagaienUng 484 only in dw Uiird, aadf sinkhMflMli 
tlie fourth, and 98b more in tlie flttb, to rise in tbe next by MIC sii 
to lessen again 4930 in tbe following year. Similar vseUlaitaos ssisr 
•mid a general angmenution, wbicb afterward ends wlib aa ktmmm 
of birtbe of 145,031 in tbe Isst year beyond die namber la IhsiMtf 
this series. 

* The registered msniages in England (imn 1800 to 1830 

1801 . 

. 67,988 


1809 . 

. 00,396 


1803 . 

. . 94,r9 


1804 . 

. . 85,738 


1805 . 

. . . 79,586 


1806 . 

. . . 80,754 


1807 . 

. 83,923 


1806 . 

. . . 89,369 


1809 . 

. 83369 


1810 . 

. 84,470 


1811 . 

. . . 86,389 


1819 . 

. 82,066 


1813 . 

. 83.860 


1814 . 

. 924W4 


1815 . 

. 90,944 










Tbe amoant of all these marriages for these thirty ysens to JJHjUfL 
— Riekra. Pop. Abet., toI. i.. p. xxxir. 

On comparing ibeee with the baptienM of the saone yoaiv, ws lad 
that to 94,379 marriagen in 1803 were 994,108 biitha ; while la Ite Mil 
year only 85.738 weddms* hed nearly the same number la fi4,9R; aad 
In the following yenr still less marriages, 79,586, had 909,901 bnCiiMS ; 

while, in 1812, there were only 82.066 weddings to 301,954 Mrths. 

t Thus 84,470 marriages in 1810 were followed by 304,897 bMhi IB 
1811, while near 2000 more marriages in thai year had 9000 less iss* 
tisms in tbe year after ; so 8000 fewer marriages Ln 1810 pnidaesi UN 
more births in 1817. 

The differences between the marriages of 1815 and 1817, and the Mflhs 
of tbe eonaeeatiwe years, are stUi more sinUAf , Ox 99,ii>44 aMrriMMia 
J8i3 wen ibiloi^ by 330,IW Mnta Vn \«V«, w^\» \»^fl^ wS^ 
ooirin 1817 wera 331,384 bafOsnia \n \«\%\ ^tel>tt«\\;i\« Ivmtwm 
ilVM wete foUowed by 1185 more b^iOia. 

OF THE WQllXJ). 10] 

vlatian was also foand to differ m even' rouniy e* f^rn 
cexkBUE : noi ohIt one county nioetiv iruii- aiiotii*': nu- aim. 
frequently from itKlf. at tm fo'.i: M-vvra utrceiiiufa ii^nuu- * 
So the average Bumniariet' of al: in* cuuniiHK pu* iijjtrv.t*- a* 
each enimieiation.* wen diavinnia: pruou«'iii^' i '-ii!:',:iiua 
difference in the reiativt niuniM.T> bik pruiiuniuii> v lu'- iiirtij 
to the amouni of tin pupuiaiiui. v lu* cuuum 

Bni. allhough the average- pruiwnio: o' nsrtn- \- iji^":jt»«- 
in £ngLaud vanec ni every cuuiiiv ye' iih reMi: v n. Ma 
estimated by Mr. Kirkiuax. u- im.. lua' 44 fiiiiui»- \\*-f 
upon tlie whole, liie ii*«u(- of lU(i iu»rTi^*->. %.*• nu' <{-iiL< Hf 
and a half to eacii weddirjf.I 'I':u> may u*- ian*r: «> iif piv.-- 
ent Hiandard of Englaud't! contribuiiui. it iii> imp; luiiiui u 
the world. 

Xiet UB now observe wha: Ua avenij!i- prupuriiu:. v «iirtii> u 
xnarnafres iiat- been fuuiici lo b«- ii oiiier rtrviun- u in' Murk: 
We have a nerieb of deiaciied iiuuiiier> iw vixi-.-ivu- v««I^ «> u 
the former kingdom of Pruiwui auc uucny uf LuUiuaiii«i am 
in these we find tiiai tiit ioweei raliL' %^a^ tnre* anc un*- titii 
and the lai^^est and mos^ recen: t iiitif mur* xuui. i\\* birtir 
to each mama^tA makm;:. t»r a: avt-saot f j_ in. mm. 
ibor years, four cuiiurei. auo «. quarie' li e\ef'- wfuum;- i. 
that populatioi..i 

* Bee Mr. Rickman'v eorreeiec labn^ of iii<- li%*- >«llr^ iHrtKiiiij- «MCi 

reram, toL. l., p. ZXXL TtHr lOU* lini' i|ih% u* viI*:> «•> u -\0tr* mi*:; 

iTWi-ibuo itW(-iHi{ jiMi.-i';« iNeL-isat 
Bedfbrd . . . 3& &' s: y.. 

Berkf . . . M 3? s: »L 

BDcke . . . r . se X 3: 

Cambridre . . 3? . 8i 3( 21 

^ Tlir four Bverafw oii eaci. omuauh «r«ft- iw itW »• . Ut' JbJ( 
3S : for 14S0. 3:^ : for i»i3l 34 — HiciLfi. 

% Pop. Abot.. 1631. vo. :.. p. xi« 1'Im wtplMiiis w«i» a^ Mr u JU* 
BiamBpn : but uddiig intr aii-ouir tin l••rtll^ lua* wei* hiiu»i ih> i« 
be iiwenad in (be cbureu regiMerfe. iii«> wet^ iw> abut* viau». 

J^ BoMniilcb't- Tabiw. cupiec- ii. badivr. vu. x . ( ItT. lurnuiii ut, m 
cniatinf rroot tiieni. tbe Ibliowiiif; auiiua avtrragiw . - 

16(13 u» JfitfT . 

. 3 %-b oirtub 

rsT 11 I's: 

4 <-4 binufe 


. 4 

17 Si: u !?SI 

«: :-: 

1703 10 not 

. 4 S-5 

ITS' ^ rr 


. 3 \-b 

•73k I« 1':4'. 

:- i:-ii: 

1712 in 171f. 

. 4 1-3 

i';4:' u '■:4i 

■; i;-: 

1717 10 1721 

4 ft-U> 

iw u- ri' 

f. V-: 

173S to ITSTi 

. 4 4-7 

175-_ u I76t 

. ; \\-v- 

i; All Umt nATTiafRif ouru^^ Utit- peruK. auiuuiiUH. vv ',»\xi,*)V. .m» Wir 
Vbi^ w IfMB^ms, w^teb aake au av«nicc of uaatiN Ums «m^ ^ ««ftiM^M 


In Fnno«i AflocceMum of twenty J9umf firom 181t to IMS 
incluiive, yiekla bq innual ATeraee of above thiree andm hdf ;* 
and for five sequent yean, ratner more than one in iiNr.f 
One of the latest nearly four.l So that fitom three and ft 
half to four children to every manriage is the r^obr ai on fi 
of the annual addition of the female world in Franco to tm 
amount of its population. 

Russia varies most in this respect in her diflbrent pro^ 
inces ; for in one it was not much above two,^ and in anraMT 
neaiiy five, II while, in that of Moscow it was above fifO.T 
Three of the latest years that I have seen detailed, when ilf 
numbers have appeared to be most augmenting, yielded ft 
ratio between five and five and a quarter.** 

to every wedding ; at four and a quarter tbey would have been l^Slylll 
Divided into years, these nambeis five an averafe of 54S5 mtrriifH 
and 83,256 birOie for every year , and this eompatation prasenta a m^ 
lar annual average of nearly four and a quarter. 

* 'I'he annual averages for these twenty years, flroro let Jaeaarv, ISM, 
to Slot December, 1820, were 49,885 marriages and 181,333 l«gtri«<i 
binhs. Tbe ratio of three and five eighths would make 180^30; bOI V 
we add the M87 illegitimates, the whole amount of births would hs tfet 
anniul average of 101,019, which are still under four to each.— Ar. BaU. 
Univ., 1831, p. 157. 

t The five yean fur all France, dram 1833 to 1826. present S18,917h«- 
rlages and 802,677 births ; four and one twelfth would be 810,911. 

i France in 1831 had 246,438 marriages and 086,700 binha.~Nsir 
Farm. Jour., Jan., 1834. Four to each would be 985,753. At 

in 1886 the marriages were 888 and the births 3771, which an ass^ 
fbnr and a quarter to each wedding.— Ami des CbanpSjl8l7, pwUh 
In the department of Douay, 1839, the marriages were 6740, and do 
legitimate births 20,230, a ratio of nearly four and one ttaiid^-Bal. 
Univ., 1826, p. 147. Haute Vienne, in 1826, marriages 3940 and Mflfti 
0807, which ore not quite three and one third to each marriafs.— BaH. 
Univ., 1831, p. 157. Dep. Lor in 1826, the average was not qoile iMf: 
and in Dep. Doubs, 1820, it was four and a quarter.— BnlL Uaiv., Ml, 
p. 330. The Dep. du Nord in 1820 had 6746 marriages and SV^M 1** 

Sithnate births, or four and one third.— lb., 148. The statistical amswaf 
1 the ** Revue Eocycl.,*' May, 1825, and Oct., 1836, stated tbs Btfis 
fbr all France to be then 408. In fifty-two departmenta, ftniB tfes 
Haute Pyrenees to the Somme, to be flnom 4*00 to 4*01 ; and in twantf- 
elght, flpom Fan de Calais to ('alvados, 3*00 to 3*16. -In three It was Ifa; 
and in two, 5-20 and 5-47.— Rev. En. 

$ In the bishopric of Pultowa. 1824, the marriagea were 80,196 aid 
the births 65,706, or two and one sixth.— Hertha, 1825. 

11 In the bishopric of Woronesk in 1824 the marriagea wars UkfiK 
and tbs births 81,675.— lb. 80,502 would be four and three quartsra. 

IT In the government of Moscow in 1824 the marriages were flOM, 
the bhths 52,176.— Uull. Univ., 1826, p. 55. Five and a quarter UrChi 
to each marriage would make 52,101. 
** Jn 1833 the marriages of all Rua^ka w«t« %\:a& axA >Qm \taAa 


Hm kingdom of ihm Nethcriandi, now dividfld into tba two, 
Iribnd and UcJgium, |inNluG<*d four uid t hdf in it» aoutb. 
«■ provincM, Mid Minowhat Icm than Uiia iii tho iiortharu 

hrt of luly fiimiiihR(I variouii iiroportioiM from four to fivo.f 
portioiM of Spain iiot much aliovf; thron.^ Moiico vx- 
a aimilar ratio. ^ SiluMJa Ii^mi ihaii fivo ;|| and tbu Prim- 
Proviiircs on tin lihiiH; thnm and oimi tliird ;5 whilo i*or- 
UmiI had al»ovf) Civv.** 

Tba avcraf(K in Nortli AinfTira funru'rly, for fifty- four yf.'arN, 
ma under four ami a half, acronliii^ Ui l>r. It waa 

IMSjMS.— He. Prif rab. Journ., 1N39. The ratio oT five and ona tiintii 
«aald proriui*e l,Mlft,4Al- In lh34 ihf! wIhi1«i inarrla|M were M!I^3(K 
Md ifei birtha^8.-^Hi. I'Mrnib. Journ., 18M. 'I'be ratio of five 
mi a faarter wvuM bave yielded l,Ui3,8Hit. lly the renaue of imo. Mr. 
mnarka, the iiiarriaxra are elaliMl lo have bran 317,Mlft and the 
l,ft70,3fW, vol. U., p. M. Theae am nearly five lo a marriage. In 
Kenaan** arrouni, ijuoled by Mr. Mailhua, vol. 1., p. U% of tbe 
■I ptacNW ha mentkNia, the ratio of' hirihe le only thrre in aeven of 
Ana; lour in aia Mbera ; and In Tobtilak, five durhiK fbur yeara; and 
n Iba neat year, I7H3, n. Mr. Tookn'M I'aMe flir i7tfU, r.ited by Mr. Mai- 
ibai, vnl I., p. 979. preaenta the inarrleK^* of that year aa SI67,A13 and 
111 Mnha ao VUl.Vlft. 'f hta la aa 185 ui t(N), or under one In Ibur, «o that 
il«« waa iwi t*ofiHiant ratio. 

* In the auuihitrii half the ratio waa 4*57 to a inarrlage : in the 
iofibern, i JU.— Hull. Univ. Mr. H«dlnr*e liet, taken fhini UueUilet, 
I ua to diatinciiiiih In thia kiiiffdufn the diffhrent ratloa of ihe tJutch 

Wd Klrmiall tmivinrra. In the eicht Ifulnh oiiim, the proportion waa 
nam 4 3(0 ill ft- «ft. Ill tb« Plemlah (Voui Uniburxh 3 Oil to Kaat Flandera 
Sa.~Hadl«T. vol. II., p. 44«. 

t Trmrte In IH2A had 410marrlagea and IVTO blrtha. The ratio of 
fear and ibrm iiunrtern would iivr 1M7.— Hull. Univ., llOT, p. tflO. 

la Plaioanro in IHM the pro)Niriioii waa fiiur and a half.— lb., 18M, 
p. S4. In Pairnno, for len yeara, inim IMM) to IHIft, 4Uft ; and f>oro Ibltt 
10 MS the larger number orft'4. Ur. f ^alcagnl. ik, lHif7, p. ISI. 

la Iba Paya de Vaud in IMU the marrtegra were It48. The birtba, 
If74.~lb , IWM, p. I3n. At fbur to each marriage they would have 
keaa 4WII. 

3 RarcekNia in IM30 bail 1137 marrlagea and 37ff9 hirtba, or noC quito 
Ihno and (Nir third.— lb . p. 06. 

% At fJuanaxala, in Meiim, In IMS, the marrlagea wera flVTA and 
ihr birtha tV.HliO ; at ihree and oiiii third they would have been S3;S53.— 
Irandy'a Mem. ou (•iianaxeia 

N Mileoia in IHM had 9nV-/4 rnarrlngee and 1(10,143 blrtha; fbur and 
Ikree quartern would give UU,3MI liirilia. - llerituh IHUA. 

1- In tbrae Rhenlah nnivinrea In IHW the marrlagea ware 17,137, Ihe 
birtba 7V,MI.- -Bull. I 'iiiv., IH3<), d. 135 ; m-arly lour and two lliirde. 

** The retMi of Portugal, arronliiig to one arcouiH. waa 5.10. 

tt llr Uartofi'a average of fllty-rirur year* in Maaaaehueatte waa 531 
■arriaira to M47 hirtha. whieh givea a rniMi of not qiula liDUr and one 
Uiifd lo oMib. — Tfmam. Am, i'tul., vol. 1., p. 3(Il 


under five in Canada in 1838 ;• and the list of tbs pranMfl 
of Prussia, in 1784, gives us ▼ariations in each from dM 
three and a half to five children to e^eiy mairiage thit W 
taken place, t In Denmark the ratio is usually foar4 h 
Sweden much the same.^ 

To the above facts I will only tdd another firom oar tnMi^ 
lantic provinces. We have the series of meirugee and hf 
twins in the district of Quebec for twenty-eigfat yean. Til 
annual ratio of the births to the weddings was alwajrs flnclw 
ting ; but the general average of the whole twentynngfat jwi 
was not quite, but very nearly, five and a half to each ■» 
riage.ll This is not a proper specimen of the natural prop*- 
tiou of the births in a native {wpulation ; because they mm 
increased beyond the usual rate by the emijgrants who Mfr 
cessively arrived ;ir but I mention it because it gives theb^ 
CMt proportions of births which any registration contains is * 
long a period. Yet, though swelled in the births by the i^ 
diiion from mothers not married there, but coming from oAs 

* The accoant of 1833, in Canada, was 9873 weddings aai WM 
baptinins.— New M. Mag., Jane, 18S4. Foor and two thlrdi Is ■* 
marriage would be 13,406 births. 

t In 1764, the births to the marriages in the Prassian pravlaeas wn^ 
as calcalaied by Sadler, on the fhcts collected by Boseliing, 

~ " ' Cleves .4*11 

Minden and Bavaosboig Hi 
Magdeburg .4*41 

Neufehiilel ... K9 
Moero .... Ml 
llalberstadt . 4-^ 

Ticklinborg sod Lingea . I* 

West Pmasia and NeU . 601 
Pomersnia . 5*00 

. 513 
. 4-68 
. 4-53 
. 383 
. 4*19 
. 5-10 
t " The registers or Denmark, as quoted by Sussmfleta, tnm ths 
1760 to 1774, give, on an average, 4-80 children to every 

Eaat Prussia . 
New Mark 
Mark Brandenburg 
J-::ast Friesland 
Bileaia and Olatx 

ler, vol. ii., p. S70. But ^ in twenty years aAerward, tlie iiiaisllrtsi 
having conalderably augmented, it was reduced to 4-04 to one.'^-lk, » 
486. In 1830, the marriages were 10,774 and the biitha 43;M0k ot bshq 
four to a marriage. 

^ In Sweden, ftom 1740 to 1763, there were 315,509 marrlaav «i 
M13,955 Iwrihs.— Wargentin, 1766. 2 Sad., 383. This is mbsralsn 
four and one sixth to each wedding. The Ave years flrom 1891 Is NH 

frive the numbers of 9S,772 marriages and 05,706 birtlis, whleli ara ssbIJ 
our births to every nuirrisge,— Bull. Univ. Sad., 487. 

II The whole marriages ftom 1704 to 1891 Inelosivs werelOLftli: «i 
all the baptisms I12,000.^Bouehette*s Brit Dom.,voL i., p, ML Al 
five and a half to each marriage the births would have been 111jB16l 

*r To this cause I would ascribe the ratio, being ftnir tlmsa six Mi 
three times six and a half. The lowest proportioo was ftnir and «• 

ftp profiDoe of 

CT1M6 noClMD ^"T' 

of oar 

pRMOOtt. Ab 

imiiiitfti win tne pnaw 
of tlieir ptodnee, iMi '* 

For, •■ a InaslaA 

Dotlisui ^ 

is intended ill • newly 4Mdl d 
inezesse. Esdiof 

phce, on Ae i nlie ef t^ tirtfai 1^ ii far the 
in Ae psitki iJt 

josted, to 
poipooe. J 
pwths to ^ 
Il» fanes of 


To Hw Ihe deeihe hevo to be ndr 

nenylitnly wilb the 

MNBoe with thei of thr 

i,oe theypiondethe BMiiiriefaop wlHeh 

toonento,and to fihoh tbeee 


VMM amfMMfeo,ill taneltve; er« UMf 
w« ■■mSi SI ■■nanf *OMt wty ■npvny ■■** 

tto «Mil BMfMtiMi of flMw et Vev«)r «to m 
towtaff flhr^Sr«MMOTi «e«nB Mto tor ell 



idjnsted, according to what the plan requires, for each 
spective country. 

These limits are the assigned means or established laws hf 
which all undue multiplications and all undue diminution m 
alike prevented. The producing marriages are limited by tki 
maternal ages of the female world, and uierefore by that pn^ 
portion of women who are living in their contempcuraiy pojpo- 
lation of these ages. The births, from this limited poitioOk 
are again bounded by the two confining ratios just mentimed. 
Thus, before the laws of death begin their operation, the mua- 
bers of mankind are under a natural and perpetual r^ohtioB 
and restriction on their coming into existence here at uL No 
more can appear on earth, to enjoy their human life, than these 
limiting laws of marriage and births admit of. So that humtti 
population begins, from its very origin, under strictly bound- 
ing, and governing, and adjusted laws. 

But while it is thus confined to degrees and proportiOBi 
which it cannot exceed, yet, within these limits, we perceive 
that it is allowed to vibrate and vai^. It has been made aub- 
ject to be influenced to its diversities by local, personal, con- 
stitutional, social, and other circumstances, which would lead 
us into too much digression to investigate here. But even 
these limitations, which are quite independent of those which 
arise from the laws of death, are quite sufficient to predode 
the possibility of the geometrical augmentation. 

For, as both marriageable women, who can have the mater- 
nal character, and their marriages are only such proportioiii 
to the whole population as were stated in the preceding let- 
ter, it seems not to be possible that a constant natural law oi 
overruling system, reducing the general produce of all the 
marriages of a community to an annual average of less than 
six, from a limited portion only of the female world, can, in 
twenty-five succeeding years, produce so many additicnial 
numbers from any ori^nal population as to double in that 
time. Such a duplication, under this established system, ap- 
pears to be incompatible with such restrictions. But does 
not this plan of fixed general boundaries, and of fireedom to 
vary within them, as the state of each society occasions Of 
may require, indicate a wise and benevolent administration 
of human life 1 The limits as to female mairiageable life, 
and the two limits as to births from it, preserve society from 
wimt, if uiiconfined in eitbei ^vut, v«o\]\!^ \m \iw:Q!Gunfltflnk 

or THE WOBLD. 107 

wiih the providing tyitem oi oar muntenuiee ; at the 
time, the pennitteid dhrendty of the intemiediBte |miportioiM 
gives to our great Director the easy command of h, accord- 
ing to his local and temponrj plans and parpoaea. These 
Tariabilities enable him to increase a people where he chooses, 
and in snch degrees as he thinks proper, or to keep theoj sta- 
tionaiy as lone as that condition suit^ anywhere his designa. 
Hence these differences become likewise the instruments by 
vehich he r^ulates each nation with respect to the other. 
"While one is to be weaker, the smaller ratios operate ; as 
tbey enlarge in others which are intended for the time lo 

Thus, without interfering miracles, these limitary lawra of 
marriage and of births, and the dirersifying mtios within 
these established limits, allow him to place every peopli' m 
the state and circumstances which, for the time, ate moat ex- 
pedient, by natural ^gplication of those natural laws which, 
from the constitution of our frame and world, have been made 
to be api^cable to these objects, and have bcren provided lo 
be so under his superintending care. Is not all tiiis sucb 
satisfactory evidence to us of his wine and provident plans 
and administrations as to human society, as lo niskt- all 
gloomy anticipations or misanthropical s^'slems both unrea- 
sonable and ungrateful 1 

Births TOKj be considered in another point of view : and 
this is, as to their general average proponiuu to the existing 
numbers of a peculation. Let us collect a few mstauccn of 

In England and Wales, this annual proportion has been 
one in twenty-eig^t in the last enumerations.* In f 'ranee, 
taking the whole country, it was one to thirty-one and two 
thirds ; but in the separate departments it varied from one in 
twenty-five to one in forty-three ;t in Savoy, about one in 

* ** Tlie proportion of regii4ered bapcisms to the population ia ■■ one 
to tWity-foDr in England; the iiKTeral eouniien ranfinf brtween one 
in tbirtj-one and one in thiny-eigbt. Including anreaiM^nid birtha. ttie 
p roportion of binbs to the population of Enf 'and and WaicH bw baen 
one in rweniy-cifrbi since the year 18M.** — Riclcman. vol. i., p. xUr. 

t Tbe Compte-seneral for 18M, by the Garde deo 8ceaux, |(i«es theae 
r e a al ta , with the detail a. The department of the Loire had the nioat, 
being one in twenty-flve and two thtrdu persona ; CalvadoH itie feweM, 
being one in fbrty-tbree and one laixf h.— BvH. Univ.. 1888. p. aS-JO. Bo- 
Ibra ths rewlocian, Necker slated the ratio to b« oua u> vwaxai V*« w^ 
a quarter.— AdoDB. Fin., vol. i., p. SM. 


thnty-two ;* in Venice, 
one in twentf-one or nrcnty-fbai.t 
ntio Tuied £nim one in twenty to o 
Kew-Yoik, tlie births were mia ma In Buerie, ^Mt 
tbeir netiTitiee there ntbcr warn tbn 
In Switzerland the pxopoition wee, i 

From these ins to nccs we may infer 
the highest namber that are born in 
and 1ms than one in fifty the lowest 
obserred. Here, acain, ^ipear two 
limita, which prechide any augmmtilion 
beyond these boundaries. So many as 
few as one in fifty, to a population 
the Bctoal nativities which are to form 
are always within these bounding ezbr 

But if we take the lowest of diese, 
to the Makhusian theory ; for if the 
one in twenty in a nation, then a 
be bom ereiy year; and, conseqi 
twenty years to pass before as many 
eqoal the coexisting population. 

* At MaarieDDe, ia Semy, tbs ateiats oT 
tnm 1810, was one m 30-1 ia ths Alpine raftona, 
frouods, and one in ihknj'Vm in the lowsr j 
was cMeflj cBlUvateiL—BBlL Uoir., Joly, I6U, 

t Siffoor Quadri states Ibe aversfo of lbs 1 
the Ave yean from 1819, to bave been one la ' — 

t Dr. Calcagni, ia his Tawiledi Fatal 
ftom 180S, the ratio was one to twenty 
yeare, one in twenty-lbar. 

^ Mr. Sadler has collected the proportion sftlM 
itneleiet. The Duteb portion was fhm the tmm 
Isad lo f7*l in Friesland. The Flemiah pan ^ 
Brabant to 307 at Antwerp.— Sadler, wd. iL, p. . 

11 In the renons oTthe state oT New- York tar 1» 
istaraed to be 1,616,43^ and the birtha 60LS83 fbr 
Kalional Goetie, Feb., 1820. 

V The Greeli f liarcb populatioo of Russia 
40,351,000, and the births oT that year 1,570,309. 

** la the Pays de Vaod it was Ibnnd by Marat 
In one litUe village of only 400 persons it was 
—Malthas, vol. i., p. 381-404. Bat this was too . 
peenliarty situsied lo be any example of a general ] 
istUitbe Jun, St. Gerpie, ''Ukt binhs were a iwi 
^qpnlaijcMi.''— Maithoa, 401. 

or TUB WORLD. lOtf 

to nfiual i« wH U» doulilf! ; i\wfi\Unti twenty inr>rn ynani 
nnic r4l«- of tiirOm iii'irt I'lmiio \tisUnv. On* iniiiilii'ri 
b«' d<iiilflf«l. lint tlifiM; would iiMikf tonfthrr forly 
H«# tliiit Oic KrPMtt-Mt riiiifil#fr Ouii hvvi; Ih^'h known 
ny whrrf Uirii fonl'l not iloiililf lliu |Mi]iiiiiiti«;ii in iwi-n- 

thi« |fro|Kirfifin of oiif in twenty \n m I'k'iiI «nfl ii tutu 
l'\i0: tnui*- rofiinMin |iro|iffrii'ni«t Hri; from oni* in lw<-nly- 
rNt** lo ttiiriv A I (If- mil- of twhty-fivf tt yir-trt iIk; 
f 4ii}ili' 4fion woiiM Ih- mur fifty i kt tluit of thiily it 
«ii|irf#iiiiii<i«' mxly Hut iill iIhim: |HrrMMJii UiC rf'Kolnr 
'fi<alh rf/imifii-rMlilv floOf/Ntf 

II itif r' iiM|iiirii-ii. wf iiiii»>i likcwiRf riTollfirt thiit tin; 

III «ii lMfw«-<-ii iiiNii Bii'l l'r<;vi«l(jir<', thnl imi Ih-Iwitii 
id aiiil Oii- y<-4rly iiI'mIim i* <if fhf furtli, m nof what 
' ui hiiiimn \h luyn in |ii()(lii«'ifi in any nartinilHr f nnn- 
it w)i»t nmnlK-r liif iNryinfir mffii of^ liirlii in rvi-ry 
r r«iiRf to Ik uIiv«- hi thfir totHhty mn f'oni''rriji'miri<-N 
\tf wti«»li *AriU; for iIimi wf hlmij find ili:it, i( miom! 
n rfii< iiMiioii, fi wf r f'oiiic ini'» ln.-in// in unoijiir Hn 
i-ftirr«-f t irnjiiiry will In, :il nil liiiirM, Wh«f in l||i- (/i-n 
iulr iif all ilitpf luwH nntl r.iti«i;i, in < oni|»iiMn{/ ihi m 
iJirtdty 'if ( iiff mliij}/ iiimmIiiii'I '' 'i'lii'ii Wi' xlmll find 
r rfior<: in m'hiii- |iIn( *•» nntl ili<' fi-wiT in ollifr* iiiin^fji- 
"r III a rrrtmn |i vf-| Mvi-m;/!-, wliirli i* ilic nftiinl fxhi' 

Uf tht' fCllI l|irri-4M' of Ihi- l-iirlirii |Hi|illlMt|lMI, Mild of 

tftwal «Kf nry of Ihf I4 7.-1 (d liiiniMn liifilm It m witli 

l«l Nvrriij^i' th'it tilt iiroiiHi'MiM lur fiiir Hiil»Miiti-iii-f aril 

■IwMV* f-oni|;4rfd . f'lr vm liiivf found, in mII a ((in, llial 

<«fiiiitry, from Hny iMiinf, niidH nion ffi<iil, oihrrii liavr 

a ridundurKV of il to Mi|«|ily t|,iir wMhiii, and |l liaa 
• fit oiii- of till I. trill mI oIiJ' « > t of f oniib' r< <' to'onvi-y 
A n i>riiiif III fioiii till Hliijiidiiiil r< (/lonn lo ilioM' vbtii ri; 
if'viriff f .ir^of •> iiri- ii«jiiir<-d 
r*' M-f III to III hifiiii oi||i-r aiii'u III hiWH nlioiil liirili 

dfai-rvi f»-ir mMihIivi' utiifly, to hi-i- if th' y ari' wi II 
■d 'Irif of fhrnr in tin- f-irMiiiiiiliin< r n iiiMrki'd >iv Mr 
' ■ml oitiif, iliiit >h' y vary M^ordinf/ lo ilii- dniHiiy 'd 
iffulati"!! whMi- Ih'-y <k.( iir, inoii liiiilin lakint/ |il-ii <• 

Ih*" |i«'»|il«' am fi'Ai-al, or mont »ratt«:riid on a j/ivin 

bmanaita m m* mi htunut Miifa v«f |a« kn ynipMUim «'» >^>^^ ^**^ 


thurtjr-two ;* in Venice, one in twraty-tbrett ;t m ! 
one in twen^-one or twenty-four.t In the Nethexlu 
ratio Tuied from one in twenty to one in twenty-nini 
New- York, Uie birtbe were rather more than one twea 
part of the people.H In Ruaaia, the census of 1891 
their natiyities there rather more than one in twentj 
In Switzerland the proportion waa, in some put% 

From these instances we may infer that ooe in tn 
the highest number that are bom in any known popi 
and ma than one in fifty the lowest amount that nsf 
oliserred. Here, a^in, appear two natural and eata 
limitsy which preclude any augmentation or decline in ; 
beyond these boundaries. So many as one in twenty, 
few as one in fifty, to a population are nowhere bOE 
the actual nativities which are to form the new gene 
are always within these bounding extremes, or very net 

But if we take the lowest of uiese, even that ratio i 
to the Mahhusian theory ; for if the births were contio 
one in twenty in a nation, then a twentieth pert of it 
be bom every year; and, consequently, it would i 
twenty years to pass before as many could be bom as 
equal the coexisting population. 

* At MaHrienne, ki Savoy, the average oT births in twemy 
fh>m 1810, was one in 90-1 in the Alpine regions, one lo 91-9 In Oi 
grounds, and one in tbtfty-two in Um lower parirtias^ wkere I 
was elHeilj caltivated.~BulL Univ., July, 1831, pw SS6. 

t Signor Quadri states the aTerage of the binhs «C Tinliwi 
the five years ttam 1819, lo have hem one In twenty-thna. 

t Dr. Calcagai, in his Tavoledi Palenno^ Rmnd Um*, flirtiie ta 
tk9m 1805, tile ratio waa one to twenty<oDe; and in Iba aufaeeqa 
years, one in twenty-fbnr. 

$ Mr. Sadler has collected the proportion of (be provhioes ehM 
<tMCelec. The Dutch portion was fhMn the rate oT one hi 90*7 L 
land to S7-1 in Friesland. The Flemish part varied flrom 96-1 la 
Brabant to 80-7 at Antwerp.— Sadler, vol. ii^ p. 449. 

11 la the reosns oTthe state of New- York ibr 182&, the popvlatk 
retnrned to be 1,616,438, and the birtba 60.383 for the precedinc ^ 
Malionttl Gazette, Feb., 1836. ^^ ^ 

.^I-'nS^*^'^"* <'hurch population of Russia was fbtmd to be. U 
40,351.000, and the births of that year 1,570,399.— Sadler, vol. UL, ■ 

** In the Pays de Vaud it was found by Muret to be one to iStii 

In one little Tillage of only 400 persons it was only one in fbrti 

—Malthus, Tol. i., p. 381--404. But this was too small a place, a 

peculiarly situaled to be any example of a general law. Inanotbi 

J9b in the Jura, St. Cergne, ^^ttie^nYiaN>)«c« «LVMi«tvv^.%Vx«h nut > 

/MTpu/aUoo."— Maithna, 404. 


But to equal is not to double ; therefore twenty more yean 
of the same rate of births must ensue before the numbers 
would be doubled. But these would make together forty 
years. So that the greatest number that have been known 
to be anywhere bom could not double the population in twen- 
ty-five years. 

But this proportion of one in twenty is a local and a rare 
one. The more common proportions are from one in twenty- 
five to one in thirty. At the rate of twenty-five a year, the 
time of duplication would be near fifty ; at that of thirty it 
would approximate sixty. But all these periods the regular 
laws of death considerably elongate. 

In all these inquiries, we must likewise recollect that the 
question as between man and Providence, that is, between 
mankind and the yearly produce of the earth, is not what 
amount of human beings is produced in any particular coun- 
try, but what number the varying rates of birth in every 
country cause to be alive in their totality as contemporaries 
over the whole earth ; for then we shaU find that, if moro 
arise in one nation, fewer come into being in another.- So 
that the correct inquiry will be, at all times. What is the gen- 
eral result of all these laws and ratios, in comparing the en- 
tire quantity of coexisting mankind 1 Then wc shall find 
that the more in some places and the fewer in others mingle 
together in a certain level average, which is the actual exhi- 
bition of the real increase of the earth's population, and of 
the practical agency of the laws of human births. It is with 
this total average that the provisions for our subsistence are 
to be always compared ; for we have found, in all ages, that 
as one country, from any cause, needs more food, others have 
always a redundancy of it to supply their wants ; and it has 
ever been one of the earnest objects of commerce to convey 
com and nutriment from the abundant regions to those where 
the relieving cargoes are required. 

There seem to be some other ancient laws about birth 
which deserve our attentive study, to see if they are well 
founded. One of these is the circumstance remarked by Mr. 
Sadler and others, that they vary according to the density of 
the population where they occur, most births taking place 
where the people are fewest, or most scaXlexo^ oii «^ ^giN^ix 

j^ *'TUBpmHkaem c€ Inmian beinn varies Va wKmBrtiou vo ^^a*"* '**^ 
Vol. UL—K 



Another fact has been tlfo noticed, that binhs lneraMV 
when the deaths become more frequent ; here the conneeled 
CMiae ha« not been satisfactorily accounted for, and 
be linked with something more than human or cmnmon 

It has also been observed, that the most birthe appear (■! 
reckoning nine months back from the time of their occnncaei^ 
that the commencGment of the human formation takes plaee) 
more fre<iucntly in some months of the year than othenL 
Natural causes, arising from unknown effects of the as im- 
known atmospherical changes or moving agencies at the dif^ 
ferent seasons of the year,t may contribute to these resulu. 

dsDsatkm. It Is fresteat where tlw nnnibsis on sn eqoal span an 
fewest It Is Minalleat where the nuinlms are largest.*''— Ssdler, wL H, 

Sw SM. lis has thus eompated and distingniabed, in this resfart, Iks 
IflWeneee oT the births in England to 100 msniagei. 
Where the population on the square mile i»— 

From 90 to 100, the births arc - - • - 4f7 

100 lo 190 414 

190 to too 400 

900toS90 40S 

V90CO300 tn 

S00to390 379 

900 and upward 83S 

lb., p. Ml 

* ** Ths proliflcneas Is greater where the mortality Is greater : amsOir 
where the morulity is leiw.^— ttadler, lb., 899. 

Pernssac remarks on this point, *' Another result Is, that the bfrtlMaia 
In a direct ratio to the mortality." Malthus and Valsmii agree la ihto» 
bat say that the fhet has not Its prlnnpal eouree bi a lawofnaiiire; taL 
whatever be the cause, M. Uuetelet has veriflsd the Act, even in the diF 
ferent months of the year, as he ehowed In hie ** Memoir on the BfonsHiy 
of Brueeds.** M. fjobatto veriAed It alao in Amoterdaio, Aolti«|^ 
Ghent, BoUerdem, and the llaKue.— Bull. Unlr., 1097, p. M. 

t Mr. Verelet ftmnd the mean reeuUs of sigbtesn years* obasm 
at Brussels to be— 
nasT psaioD. 

May . 

Jnns . 

July . 

April . 








MONTHM or Biarn. 


. February 11970 

. March . 



. April 



. January 




. May 


. November 


. June 


. October 


. September 


. . AufOK . . 


. J«ay QrSAw 




Oy TV! WOBtD. 


M alM been obaeirad, thtt the births oeeur mora numer- 
If in ft moming than in the erening.* In tU tboM peco- 
liw, in proportion m they pr«TaiI and recur, the fettoras 
iln, snd reguUting tgencir, and of providing Ibre^gfat, 
I think, also, of auperintenaing government, appear, to our 
Hwpiation, afccompliahing detomined purpoeea and optr- 
f to an a«rigned end. 


r Lam 0f Dntlk emiaUitrtd.~-T%itir MffuHmtnt to tkt Ltmt ^ 
" -HMmtni qf tMr RaU md PropotHant in iiffkuni Cmn^ 


Mr DBAB Stdnbt, 
Let ut now lindoavour to trace the lawi and principlei on 
ich the withdrawing aiMl deatroying agency of Dbatm ia ad- 
ustcrad aa to the human race. The conaequeneea which 
oar from it are very eitenaive and multifanoua. Bat we 



af twantjr yaara, fhmi ItQtt to 
Ml le tkls. I wUl eiu ODly Ua 

al Ttftr- 

ar the 

llwch . 
Pw i ii b i r 







Augotc . 



Ball. Univ., 1817, M. 
At Brwaili, tb* naliviiiM. fVom 101 1 to 10n. In Ibt lloiipliai da Ma- 
M ibrrt. war* fbund to laka placa In Iba ftillowlng numbara al tb« 



wmW SHI Wf 


141 . 


I : 

. 171 . 
110 . 



in . 



iflt . 



, 111 . 










Ir. YiilMpf Omnd MwUogoQo nmilu lo Iba HoapUal of HalbamVlXM ax 


will confine ooraelTes to a considcntmi cf ihi 
has been established as to its i^ratioD on ott ] 
to the laws by which it is made to regnbto te i 
ben of the human race, in their soroal intim 
and genexal amount. 

The laws of death, as soon as we btgu !• i 
easily discerned to be much more pccuki 
than those of marriage or birth. I bare 
the consideration of it only as a check, and 
to avoid a term that misleads. Death is ai 
in the formation of human nature as bixth 
has inrariably accompanied both. It has 
the days of Adam, an essential part of the 
mankind, that all who are bom shaD die. 
from the beginning, a fundamental law, aa 
parents showed thftt both themselves and 
would not submit to be trained and tandht 
Preceptor. Certain, by this decision, andbg 
chose, in disregard and disobedience to \am^ 
not spontaneously become, as he desired, 
admirable, and congenial beings as he 
he ordained that their existence on the 
placed them should not be perpetuaL IIm 
we call death was appointed to terminate, in] 
raiT connexion of their intellectual aool with 
body, and to remove the living principle 
is, therefore, as inseparable firom Ixrth ai 
riaee ; all three are original and essential ^ 
of tiuman nature in its present resKbDce. 
without the other ; each is alike impoi 
adapted to the other. Death is, therefore, 
live laws of our life on earth, and of the 
of our frame. Our body is so made that it" 
at present composed, and as its functions sn 
art or means can prevent its dissolution, o* 
its animating spirit, when the agencies occur^ 
fectuate the change. Violence may 
which skill may a while protract, but 
eventually avert it. 

If death had not been made a part of the 
of OUT being, the system of our births could 
nor could mankind be cilWtvfWllYkB^Vaw^^ 



EvOTjr portion of Iniinan life ; lU tU Bonmrnto ind fn- 
oiM ; bU iu bwa, potiUte, habita, ■nd ocea|MlioM, hsvt 
M what Umt m under the influence end from the ellecte 
certain ana unceasing occurrence of our individual mor- 

Take away drath from the world, and the whole 
arork, apiril, view, and o|iera(iona of human aocietv muat 
Med. Ita preaont form and catabliiihment would not 
n imnHyrtal p(»|iulation, nor would have proceeded from 
-djring iN'inipi. I«rt ua, (h<*ii, ronaidcr the lawa of death 
final pniiriplpa of the earthly ayMtrm of human nature, 
egin oiir UMpiiry on thrir nature and o|ieration with the 
that liavf amirarpd from thrm in our own country, 
a death* in Midland, aa nvrrywhcre rlao, liave varied In 
ar evrrv yrar, with fluctuationa to and fro, that have not 
ipondi*u with tlie ap|«nint pniKrcaaion of the whole pop- 
n. 'Dtnir arriea m the laat thirty yoara aufRcicnily anow 
el.* In thia wi* aoo that, in it« finit year, 90,891 mora 
than in tin* trntli year ancrwanl, when our numbera had 
lacd by oni* null ion and a quarter, or nearly oiw acventh 

Theri! w«rr fnw|u«nt vacillationa of thii wri, aa if no 
int law, known to ua, waa in operation to produce them.t 

r. Rlchman'a •■orraetad iiombara af iha burtala 




INI. 140 











. l04»tW 

. Ift4/M7 

Pop. Ab., ixx. 

01. «H.434 i IHII, |fW.MS. lb. m 

I Iha nrm ■rvffiiwn ymrm, ihr Amhu w»ra only In thraa of the 
morv than iImi flnrt y*ar. notwlthalandlng iha runtlnoal locranaa 
fHfmlaiUNi. Tlw vartatlfma Wf!ifa aurrMaWaly uiNMual In ibani' 
, and w* lovpffiH by ihv Mmiiiinl nf lh« imWii. Tfiiia, 4M4 l^m 
I: IHW iiHini In IMll ; ih*n iMovntid by 17,449 Iu 1004 ; Inrraaaing 
im and IVlf 111 INOA; iinlarfiiig ih» two nati yaaia, lo alnk by 
aniMM of VIVU III ilM oiM rwinwinj i again rialng by M.Tti la ibta 
4tMg fmr, lo l9amm umrtf 00,000 in tkal wklcu WOM a!l\«l,lBA 


'£S Sl«:X£2 CIS1«KT 

:■: .'-.■ ut". :•!. *^ iic w«f 

r^- .■«•■ . ".af >v.i *r*AT bA£ ?wM ;•» ^^ r>Mr» 

~^'- rfr' t-M .*j*. . • f Tir^ » / .fcf ■* 
r.— i#K^: "• : :■• r*--:,!*- ■- ^\ *>; rlW'E 

T-:.:. -: ■ n *■? it=>fr» ,-o- rase .v jvriwv 

«^»l* M 

X r-oi.i 



•I ■«-: •» L. 



a :'i."f4c;r 






r»? -:.T 






Sccw ■»« 





>>ri O.c^ «nc x-:mc« 














S^EZias -c-c 


V.vt. F«A Kja-«« 


Wacacr* i::-: 


Y.Tt. Wmc Kvij^ 


T;-i. V.-C--1 ii_:x . 








r 1'^ KFLiai 










lA.<>cttOfr . 


1 ; *:'-i 


i^KTSn^ . 


St :»: 


M4AiJMC\ . 



M-ic:*a»< ."A.^ecse^ fir dK 

Ki iafeik Al. |i^ vtd 


I.* ThsM dUbniMM lMtw«M tht eomiMntivA Mrtlw 
ntha of the two wntm •» in oibar countrtM noftrfy mtw 
ThiM tha mortality to our neo is, by boim powoHTuI 
Mr-Mling law, m rngnlatMi wiik rdation to the luUivi- 
iHt Um two Mios, ftmid alt tlia divarmtiaa, ara «lw^yN 
■ tha aamo genaral pfrmortion to aach othar— 4 alriking 
Utot death, aa wall aa Mrtb, fa ffovaniad by aaUMmhad 
MtaatifHt to a anMsiflc and, and narar rarajpfea at random. 
•mtiona, indaad, oeisnr on nibia and fnrineiploN which wa 
not jfKt daHcried. Tha mortal mnwAitn act with diirar- 
which wf» ara unaMa to i-laeidata ; for, hi tha twanty- 
•aia aftirr 1H00, tha mortality of Kn|{land iMMfmad mora 
MiP, and jrat, in tlia ancMMidiiiK tim yaan, it haa, on Him 
vy, much incraaaod ; though at both parioda tlia corni- 
Bi anUrKing, Inrth in numtxim and proNiiority.l 
b a ramariiablo fact, that although for too thirty-aix yaara 
1 alapaad from ITflO to IHIA tlio |iof;ulation waa pro* 
ivaly uw.Ttrtmin^ during tlwt jHsrifKl, y««t Itttln or no auff- 
itioii orriirrad in tlia niiinlKir of th«i ditathii. 'lltn nvunntm 
ny fiva ynara naarly apjiroacliod aich oUiar ;4 and nM;ra 

a Hni btficlinw of malM ua 10,41ft to 10,000 MmIm,— RiekniMi, 
, 9. illv. 

to wiuiiii nufflbur of bartala, nador tha rMttraa Ibr iho fcor popO' 
Miii,w«f«ll,flm,«W; oTthMt 

b^Wjm wmn malM, 

ft,7M,0lft wora fcaialM. 
iM w» my atMlboM malw wko 4\ai abroad la iho anploynipal 
r MMl eormiMifM —lb., aliv. 

I jroora crT war orfiNalamid manjr of our malao to dta abroad. 
I. prmvumm Ui ihn ymr IWI, thr barlala of tiM two Oftiao war* In 
mmtoni ; tmi Mr. lUiAinan juaftjr add*, ** 'fbn nUbnt of aattlMl 
la now atMiwn by ttM Imsraaand proportton of malaa wlio dlo and 
flad ■! hMfM " fit' 
haa litfi niair and nimalo Mnha and daaiha In Ituaala In IHM 

Hiriha fl7<l,W7 malaa, 

VPi/fJH tkmaim. 
llnathM . . M7,Hn malaa, 

033,170 Oimalfo. 
Joum. Mt, Fat., March, IMO. 
no niorialiiy of nir InYiabttanta of Kniland appear* to lw«« auiik 
■liolfniini III tlM dtiradn prarading tha po|rtilalUNi alNriract of IHSl ; 
Inra tliat ilnHi, It Mwina (o bava naan aa that aa It daaeandad aAar 
ar IHfNi " ttiKkman, vol. I., p. sxxv. 
te aavaral avrragMi w aff o- 

I7N0 10 I7H1 , , 101,1113 daaiha. 

)7muti7m . . , , xmfMk ^ 



actually died in tbe first year of tbe aeries, 1780, yt 
population was smallest, than in the last tenn, 181 
the people had become so much more numerous.* 
erage of the whole thirty-six years was not much 1 
that of the last five.f So that, in aU this period, n 
agencies of birth were kept in a steady process of i 
rate of production, those of death were made to be st 
in order that the population might more particularly e 
a striking instance of the supervising attention of tb 
tinff power. 

The annual deaths varied in a similar manner on 1 
tinent in the common course of the mortalities. One 
of this may be cited in Prussia and Lithuania. Tb 
amount here fluctuated to and fro,t and without s 
increase, till sixty years had elapsed. 

For the ten years between 1820 and 1830 the reli 
tween marriages, baptisms, and burials, in England am 

179010 1705 .... 193,S73 desttaa. 
1796 lo 1800 .... 196;W7 " 
1801 to 1805 .... 194.004 « 
1806 to 1810 .... 195,944 ** 
1811 to 1815 .... 193,847 « 

Rickm., vol. i 
* In 1780 were . . 198,S48 deaths. 

In 1815 197,408 ditto.— lb. 

t Tbe general average of tbe tbirty-six years was 193,198, 1 
040 less than tbe average from 181 i to 1815.— lb. 

X I take tbe first ten years of the bariais in SossmUeb's Ti 
another ten years at a later period of it. 





After 1750 the nombers were— 

1751 . 18,287 

1751 19,066 

17U 18,806 
















Snaam. Tito. Va%«ii9iV«t»^<iL\u 


Ind, M nwily u can b« eticuUitd, in ihii proportion, on a 
of each, rwrndy, Uuroe and three quarter births to a 

MBnagv, and two and a half death* ;* no that there aroitc', 
Mtajg that period, about one and a miuier more to •wp.ry 
Moriaio than death took away,t and by this proportion thn 
EipliH population was then naturally increaainff. i'hin wunld 
Hu about aeren and a )ialf birthi to five deatim, cauHiriff 
Iniha to be one third leaa than the birttia in Kngland and 
Wilea at this period. 

In Denmark in 1830 the aame rnlationa wore four hinhn 
ai nearly three deatha to a marriage, which ia a fifth U-nn 
ifcrahip than in England-^ In Uruimela in 1833 iha 
were m auch a large pro|iortion that tlie city would in 
tkm have been unpeopled, witliout frnnh arrivals from ilw. 
country.^ In France in 1831 tlic rt'lation waH four birlhi 
and three and a quarter deaths to a marriage. II 

At between the acxca, a larger nurabor of malea are every- 
vhere bom than femalca.Y 

* Mr lirfcaiaii's sttmnMry, flmn IMl to IS81, oonelanlv*, la— 

BaptiwiM M,l!aAVi 

Bunala t,4M,fN/7 

MarrUfM l^,0U^I1>top.,4M. 

t Tha one and a quarter Mrvlvmn Tram ib* nuirrltffM wotiM 
mk» UI3,11H liMllvtdualii ; Inh iIm popalatlon of IMl wan rimn4 to »'o 
tMim htf9n4 ilMi of IH3I, which ka 7M,AAU abov* thoM thai |»ro- 

But thta diflhrwiM would ariM 

tMM flrem tha Inlrrvcnlng mamagca. But thta dimronM would ariM 
i«iaa Riany of iha daatha of tha Intanral Mllng on tha MputatkNi of 
MM ; tha raaalc of cho aeUon oTdaoih, on holh nirw and olif, in ihnee Inn 
ymn, waa iha 9,000,000 UioraMe whirh 8|i|war«d In Orsat Brttiaa at tbeir 
(knta lUI, ^, _.^ 

t ru nrnrrUgtm wara 10,774 ; iha Mrlba 4l,fM ; Um dmha 11,194.— 
Mr. Nflfir*a Papar, Aihan., IHM, p. IM. 

$ la this yrar iha marrhifaa In Rruaoela wara AM, Ihi* UrtiM MAS. or 
M«i fear and a half fo aaeh marrlaga ; iha daaiha 4177, almoat flva. 
Ai atwaanl. aa hatwacn iha aasaa, arlnead iha Mrth of moat malaa, but 
te4«ifeaffneaf Ibtnalaa. 

Born, Mt3 malaa, IVtl ftmaUM. 

Diad,aOM **.... SIM 

Mand^ tt Jan., IHM. 

IMarrlaiaa 946.410 

DHlka ,'*»''*!^ 

Ami. ixmc., ISM. 

f Thea la Pranea daring the flAam yaara fVom 1817 le IMS tb«» 

7y400,9ll malaa, 


Lpt OS now piamine the propoition of a popnlatkm iHiieb 
usaally dip. eithor every year or for any aeries of yetit. 

Sir AViUiam Potty considered, that in hia time, 166S, tet 
were in EnglAnd twenty-four hirths for twenty-three boiaki* 
Other computations, of which he spoke respectfully, reekoail.- 
five hirths to four burials ; and calculated that, in the coqBf 
try. the proportion of annual deaths to the population was 1 ■ 
30 or 3S.t As a medium, he supposed that there might fat 
about ten births for nine burials t 

This IS that moderate rate of increase which is so coneoF 
dant with what apfK'ars to have actually taken place, that it ■ 
Ter>' pn^bablo that it expresses the prevailing course of mtn 
as \o human multiplication at that time.^ 

From one series of his, he said. '* We have good experiem 
that in the countr>- but I in 50 die per annum.**]! Thii 
would conic near Mr. Rickman's calculation of the pnfedl< 
prx>portion boin^ 1 in 49.^ 

In our recent rnumorations, we perceive that, in odB 
county, the births and deaths were equal for one period dftn 
years ;** but. in a later term of that duration, the baptim 

So in England, for tbe ten yean (Vom 18S1 lo 1830, tbebuKisiBSweii^- 

1.9 17.444 males, 
1,836,010 females. 

Rick., vol. UL, ]». 481 

* Essay on Folit. .\rithm.. p 13. 

t Tbere are also other icood observations: that even In the coastiyl 
In about 30 AT SS per aunam bad died, and that then bavo htm wm 
huthe fur four burials.— lb., p. 14. 

: Ih., p. 15. 

^ Sir William rnnarka on wars, plafnes, and ikmlnos, that ** Ihsdkcti 
thereof, tbouf h thry be ternble hi the limes snd plsres when they hi^ 
pen, yei. In a perioil of 360 year*, are no f ml matter in the whoa sfr 
tion. For ibc play uea of Enirland, in iweniy years, bad earrtad annv 
scarce an einbiieth pan of the whole nation ; and the late iso ycsntf cM 
wara, ih • like whereor had not been In several ages befora, did Ml Uli 
awav aboTr a fbrUeih part of the whole people."— lb., p. 15. 

II lb., p. 13. 

H •' TTut regiatered mortality in the several connties of En«land, flsa 
18M to ISSO. raiiirea beiwi-eii fbrtv-one In Middlenex and sixty-fbar Is 
Cornwall. Inrludinp unrexiiitered deaibn, the monallty of Englasd sni 
Wales eince 1820 ii> entimaied at 1 in 40 ; though on another eakalBllaB 
It would be 1 ill 45."— Rirk. Pop.. toI. i., p. 35. The dillbronces belwsM 
Sir W retty, 1 in 50 and 1 in 33, may baTe arisen fhrni avaragss ishM 
In two diflbn>nt counties, as in Mr. Rickman'a Middlesea sod CnmWilL 

** This wan Cambridge fhrni 1806 to 1810, The average of both bs^ 
tiBiM and buriala was 1 in 30.- lb , M. MvWlnsei twiee came raihir 
Dcvthia; ibrin this sains period U Ynd Vhki\vaVDA\Ax«uk>A ^mikt^ 

or TBI WOftLD. ilO 

cIcmiIiIa the liurialH thera.* In all tha other eoiin- 
.th« Tc-tl •iiiiiialiy ao much iiliort Af the birtlw UN to 
t griultiiil iwrtiUMii of Oritinh |)0|iuUtioii which JtN 
I riiiiiriffrHtuiiM •itrc«triMiv«*ly (hH|iliiyf'.(l. T\w avnr- 
y of hII till) roiiiitJ(*ii wan, from I7ttf) to I (MM), four 
•I' (Ifiathii. t Fnjrn that lime; Ihi? iiativitifN iuvrtuuMd 
I ha tftiHriiiMJ, thouKh not in ciiuhI cii-Kreu, nor with- 
c;rff-(liri{( tli«* flow. 'Hii' (ivn yttam pritciMJinff tho 
f thiliiii-tl till? avcniffr ritHiilt of lifty-imi] liirlhH to 
Minui't I .Sfimi-tiiiifH till? birtliM ilnnniinhi'd an tho 
futkfi\,ff liijt liiia wiiM oiMlliiT nintinuiil in the aamo 
iir (fi-qiif-nt i'Ui-wlii*nv No Mi4tli-fl ratio of tliat 
-(1 III itiiy % ( 'oriMiih-rcil witii ri;M|>M:t to tho wholo 
, till' IntliT pcrtiNl of thr IhhI (:^|IMIIH |fn«iMiiitii 
ly thi- |irij|HirtiiHi of four hiiriaJH to Mix lurtliH in our 
iircil, lii-Hiihy, and |iroti|NTowM country.** 
Iilinhfil loiirnt; of rmLiim \t»n not jirtNiiicitd, in other 
my n-hiilin foiilrailictory to Uu'imi whicdi havfi thita 

I our own ; ihcy vary frvrrywlifru ; hut alwayn, like 
wiihiii uMtrrlmnahh) limilH, cxcitpl in the rare ]mH- 

the frfnt-ral avirni[(i; of deathii in all rrance wan in 
ion id marly 1 in 40. ft It varied in ila iM:veral 

Wiwrrri ITIiA ami IMNI ilm pniiiorltMiM w«ni thirty tilna u> 
-Hirk. I'tip- vui. I., |i yi. 

t\A^, friHii IHIA lu IHW), ilif MvnraKn birilia wnm 1 In M and 
111 6A FriNii ITliff 10 INtO limy •kkhI aa Oilrly-lbrM Ui Ibrty- 
n IHW tu IhMaa iliiny-iiitti in luriy riv«.--lb. 
la Wfrn 1 in 34, llw ilMilha I in 4N. Hi. 
IhfiA Niiil IHIO ih«' avrmiiii kim hi 1 in M tM\itianm and I 
. Iiri wrrii |H|0 ami IffH) ilii* liiriliM f«ll \Hu:k Id I HI 33 ■nd 

HBIHvl f» I III M. II«*|WIV|| |H*/A AMll lH,14l ttM llinha iMNMtllMl 

II M anil ilir ilraili* iiirrriiiHHl lu I in &I ■ lb. 

jniiiuuili, iruin 17IM tu IHIIO, lia|Hiaiiia I in M, daatlia 1 in 

II vn numtM-rM rbunitnl after wanl liHS, M ; 4 A, M ; 45, Ml lb. 

m |irii|i«riion (if I in 34 binbii (icfiira with Ibn difTurnitl ralmi 

r, 4!l. SI, ai, anil M) (if llMi (Icaiba M<i 4A in Iba duatba baa 

I 111 ilifti-rcnl riiiiiiiira 311, 33, and 34. Tim lalUir fkitir tIniMi, 

mnw ml wub iIm 4(1 ; but ilioi 34 in Mm birlba baa lb« alMiva 

:bai ilraiti* 

y mm; birilia lo Ihiriy-fiiiir Imriala ara aa iwnnlyflvo and a 

Urn, M I wrivit mid Ibirfi i^iiarlnra liiclglil and a bolf. TblN 

a llic ralnltdii (d ait lo tnur. 

iiaviM ICuryeJufwib(|ii«,'*eairulallli| Iha rata of iiwvi\i\>^i Vi\ 

^tpmrtuMitM otynnem In INX7, CmuhI lUal \lii \ait«Mk«VAV 

1= M<iKO sea n ur fTcaiMt KMuiTM df i 

OTt* v uneiJOTL 


g rontifiittJiy vviod in a puocMaioii of nitty-Ziviir yuarw. 
ui yrani of it Uiero wer« fiv« iMrtlui iv tbr«« dtsatiM ; m 
•frmr, alNriji «iji to fgiir ; in tli<i rfu\fnudt% oxncpl an 
I vf fiftatil(}n«-«, rfarly iwivmi to fiv«.* 
•maJI pmtinkt ui IjcyMn, m Mwilxcrlaiid, nientionnd by 
(Ithtja.t (ifMcrvfi our wAkp., hi «» iiiiitafif:« w)i<'r<! thn 
pnpiflMtwii m Ml N'lininintifnKl that for thirty yi-arii tlie 
ifid «lfiar.h« rifiarly linlarfiul f;ar:h iitUt-r. I 'I'hm iiiiint \m 
r: in cvrry «gi! and f:ouritry wficns thf |ifi|iiilalion m kqA 
iry It wa«i rnaintNiiifMJ in tina attitfi in Una littii: rwu' 
4 'J'b«- iiir!r«i««a lum waa ao itraflual, tlwl it would 
Jim riMr« tlian ilia tmiH wliM-li *t\M\mttii from Mtmtin to 
to* Uf If 1 )N:lir:Vf. that all <:oiiritri4»a hava 
I variiiua u<:rif»da ami Uir a roiiaidiiraliUi anriisa o( ycara, 
', aud arc a*}, aiul an: tw.vv.r ot}i«rwia«, but aa it 




5 t-7 





















4 14 


4 S-4 

Niilleh'a TaMaa «iiaM« oa to mahA iIhi Mlawlnf approilmallag 
I ilM avopafii, MBkoniag •*« jraara : ~ 

Ppnm iwn to IW7 ... 7 

low Ui I7f|| ... ft 

17ns lo |7fM ... ft 

1719 lo 1710 . . . tf 

1717 lo 17tl ... ft 

1713 lo 179) ... A 

1797 10 17.11 ... A 

|7» lo I7r . . . A 

I7W lo I71A ... A 

17*7 lo 1751 ... 7 

1739 bo l7ftA 7 

tUm thn Tallica In Naillir, vol. II , p. KM. 
h. fop, vol. I.,p 401. 

M avvrraflo numtirr of llio iilriti« iHiinff, ffir a purlorf of thirty 
IHVM Brruratcly Miunl lo ihn inirnliKr of driuli*, rlfi«r|y pmvrA 
hainlM Iff Om M(»plc hwl not |i-<l lUnn lo rrnifraio ; and thai IM 
a of llii! parldii for th« ■uppriri of ihr p«/pul«iiofi had rnnialnMl 
lalMfinry ."- Miillh , III . I'rV. Mr. Mural xnoi'l Iho parlirulara 
U*!Wntfm nut. Kron d' fW-rn«;" for I7AA 
liapuJailon m Miir<:t'« iiirMi wm 4tit;, miri rhi! hirtlta bin linl* 

el In a yoar. In t«n yc«r« w.Tn a inarnaKm, H> li«|iti«ni«, 
Iha; making Iba hlrih« mm oiwi in f^irijr-Klictif and ihn-^ t|ii«r- 
I ite d«fltlia aa onr in forty ninn and ihr<M «il|[liih«. Murftl'a Ma- 
IDC' Ec'in da Dcriit! for l7f<A. 

W. Divernoia r«irnp«iu-« ih«i tia prnod of douhllnc would Iimv» 
H yrara , and add«, Ihnl lliia plaf" •nil numlM-r* only 447 inhale 
11* daiirrilirM M aa aiiHMix fli*! hiihrr AlfM. Ii i« niiar iKf •nn»' 
« liatfilahlf: n*/»HUj Tha pmvailinc w»ld la afi rifor«»<ia fliai lia 
mm cannal ratat; aithrr wbeai, oala, or rvu, wh any braa4-cor«i 
te MfM/c^AMrfa. -for. Quart. Hat., No. M, y V« 


ctxzzs ir.d :br^ n-o d.2erj«:ed la 72,1 

ZL btf e— rins w>erv asonr tbin li* 

poc'ilAij-'c w^r* be: rw^^ :ii'.rd* or arr bixue* ; <ac 
i>::iv :-«-? d:*c : k 1SS5 'aer bctb* wvw m «j 
o=<e 5:x:h ziore th«n :h« d<a:h* .<} aai n uw aexs 

two = I; T&r.«ii aLio :a b»«r mrmcrk la 
rears, eT«i fo mwa :ai: k» bom w«» twjc* ^« 
^h^?se ^b? ds«ii ^ In «KSex«. a Iim» inuI;34«iB^ rate 
b i: u£^:4 :o :a< Amy. 4:>i ««rki«ivri iv» sft« 
o-:htfr eiiiiir&n:^ uke awtit a j:nns mAav G\>im sbw 
th«ir bi&pc-jKn. the de A:b» o«i azit WvaI R^t«<r ^ 
u,«-^ ac:\:aI pcvwnxoQ :<> t!:fee b'zth* ot* dniS ducncc^ 
Ir. o:h«r eouctnes AbnMd we neec with itiirnimt. 

WXT3 ^/rjizm. I3ie s«-juii cvvr-pAM^ Z 

•TVswMmlSlX TV Nrthi wm CWLtn^ « 

* See yt«srv. 7^« TS. noce *. 8e m tS» Uw knto M 
bore wen IWfT it» Ag^h* IM4r — ILcctM^ jt. Ki. 

: Frc« I«L1 to I^Sl aU ^«r ^irt^ wvn lS.4MwI«^ aM ^ _ 
in ::aofc vary IiUSSJsMk w^^ *.««««• a MrptM «r J^X^MW 

Bo::. rr'». i«7.p m 

< S«e ieftjo*. ^ :< | H^ 

* In f art NiK^xwK e( WorMMA ta im tb«e» wvtv $|jm 
9!u?e<:- dcAzbs — HmbA. 1<!SS. In dim «f«RhM» w |<MS « 
were 5S.4S:. Che dracbs fTT^jr).— ;^. Ntnn /.«tCic^Rlt 

** TbBik IB Kte (»««nmi«oi <>r Iherai. ftvoi I^^Wio t$HtW|HWMiil^ 
bon wwt.l-ftljmL:b«^iRh« w«np a» Mxwetiw tra ^MfekAw^MBTra^ 
ISaSw p. ISSl Or CMr tP two and a halt la iW bM^Mfw^r " 
1«M. t^en wrrv «5 TW Nrths And 47^61 dnifiHk « MW^y 
nuM 13d two Aftte. or AbwK fiMir And oa« ihini !• C 

*- From th«K emuwa I cocMeder ibe d«Allt* !• the 
sad :3 Oe iJKBxt of Qa«bee aM to rvpiraiM ite tnie 
iMC&a of thorn wte ar bnca la ib«se plA<«aL tn _ 

t^<m u wenx m tte uaeSeored rvft«>e«» tateie tter antai la ' ^_ 

towao oad lateiL TVtr nunNen wwe — Kcw-Yoik tm t9UL HHli 
fC.J63. deubo «LM4.~NaL OannK. FMl. 1:Wl aw^««k liilli MIL 
knhoI!lfl».VahaIsM.594.-BoQcb««n.««(. i.^^9«l 

:Z T!xBs Ji Riden la ISST ibt rate wao 1 la II) >all rMv«. 
4i. A- VoQCacx. ia ih« Pat* de Vaad. on ilw aveetf* «r aix" 

madM ^oirtcr m tanx aaA fcorwafta^ iM i fcia ^m I > ^^IH 


l.iriTKK XiV. 

y iHtfuiniym ftrvAuud kit '^ ^rdtrmfff /<«■» ^ tUmlk • 
iHmUmrmI </ IA#M 4M iktif mcur in Kftgland tuid in tnmmt 9ikm 

My iiRAii Ki#N, 
lUtirtff ih<i« aiirvfyfl tint wt^nittm* 'if «lf«th in vnriou* pftrta 
if dbft wirlil, Mi iM t<f Im? triinbiirfl to Utrtii k juftl r(iii«:t;olioii of 

khl U»ti4l fi»ijlt». kl •!• Ifuk*- « li:W rifllM- Initial Ml liM flM:U 

a4 !««• wiiif (i Mri- tinvt; hifcii 4'ifriiiTm|iliitiriK. 

Wi* vrr tlmt I he iiiwft ii/ ilt-Mih v«ry tlifir rf|f«<.'tM «« iiiurh 
I ilrfiM III hirih 'J'lMTr<! i« riothiiiff likf; n fiJicfi ktundjvd, « 
ml'ttui ffeUo, fe iini' ovf rruliiif^ Uw in •^lOiT. IK/fli Ui4 riiUi o/ 
ff«U<« i<j liirftia, Mml lh*« (ir'i|iorli<in of tin; iljfUiK ut i\m untn 
•r 'if Oif riikiiiiK |M»|fiiUiioh, urif (oritiiiualljr vnryuti/^ TUvy 
ifft-r ifi « t<ry f ountry in »<mi«' tii-ifttf, nrnl in Om* aiiine! roiin 
'7 •! ••if«iftiii*f |irno(l», knil arf ii</t ulibn in «tvfry jmrt of 
tf- —iMf naiioii 'Mmh*: lit y I'm lit-* ftli^fw that iImt nffifiM'y of 
^•iri <• |/ov<-riic<J liy rnnny Uw« mimI tiy ifi »in|{l«- for<'« ; y^l 
tf felMf, «• III iIh* tfi/llm, nil llK-vf vferi»li<in« mt rirriini- 
filiftl tiy iiiiiiU wtiH li, in lll^ IimIiiMmI nimI i-«liilili*li«-<l OffU-r 
' Uiifi(f», ktf not ovfrtMMi'l, iinlfvn Ui«- litviiif plun and will 

liuit I In- {MftuoUr iKfpiiliiiion «luill lif Mtin;(ijiftli^H or kl 
nualt'd into k i oni|iiirMiivi- nolliinfincM Hot i'VMi •nrli 
4filif«tiorik an- oi'vrr |iMf<|ii< • 'I l;y lli*- ti«ijiil fonfiM^ of lilfth* 
4 rfffeilt* 'I'licy iil-*iiy« MMMf from tlir »ti'lfli'n •n<l i^/ii|f<» 
ry iiiir«j«lo' lioii of violfiif fe(/fiii», i itlif-i natuiiil or liiinmn 
"•lili-rt' «-, fitrninf, 4-Mrt|i<|iijilii-«, nimI inniMfiition* fern iliti nui 
fel •••mUnlk iwliK li <»• ' lo Mt liHii-k, in «ii|H'ri/r'liiifery vifeilu 
mt , mm\ Mmfn of <'irt< rmiiiiiiiOh ut*' thi- linmnn ini'fenii liy 
Siirh flfffiiiolii'iofi, ill \MiUi u\ni iam*-m, luife lii«rn kllowt'l lo 

I «wly lrl«»rti<ri« M.ii. I.'n flrnfva In ih* piiy«i|< Vau*! In im% 
I iMfilia i»rrr 4tf74. Hit- 4r«ili« Mill, wlin h «rk« «« ri*«< Ui llirn iin4 (Mi*i 
f4 MmM I fiiv , lifW), p I3>i III ilir ^t-ilM rr«iii|ii iIh- \fi\0tnunt wan 
H t4 <iuti^ln III ifiliai*. ttni. Ill* iHrilm wrf lil'I.Ha. il»iifli* ftfe 03'i 
Mvli I'll* II Si-«rl» ft If. I- Al P-li-riiMi in lU'iiy. I ifi il U»t * 
m «« i«/i, Mtf J itt 39 iM tittH*» y««i« Mlowuii \W , \tlfln , y. W^. 


be produced. But none of these initnimcnta of dettnidioB 
can be reckoned among the natural laws or causes of dsa^ 
They Ixflong to that part of the plan of the Creator wfaidi 
rc-forM to his own government of human nature, and to tht 
grand inoveincntH and revolutions which, in the execution of 
his pur{>0MC8, he directs or produces in the natural history mi 
fortuiicB of mankind. 

A few rpflcctionfl shall lie submitted tO you oA thte MOflik 
in a future letter on the providential empires that hMm t^ 
pearcd in the world. But at present our considerations snl 
be confined to the more natural laws and agencies by wUck 
death has acted, and is still acting upon us. 

We have seen, from the limited portion of femalet wim^ 
from their suited ages, can in any year be mothers^ and fron 
the confining ratios of the births from these, that the nunbcr 
of the bom is at all times circumscribed.* In all soctetiti 
there can be only a certain proportion of births ; and 6ob 
the births thus limited the new generation, the micceediiig 
population must come, as it has no other source. 

The births, by these limitations on themselves, are always 
limiting tho population they occasion ; and death then comas 
to add a further limitation by his irresistible agencies. UnM 
all populations are confined and regulated by this double opela* 
tion of the limits of laws, which are always acting ezpnssly 
to this effect. Population exists nowhere without bow thess 
limitations, and its state everywhere evinces their effects. 

As death takes away inevitably all that axe bom, thfl nat^ 
ural consequence of such a universal removal tends to be a 
prevention of all increase. And such would be the result, 
unless death was ffovcmcd by laws always regulating it as lo 
the proportion it shall in each state annually remove, and also 
as to the ages at which it shall withdraw thia quantity. 

For if death was suffered to destroy all before the paniild 
age, numkind would be only a generation of children, eitinp 
guishing at their departure. So, if it take away every yflU 
as many as arc bom, the race would expire with the paraalt 
who suffered these privations, or never bo more numerooii 
Hence the continuance and increase of all populations d^ 
pend on the annual amount at which the rate of birtfai «h 
ceods that of death, and on the proportion which li« 

« BeebsCsM. 


■nj of th« fMw gnnfsntion befora thtf nilir into the in«t«r- 
mkn&httd mnd coiiniibMl atatn. 

Cm both thenc |K>intfl we find thst, ftlthoogh th«;rft ara many 
lircnilMM in the rnin/ir (lttgr«4!N, ytti in ereiy country th«!r«i 
Mi fixiid rirciirnflr.riliing liinitationa. It ia a law aa to th<! 
IfBa, that from onn third to onf; half of all that arf. tiorn nhall 
Ml liv«- to thfs Aprp of th« frfiMiihility of tN}in(( riar«;ntii. 'I Iw;/ 
■fear only ad thiidrfrn, or in thf. firat atati; of youth, and tin: 
mn rrrnovfid, maniffrntiy for onn rfta^in, at h^aat, that ihry 
not anifrnnnt th** niirnhfira of th«; human thcj:. 'niin ih a 

■oat iinjiorlMnt and r,v«!r-o[i#!ratin{( liniitation of ffOpiilation, 
ud \tf If a iinivfiraiility ami )i<'r]H'tiiatiori, in *:yc.ry nf.f^rfj: of 
cmtiution, n}u>wn that it han \t(:fu niniU\ a law, with an t-.x- 
fnm rrfirftnr.f: to thia tifffrx ; for it k«'«')>a th«< )i«i<iplin{( {>«irt 
of mankind at^ndily to oni; conatant pr»|K}rtion of thi'.in. 

thi: lawn ar«; ao dntrrrninatf^, and, on thia (K>int, m> ffHra- 
eioua, ax to diacovrr thi; plan and niirjHuK; of thnr inatitiition. 
Thr matf-rnal Hfl^f. iaronfin'-d ttt afivfd (K;rtionof f<;maln lift- ; 
nd a ronittant prfifKirtion of U;th Hv.xt'.n arft fsv-rywh^rc wiih- 
^wn h*'for«: tlM^y nan hr. )»arcntN^two «!Xprf;aaiv<; indc.XfiH t.o 
tahow iitrir.tly iir>|iulation haa l>«!f!n adjiiatf^l and in ^ovt:nit:t\. 
Yat hrifh thfw lawtt an; ntt ttuHUUnd and w; adininiatitritd that 
th^ alwaya allow, on the wholf;, a Mi(Nh-rat4; and {(raduaUid 

71i«t avf ra(i[«T aj/';^ of human dfatha dinrloM; to tia ntnuf. of 
tha lawn hy whnh our mortality ia a^Ksrially rf:{(ulaUs<i, and 
Ukerftforr I will ntatr to you what I havii iiotirfd on ihia anlij#-.rt. 

f>iit of n<-iirly 4,fKKI,(KKI of M>th wxtm who wvrt: huri^d in 
H|[ht<-^n yrara in Kntfiarid ami Wah^a, alinoat four ninthH of 
Ihn maU'^ tUM\ nndftr Hixtr.rn yvHtH of agf;,* and half of thfni 
diMl \H'twr*-n twi-rity-thr«T«; and twf;nty-n>ur. t Thua th'; law 
4f d«-at}i [ir'-vrritf'd r^ntirftly thf. fi/Ht jKirtion from U;iiij( fath'-rn ; 
ifid, arrordirif/f t«i th<: iiMiial ratf; and hahita of mf;n*a marry iri({ 
in Knyland, t/xik away onf half of thf: horn majf*! iK^forn th«:y 
eoiild rnlarfc thf jiripiilation of mankind. Thia law confin''-f] 
it, tli«rffor«:, to ariai! from thu olh<;r lialf; and of th'iae, from 
•0 many aa ahould rhoo<w; to marry. 

* itt t.(l3H/l3A wntmn wIm wnm huriad hfrtwiNm IHtS and IHaO, (ha 
■alM wrr« I.Mft,|g&. Mr Ritkman han nlaaaMl ih«MrinUiiti«ilr aic"- 
Th«i uutii*0T ot rlirffi wb#>f1iKl iindar Kiin^n waa 8K&,739; fbur nmiha 
WMkI tiavr ti*«fi H»t7.'irin. 

t lli^ iiiiri«-fl iiNil«r (w«inijr-PMir w«r«i l/i01,l48 ; ona half would liav* 
bMi 9MLM7. Tf . Am. Atmt., vol. i., p. x»vi. 


If, from the geoBnl ATenge of the nation, ^m tan fa tht 
proportions as to the males in each coonty, then W9 find Iht 
same diversities, though always within a restncted emafam, 
as attend all the operations of the lawi of population, to Ar 
as their established limitations allow.* 

In our great metropolis the rates also wrj ; hut fitom tut 
fifths to one half wcro every year found to be dead by tfivrtf 
years of age. t 

Of the females who died in England and Wales during Ai 
eighteen years above mentioned, less than two fifths died 
sixteen. t Thus our general conclusion may be, that 
four ninths to one h^ of our males, and two fifths of mH 
females, constitute the general average portion wlaeh dciA 
is yearly taking away, so as to prevent them from being Ai 
parents of any new generation. 

In other countries, laws as restrictive, and in some non 
largely thus operating, are likewise acting to limit the noabtf 
of the producers of the populations that succeed esek t^ 
existing race. These will show us what a powerful ud Hi* 
tained system has been established, in the natural eonise if 
thinffs, to keep every nation in that state and within thoM 
nunu>ers in which, from time to time, it is subsisting. 

The causes everywhere aro in action which produce the n* 

* Thas, of those buried in Bedfordshire in the elchteea Teais, oas 
diird died under foar, two flAhs under eleren, ftrar aindis under d^' 
and one half under twenty-six. —Fop. En. ▲bet., vol. Ui., p. 6. Is 
one third died under six, two fifths under eishtaen, four nimta 
twenty-fbur, and one half under thirty-two.— lb., p. 16. In Cambrels' 
^ire, one third soon after two years, nearly two fifths under 0ve, fear 
ninths under ten, and one half under nineteen.— lb., p. Sst la Li^ 
cashire, one half of the males died in seven years. Tbase touMim wSk 
serve as a specimen of the provincial differences in their local raiflaaf 
monality-Hme half dying so variously ai the years seven, ntasCMi, 
twenty-siz, and thirty-two. 

t According to the bills of mortality in 1818, one third died oadar li% 
fbur ninths under twenty, and one half under thirty. In 18M, asailf 
one third died under two, and above half at twenty. In ISn, one tuH 
with the stillborn, did not die till Jast above five ysars, two Aftie wait 
dead at twenty, but not one half till thirty years had el^Mad. in I8ML 
one third died under ft)ur, above four ninths und«>r twenty, and one hatf 
under thirty. In ISSft, one third were dead by fiMr years, and aaariy oas 
half under twenty. In 1836, one third were not dead till ssvso yaas, 
two fifths by twenty, and one half not till thirty-three. 

X The females were 1,942,301. Of these, 767,317 died under aixMaa: 
two fifths would have been 776,980. Bather above half, or 97S^0M,dlH 
oodlar rireoiy-nJaa.— Rieknaa Fog. Mmiu, ^«i^. N^ v> ixxn. 


u4«mI, Ui mr»§tiUn$'M wwb Chi; Cwalar** piuMi, for «fteli 
Wr MM %kmir tt^nAunt m CbMr irfliM:!*, buC U«« 
(.vi|4i«f*'4 iIm ki«vwMg» Ut dfiAliifuMk wMJi tujr f«r> 
ml ii«<K)r •|/*-#iA«-iiii]r mid |/fM'i«rJjf «/«. Our «u|^w> 
•</«4i i|«M«4i iM«r Ima i^ufiM**, mj4 Mil u» *t"mmiA (m cIm 

tit m Umlt </f lli« b(#rfi 4«)Mif t SmUtHf i\my Iwvc; bf»*liM4 

I <M4 ••/til * At '^J«'«M tfir IfM/rlJlJitjr |« MliJi IHlifV 

«iiX ivk4/ ih»'U nif 4rMl If/ ib» ii|(ft <#f Uir*« jrfMm.f 
w$mtm\ •'ti»\tu*r </l KiMM* Uiir oprfniMMMi f^l tlMc MMirtal 

: tuiJI *y| U**- li«/ff< 4i*: tnUn^ Uwi •gat vl ttfUMrii ^t but 

4m*ht viriiK-h '/« « iiff(-<J i» HitJuthy in tii^ «ii«'««4wir4i 
3M IH^'4. «i«'J IHM, Miw.ij Nl«f/v4r fmlf w«r« utitiKr «is 

niff, n^ It 0nn^ Ui ^itfit '-i-hfeii« ir i5iit ifM' i^riftliitt 
m «/f Otf </<titi m'/iH)r nHnjiifr-il « fii)r oM Njjf ** 
Itffd «/f Oir <l*«/J til /<4ift«j« lutvc Uvt^ Umu tMUf^n Ut 
tittfi */rt Hi iitf- Uiffriii^^iit**' y*itn m jHffiUMn vtny 
[jr*MM )iin{r fell ( <j •/«]>< y , H t/ui tUit *hus th)r<i M/if*|>r)««<t 

l«A#w«, '*i«i 111 Vriini. MM- f If Mil i1»« <ifi Ui* 4ay <#f ilMrif Uub, 
W^^liifi ■ if«</fiiii. WW IliifO Wrilliiii « >4«f , iih4 « Utlt l«eflM« Um 
r to 4/wtft}ti«-u4 AiiAii 11*:)^, |> 111 

^M^jaii^i. irtM w«» ^ Mil iiM avcrsiw NVHitMr «t •hiiimI 
il»4ll«u4 i^ii tii«' r<Mf yr«ift li>#iit )MM bv ilM7, w«r« ir/d, ttf 
«•!« iiM#<ii»i 4.*4 01*/, aii^ ri'iiM vfi« Ut ilifM y«w«4il4 X74 MMfff*. 
wiMU. Ill . f. wr/ 

l.uiv af*i^ i^yi P SXt "If ii M'*^«' itui f'lf «Im( ftiif MM« te- 
r llic it^nttum. kiiOiU fl«y*hiy «ii4 i«j'/M«l»/fiM II Ml MM *H iImnW 
l«« •«i4 •«• *mfUin4 u, III* ihifidii-, KwMife WfifiM M Diiw In 
«i * " 'Im- ii*i/fiail-i)r <ifi4<« Afu^fi i« irrtfMiMM in cItvM afMi 
Jkm Ki*r I'tfifi. 'i«i«<#««li. «iti) .^•Mll .iVMVf<M«f4 * Ml ttmium, 

r«fy IV/i '^ *'' •!»•• WlMi4l*'1 ilU'kf ntunen M«l« MJ •! MlltHl 
I, <M il* 'I «/M*l»lr 444 III IVf Ml. 41tt IM llMf " III 

itaiMK vkiiM 4«««1 4iii4ir# AfiMTfi. M) III mittU J(JIM4j«4 iim4m Ar« 
ivvf^u^ '/M .11 'I'i^MiMk yw; III I'tfiifi " III N lb, 

4»ma .fi f«w wt'M 47 vjt- Of iu«r. itM Hwrfiiwr MUlKMni aaJ 
1 w«-i« M <im III IMI4 ill* nnn,iMtim w*r« 0«;.JVI •M W.iW , 
«,M I feft4 y; .«>/<) Mf l'ii>i«/ii, »x«i »>*• A'«*4 J*tlA. |f M* 

Ml flM i.'ji(iiA'i« (!•«' •«|IVl»«^i ff/«ly WtfK Ui Ml^l yWlf lll#vV* ■ 

Mii^i 4i«4. ■• if<;6ii III iteM, K.,»y-. Ill 1^11, i(,yw Ml iMM 

UmftmuBU umm *t^tm4 9m4 ttxkmt^ iImW ^IWM %f«te V* 

or Tn woELD. 189 

I llBfliwif||i^ MMffly WM tfaM dJM tindvf two tww of 

, iMt •liMMl inm hftir hftd Hir«4 Ull thirty.* 

t flftfeMjr, thtt mortftlity oprrbUm tiMMt lu^ty on tiM 

ifMl. llire« Mfththn of the horn in IUSS w«m dM4 un» 

NM year of tg« ;f ihotn hftif w«Fe d«*^ hy mi y«ar« of 

it *nd fthnOfft foiir unvisfnthfi hy foiirtMn ; t proportion 

fk WM fiompfctfid at twenty.^ 

Ife lh«*n hcrnm^t mort) jfto\tn^ftA ; hiit thamt opnrttioiM ro^' 

i4 th« parental pomihility to one third tloh« of the now 


I Fffttikfort, on thn ■t^riffff of twdve ymm, three eet- 

li of thr imlee Khd two nfthfi of the fcmdes diod vndor 

n^ynrsof tf^e.)! 

351040 njm 

" 40IO45 1»^ 


«* MioM 
•■ B6l««0 

ffNfnMnn** Donn^M fttMlqiiM, Mmi. And. fM«nR>. 
or ion* wIm iitMl M ilfttnbifrth, im w«r« aniw iwe jrteni and 519 
I ai**v Ibkrtr.- IMI. I^Mv., Ifttfl. p. B37. 

I aiMfia ffCMn Mr. i'rMMim'ii MaiMnfint to tb« HtatUMlcal Society In 

w dmtlM in IHas worn 47.tON. Of IhMM, IIM MHUMm mid IThmo 
T on* Tfmmr untminxtA to IT^IMH. c>na third would bavii been lft,7fle , 
^ M|hih«, 17.7-Vi. 

thn iMil y^ar ihi dMilh* mmn M.IM. AIkiva thrf« filffbfbM oflbwio 
oodiir mtm yfi«r, IttjSfM i thrm ^Ifhth* would hA«« Imkh 1M,7<I3 

IIM ih^ rffM-.H wfiri! rrioro Hitiil. Of flO,94l flMitb«, niuirly Ibnio 
iiih« ymmtp dMfl omlftr ono ytar, liclnf SI.SdA. ThriM Mvenlho 
Id hav^ h#w« 91^)3. 
la l^iSS Miis d'O'l iind^r nil jr««r« wnrn S4,0M ; oiia half would hav« 

•IjOie In lUI iho dMMb« andur ihn MHrni parM wart M,1W; 
bur wmM bam boAn I6,MI. In IWM the dnad andar ftla wara 
1; bair wovid liairf' hfian 3A.IV). Tba nmoaac waa in tlita year 
It 1I«^ iMfiUM. wtiirb woald tiavn \ttmn t7.0l3. 
fa jaai, ii(i«lrr rmirK^n, W.yiA . iirii|«ir Iwmity, SA.MJ. Pour a«T- 

• wiMild have b«^ii V.itV\. In IH32t, iiiidar ftwrlona, 97.747 ; and 
r fwaniy, VMM. Four oortnahii wohM bavo \imn flH,IUNi. Ho In 

Iho ftoiad uiiiirr TourtMn w^r*; IK,i77, aial und«r iwnniy, VftJW^. 

• wvfitlia WdiiUI )tav«! bMri Sh.TIM 

IHa dmd frinii iai7 u> IHXfi, al Pmnkforl-nn-lbO'Malm), w«n) Mia 
a and MM Innaloa Ofibaaa. WIft imImi warr drad by twanty, and 
Inoialm llM- ilinw anvnniha maloa wcfalil hava baaii HtfSI, and Ibo 
nfllM l^ma/*^, 9MI5«. - Hull f/nlv., It31, p. 1U. 


TlwM inatanees wiU foflke to iMd iu to an adopCka 
principle that the laws of death, in their geoenl open 
all countries, accoxding to the established agenciea and 
of nature, confine eyerywfaeie the renewal of the pqpn 
and all increase of it, to a portion alone of the newboi 
that this portion is not more thsa finom one third to o 
of each living generation. It is most frequently neai 
one third ; but from these must be deducted tliose w 
come too old to be parents ; and for this deduction fii 
fourth to one fifth may reasonably be allowed. Death 
used as an mstrument of limitation to adjust each pop 
to the other, and to keep every nation in its '"MmrffHi 
tion for the time being, and to adapt and prepare it 
frirther destinies. Its naduated varieties within these c 
scribing limits afford ul the scope and means for these 
fications that the purpose and emerging circumstances i 

But these laws and their governed applications paredi 
possibility of the geometrical increase of mankind, an 
never suffered it to take place. They have hitherto k 
numbers of all coexisting generations in that state wiu 
been successively most expedient for them ; and unti 
laws and these ratios and ^encies are changed, we neei 
fear a superabundant population in the worid. But no 
alter them except their Author, and when he change 
his wisdom and benevolence will make the mutation 
advantage to his human race. 


OrJhcr Lawt qf Dtatk.—Mortalit9 i$urea»u a$ Birtks inanmm.- 
rent Cowumon between the Tunee of their Oeevrrencc— Sdii 
Hoem Deathe and the Price of FwkL-^Mect qf CHmaU and 
JUndte of Chitdbirth.—Rqfieaimu an tttfmU Deathe. 

Mt DBAS Son, 
There are a few other laws of death, to which I e 
cursorily allude, as I am only taking those general t> 
this — as of my other great subjects — ^which will indici 
system and eiq>lain the principles of the sacred histoiy 
worid without that full investigation of any which tbei 
pJete elucidation would dfimvnd. 

OF n» WORLD. 131 

'1lBnft«MiUqf toflptBtl»|»UMaiiddinet theobMsr- 
iMhM af My fXBBf ca utoimw iarii to the themM which 
9ltam ilMir m wti o n, thu to ftumiih them with that plen- 

El if l uMw Hed g * OB eech object of oar inauiry which thoir 
if tn/h wad ntioiMJ views will deeire ; but which would 
rilCho DOfiMMi of tbeee letten, if I were tble to provide it. 
* OlM if M noet lemriuble of these laws, thoufffa at prcH. 
it ft vay Bqnrtorious tme, ie the eonneiion which tEere sceiiis 
llbi WKvoob the number of births and deaths with rcnpcct 
ll«di oitar. There are some grounds for thinking, that as 
te Hi JBCWiiee the other also multiplies. 

Mm ieefhe eve accompanied with more biithi in anv given 

fali^ «ad mora births with more deaths, llie Frcncu ecoi i- 

' mklB wad Mr. Sadler have pointed out this interesting fact. 

Uma can eaplain what It is that links them together ; and I 

am mkf nouee the few facu that I know which seem to im- 

Ml k d— nrrna your attention, if it be found to prevail to 
m atentv as another testimony, bow very determiuately and 
mM^ the production of life and death has been regulatiMi 
tti adjusted to each other. If they be thus promotive, and, 
thai oeeaakm requires, corrective of each other, the plan of 
Ulh haa been very deUberately^and sagaciously arranged, and 
h wril worth the attentive study of tliose who have sufficient 
kMue aisi inclination to pursue this curious train of iiKjuiry 
by an extended investigation. 

The fact has appeared at Maurienne, in Savoy.* In Nor- 
■udy, birtba ano deaths incrcas«id as eitlier were more nu- 
BMRNM.t In the Netherlands there were thogroatost numlM;r 
bora where the greatest number died.) 

Is ihs lewsr dMrleis, llis movenwnc 9t tbs populadon Is nioie rapid 

ibsnsr ibss Is Um omns el«v«iad rtcioiw. At MaurkinM, 

sad dsaUH fer iwsniy ysars ware as to 1000 ui (boss pro- 


Hltte 601 638 . OM 

« • • 4M M4 OflO 

BulL Univ., 18S1, p. tM. 
I n eiMsid as the Miths la cf sassd, bai In a largsr de- 

1801. 1811. 1810. 1881 lOIO-lHIO. 

Mtki . 81^78 . 88.608 . 80.81! . 8U76 . Oft.lOft 
8I,80» . 68,068 . 88,686 . 68,186 . 60,107 


lis raiJa of Mittaa wm ana te vhsbni^ Va 

taK«MM<irhnto«Hldirt^' • - r iri !<. 
te.t felUM^<tMiH>Ddte£iaU>artf^ 

h lb* t*k» ibM.4 TV M> Atte, D 

OF THl WORLD. 138 

to uiM fnm the larger mortality of young 

Tho enriosity of the inqidaitiTe has been even extended to 

mA the hours of the day in which the different portionB of 

Iniha occur. 
b the pole I will ineert what was obsenrod in twelve years 
^ ' which is said to correspond with the experience 

b WW kmod, on considering what occurred at Hamburg, 
te man died and were bom l^twoen midnight and the nizth 
hMV MIowiqg, than in anr other part of the day.^ In Italy, 
^■■Oftal agencies sflect those most numerously who are bom 
k As winter months, as if the winter season was most unfa- 

Under twenty Under Ibny Forty and 

years old. years. upward. 

lBaftaa&%soeaty . 97M 5031 4WH) 

IsaiMrvAfcoaBly . 4970 0009 4105 

nsasmnlls . 45M 6111 9hHl 

I a^sTClMslcr . 4538 0000 3034 

^ Nerwteb . 4009 0040 3tf51 

CSrIWs (Anneriy) . 5310 0St5 3074 

CSrlmie (now) . 5008 OMT 3071 

(WOTSted-Minaeis) . StMW 7001 3030 

^^^^■Uh-siinnUif I g^ ,jpj, ^^ 

(esiise spinning) . 5011 

I (dluo) ... 0083 

Bhf (dliio) . . 0017 

■laekpsfft (dluo) . . 0005 











(ditto) . .0113 

sUkSSSaS I • ***• ^^" ***• 

Britaek (flss-spUinlof ) . 0133 7837 3063 

Tliaa, sboet ss many dted be/ore iwunty where tbo fhctory syetem 
fvtvsUs ■• 5^Wv fbny elsewhere. 

* ** A rapM loerasse of populstion Infhrs the Mrth snd existence of a 
lsff|S pfvponkNi of ioftnts ; and tberelbre a large proportion of short- 
livsd pstsoiM, thereby secdersting pro ratd the lime uf lifiB or age at 
kalfol the popalstUm collectively are dead.**— RIckroaii., vol. 

1., a. alTl. 
f Ths dsallM ocenrred st the (bllowing hoars 


■nCSfl. HOB MHO. 





1 tm 





• 9tt 





t 990 




4 949 





i 931 





• 9U 







BtUl. Unl*., \W9,'«sL%.,>. W. 



Tomtble to babe life.* As between the rich and poor, it ap> 
pean that, after the age of twenty-five, the wealthiw thm 
nave «the longest comparative life.t As more males than 
females are bom, fio more males die within any given period4 

The effect of the price of food on deaths ^s b^n abo 
considered. Mr. Sadler admits that marriages sometimes in- 
crease where wheat is cheaper, but denies ^n augmentation 
of births.^ 

One inquirer into the value of hmnan life concludes that a 

* Dr. Treviranus ft^und, that of 100 bom in the winter montlvi «r 
December, January, and February, 86 died in ttie first mootta, 1ft alk» 
ward, and iliat only 19 sutTived ttie first year. Of lUO boni ia iki 
sprinx, 48 survived the flmt year, and 63 of those bom in summer, aod 
M of those bom in autumn.— Lend, and West. Review, No. 10, pi SL 

t The comparative mortality flt>m 25 to 80 between the rich, and pur, 
and the general state, has been thus distinguished : — 






«•« l-4i 











. -i-sr 



























. 8-109 

. 14-59 


*_t__-« *•_ 

BuH. Univ. 

, May, 1880^ pt. 801. 

At Baden It was ascertained that the richest of its eircies was ito 
least Increased in population.— lb., 1881, p. 44. 

t AH the burial accounts prove this Act. Ttie registered desths Ar 
eighteen yeara, flrom 1813 to 1830, were, in England and Wales— 
1,096,195 males; 1,943,301 females. 

Rickm., vol. lit, p. 487. 
In the ten years between 1831 and 1830— 

1,351,105 males ; 1,311,803 females.— lb., 488. 
Russia, in 1834 — 

Male deaths, 657,833 ; females, 633,176. 

^ ^ . ,«.^ Journ. Petersb., 18th Mareh, MM. 

Denmark, In 1830— 

16,396 male deaths; 14,998 females. 
., ^ .^. . « ^ Porter's Stat. Boeiety. 

$ On this point Mr. Sadler disputed Mr. Milne's conclusions, that at 
increase of food and a reduction of its price not only promoted marriagei, 
but made the children more numerous.— Vol. ii., p. 335. His 15th dup* 
ter is directed to show that it ia not trae that man breeds up to the leval 
of his food, and that he multiplies in proportion as it becomes cheap sad 
p/entinil.—Vol. U., p. 336-55. He thinks that, although ease and afflo- 
•oosinovase with increasmg num\>eia,'^«\\3Q!vs^\»\x&ahL\!te oroHIe- 
nm9, and elms limit the mu!iapUG«iik»a fA tDW0L>i^tsA.— N<A..>au^V«^ 



■Ddento price hat been most faTOimblo to it ;* tnothnr haa 

•afeulmlcd that low pricea are injurioua to tKo poor, OHpvrially 

te the agricultural diatricta ; whilo hiffh onos are most cliHad- 

mmageoae to the manufacturera.t But thcMO topicM roii(*rrii 

MilMT tho relation and the conduct liotwecn man and iiihii, 

Mid the proprr Icfpulation or rr^uUtioniiwith roHpcct lo thnii. 

Plovidcncc rommaiida the mipply to ariiw from itN {{riioral Hur- 

firr alike, whether spinncn or nlotiKhmcn inhabit it. He ^i vcn 

to all, and leavca it to oumulvvM to take, apply, partukt; of, 

and diatnbuto.t 

U ban been diaruaiied what cflfcrt locality, and climato, and 
civil inatitutiona have on human lifu and fcirtility. 

Mr. MUiw. In tola '* Trvalin on AnnuiiiiM,** Infkni that ftwrr dh 
Ml km aol loo low nor loo hixh. Too hixh a priue raiim'N a 
iiy i and a loo kiw one, a want of Hufllcifliii wnyea or em|ilouiiiiiii. 
t w ii|» a f— tiM pnr«M of a quartnr of whpai with this mortality that or- 
~ under tlmni, and ibua ralculatcd the miulta :— 

llmlar 40 ahillinga . . 1 m 37 dM. 

Fran 4U to 90 
60 10 70 
70 to 80 
AboTO 100 



UndOT 40 ahllllnfa 


tin 41 
I in 40 
1 in 45 
1 InM 
1 in 90 
Mr. Baia haa rnlrulaled the bnrlala In each inlllton of population, 
an avarage of fbity yaara, Arom I7H0 In 1H90, and compan'a tbam 
Ika prleea of wliaal a qaarl»r, and dnducod thcao rvMulia •— 

HuriaU In Uurlala In 

Wbaat. Sevan Manufhcturlng Savon A|[rtrullaral 

(knintiea. Countlea. 

Sl,4a0 . S9.I09 

9S,M4 . 13,119 

SI, 090 . Sl.lHl 

S0.3AH . Itt.TOO 

IU.909 . lH,9v>A 

IU.N73 . 17 990 

ltt.300 . 17.417 

S3.7H0 . S0.4H0 

Th» lenoral averafn of the rf>latiu«i brtween tba prleaa of whtwt and 
■onbrr of dnach« ban honn Iboa rprkoiMd on a million of the burial* 
•ecarrad bofwean I7V3 and 1M» :— 
Undar 90 ithilllnga SI.MO bnrlala. 

aoiooo . . tO.rtlH 

60 to 70 . t0.010 

TOloHO . 19.90S 

MioOO . 19,H73 

gotoioo .... 1«1.«« 

60 to 60 
60 to 70 
70 torn 


go to 100 








Mr. Sadler infers that popuUtkm I c we ne m k 
condeiuod, and is lower in mountainous coimtxMe thn a 
plains, and in the frigid than in the temperate regiooa of tiM 
globe.* A French gentleman, who has sUy inTestigtfed At 
subject, decides juHtly, that population is not confined to mf 
one law,t and that soil, climate, and temperature have no diF 
rect action on the intensity of the productiveness, eicept, ■ 
particular caseH, from the particular causes which he imnnMti 
atcs.t He aHchbcs great influence in this respect to fuffi- 
cient and regular employment,^ especially under a mild nd 
free govcmiuent \\\ justly connecting the laws of our incniM 
with our social and i>olitical meliorations. IT 

Another limitation of the maternal supplies to popdatkn 
takes place in that diminution of the producers which atleodi 
the very period of the arriving nativities. From the LoodM 
bills of mortality, this would seem to occasion a deduction d 
portions wliich vary from one ei^th to rather fnore than OM 
twelfth of those who die that could be mothers. This occm^ 
reucc, by withdrawing so many of the essential fountains of 
our earthly l>ei»g, is a proportionate preventive of the ovtf' 
whelming excess which has been so seriously dreaded.** 

* Sadler, vol. ii., p. 352-4. 

t M. BsnoiHtoii de Chaieauners notice on the iniensUy of ptfnlsltfW 
wss resd in the Acad, de feteiencea, 33d Oct., J81A. lie says ■* ihsc aii- 
tber the births uor deaths ToUow s law ooounon to svary eounury ; As 
proportion varies fh>m people to people ; firom canton to eaoioa ; ttam 
town to town." 


% ** To have work is to hare the means of living. Hence, In Mns* 
fhcturinc ptmces, where thoru ia a conunual demand Ibr labour, the fSfPS^ 
lation is in fenenU numeroun." — lb. 

II He adda : — " llicre are not nomerous births smong a poor or op> 
pr eeaed people, or where they are deflcient in agriculture, iodosiry, or 
liberty. Jlanee tlm)e popiUatioru diminish."— fb. It wss an as0» 
tslned fhct,thsi In St. lioininffo, In 1788, three blsck marrlaassgsvsoaly 
two children, while every white one had three.— Page^ TraUe da ~ 
nsroa des Cdoniea, p. 31b. 

IT "Theae roodiflciuloiia of the population, aa well aa those of aai ., 

and death, are atricily connected with the elate of man In sodecy, sod 
are a certain indication of the goodness of these instltmioos, and of 
their degree of civilisation.'*- Per. Dull. Univ., 1897, p. 17. 

** I ground the calculaUon on aix biUa of mortality now befbre ms ftr 

the yeara 1818, I8'J4, 1M39. IHS3, 1835, and 1836 ; taking fVom eachofthasa 

the nuinbera ol'both aexea who died between flfleen and forty-flve ss aU 

who could be mothers, aa nearly aa they can be ealculated, and eoosid' 

eriag one moiety or tbeiie lo he (etnaloM^iia the total amount oTatislwvn 

lAsi (Jisy were only a Uule \ssa vVuui vYnii ^n^oc^V tsA^SMM tssaUsi 

or THB WOALO. 137 

«llFeofiaUtittt«l or rigbUy-oducftUid inind wtil ba ahmuA 
laowkidipf of MMih « iNMMbUity ; for it in to Um bonour 
irnisift aiiifii, «fid on* of lU gr««i««i moral h«uuum, 
etMrrutMw Ukwci rdigious M:iMibiliti«« wliieh iinfMUt a 
uott, ft cofifid4siitf:«, ftiid « well-|{rouiidfKl Uuyn of {jfo- 
■lATCotir, tluu |ics<:uliM/ly »v«il u« whf;n liuin«n MMiit- 
fftfwH lj«ri«sfit. liut «u<:h ts¥*:nin itra i\mUi kuAkieut to 
lOtii purriiiii rtntsivti Urn tmie. tUiU^tsry hn h |iruyid4ifitiftl 
f ; Uj M:4:k (or it ii» kiii.'h wilti jtulu.MiUk lornvlj^til ; Hful 
MM for Utff tui|i(iy iMiitr II KfiiK'liil iu:kiKiwl4:dgifiisiil. 
• Imirfei l«:ll ItiA wi«<i«j|li of vurti coiuliK:!, liftfl tliO IikmI 
ilifc favour Mid pri^iiltuii* mil on kiu:h o<:i:ii»ioiim. AimI 
a* Uioii(/lil il fiiM:«:ii«aryi or UmI It woiiM Ik: UMjful to 
lO Itif'ir f/iifriiMiifiil lUylliiii, iiii<t oilnir iffiiif(ilM:d ii<:Hi|{«, 
Uff|Hi(:«iiofi« mul Uiiiiik«j/iviti((, tli«: fJlijiAlimi iiiothi^r 
t Im 1«:m f:«rriiMt to liwlify to tin: iJtvuuz rtsitlity wiurtn 
irm IIm i/t/nUiutiti u\it: itsvlm iuf litt: bli;ti»lfiK aliA luiM m- 

ntelfiiaitirfitifit* urul viiri(:tii:» of our diriklimi fnith Imvci, 
rf , ■'Jifi': aiii ri!<l f-*Tf«:iiioiiiiti o( ll|j« tort : /or it u oiio 

tl«:*ift-« of (t»<: liMlfUii liiait to lilllr thi; f/li:iif)k lUiii tJtO 
ifuly o1 i/iviiij/ voi>:i: to it* th^jiikful crinolioii* it 

■ lf<Tiii'fii«.fioii« from llifc (/ijar<liMii»lii|i it tiO|#«:« for. 
!»«: kl-^uy^ r«tioriiil, mul, tutint-.iif m <liiiy, to u«<:, with 

f.nlfiiiiCM, ^vl:ry |iri:<-<-«liiif/ r«ri; i «ii<l to confulu wiUi- 

irf^hi-iiaiofi III Lli': |irofi'««ioiiHl akill vtUtr.U ifi«y lift »•:- 

V«-t iIk' |/fi-iil |Mlliuiiiiiii wliif:h, oil i\ii:%*i mul on nil ttio- 

■ Miii-r;/('firii-«, ttioiilil \tt: mtuutfii, mn liitt ii«<i«l ftrrlum 
lOii, i« liial •ii|i|*«iri mi'l III iii:«lir Lion wlii«:h i« VMy mrdy, 
ai»lu:i(i-<l 111 v«iii wliirii thi) hi^art iH-liliona for It* Ih#oii ; 
M lUr iniii'l l>i:hi-vi-ii thut, wtui Jl <l«Tfi:r«-ritiiilly Mk* for, 
ik:«a wiac mul kiml |iiir|>«iiif« iiv«:rl it, U: griu:iouiily Ui- 

'irry < oijiifry, ilf Uwm of ilniilh luivii innzit |«<rririiltMl or 
M Ui liik«; nvtiay vi-iy Ur^firly lh<i fii:w <:oiiii:ik In ihfctr 
»Ur Olji: Ihlffl <li<:, III »<illlC llOUIllri*:*, Hi tlnbir firtt 

iMMl III I iiiiiliiMt, m . Umi inun^lm iMtwiMn flftoMiiui4 tortyivc 

4 , ifrMin/num, 1 m I'l S ). 

\M l(/i. rniiiiirft, tiiia, hrarly I )ii IS. 

Uml 31), l*!iii«it:«, UJi , 1 IK 10 » 7. 

|>Vf| 77'*, rrin.ilr., 'Xl-Vl , 1 ill 10 II. 
IMMI 77'i , lelfi4Je», »iM, lifM ijUiU 1 III H. 
'Mma IT%. MtuMUtm, 3H»> i III U S ft. 

188 THB tACRIl) HUTOftT 

yMTf in olhen befora two jwiiy In otn wttAf iBdfli iknib 
As knowledge increuM, end fUvotaA jnJgmwit impon 
«nd the Mob to rear the oStgiritig whrye, ind the mdi 
hnbiHtf to maintain them leaeeH^ lad move cem m thenM 
■ppliea to nreeerre them, thie rmf eailjr amrUlitj wffl bi 
mnch dinunnhed. Yet it aeeme loo great to be entuely p» 
TWted tv eny human efforts. It has theappeennceof bdm 
one o£ las eonstant laws that an at praeent attached to «■ 
pamtd system. 

Xhis dispensation is one of the afflietione whidi 
•sdgned to accompany the present state of oar nkume^ 
bnt tt leads us to recollect that the spirit <rf life is not 9mt\ 
guished by earthly mortality. It is onl^ bom boo to mK 
also elsewnere, and the action of death is bat s lesionl rf ft 
to another locality ; so that, ta far as it concerns lbs M 
yidual soul, it can make little appaxent difiSoienco to Ai 
whether it passes iu being in this wotld or in anothar. i%' 
while it is in being, it must exirt somewhere, its remotal if 
death only changes the scene of ite eoniycionsDesB ; adidw 
this occurs in imancy, the transfer is effected befian ItsTOMf 
affections haye become much developed, sad whilo its aetai.i 
place of being must be most indifferent to it If jjt dMH 
from parental attentions here, to which its biilh entitled % ft 
is still under the care of its best and greatest Psisat, end tmh 
not, therefove, be in any way injured by the cfaai^ of its phes 

We Know not where this preeissly is, or in ^p^iat sodsly ft 
passes ; but we may be certam, from the maoifeet benevolcnes 
and assured kindness of our Almighty Benefactor to efoy 
unoffending human creature, that the removal never will bs H 
the disadvantage of those who are thue removed ; nd thMl 
disappearance, with the conviction that they are liviiir hnfif 
in some other region of being, will then be a metamqtmBr. 
ing our thouo^ts and affections from our temponrf nvdi 1* 
those grand future destinies which we are exhoiM WMK ^ 

* The Rev. T. Dale, In his plessiaf poem oa the Death of the IM 
Child, has eonooled himself with views of this deseripCioOp whlsllllMV 
hf soothing to others to read and think o£ 

Fftrewell, my yoonf blossom ! 

The fhirest, the fleetest; 
The wide of tm Ykosma^ 



All taMi wife codM dMrtril ; 
ffte wMm Mil MMr'4, 

Am! «mmC m(«r« h ; 
•nm m4 Mpw M iMMlng. 

f>«i4 |ny«r« 4t««iri ihMf 

I WMlM MVI «fM iMin ltM« 

rA! MM NMjr 4m« alttwbMf 

Barti CM b«l mrumtMf, 
A«4 lM««Mi H ^*6»nt am. 

rih |Mr«lM«l ' «h *••««« • 

My arm Mill mm nttitntA, 

My pfy^ •*<» *M'i' MMIC4 UbM} 
IM M*w til M «a4«4 ' 

||«w w^irdfM ilisl Mfbittf 
My Miiy«r h*m Me«;n4«4 ' - 


MyU«<- I«4»mii4>i:' 

A tnmn to mil*"! 
T«k« ih« C«tt "••* "*"" f****vL^ 

TaM »h« ■"•' ihiM ili»o mvmC— 
|il»'lMi«»«ft4 tof nf«r' 



akMdUaqf the Plana and PriiidfUM CHwUehFomdtiim hat 
muUd; andqftkeFurposetufkiekanfikehUMdhifiL—ii\ 
htm m^wiout to Soaefy. ■ ^ , 

Mt dbar Son, 

Having gono through our statistical eyaminationi of Ihi . . 
natural laws and experienced course of human popuktiooi «• 
may proceed to reason on the DivjjM plans concening it fa 
which we have laid the preceding fiwndition. 

From the historical information which ^9 possess of thfr 
state and transactions of the world before we were boiDi wi 
are entitled to conclude that it has been, from the bedimiiijt 
decided by our Creator that mankind should multi{3f, finft, 
the few survivers of the deluge, into their present luimbi 
by slow and varying gradations and in separate popoktioM. 
They have branched olf from their original stocks ani fiMi 
each other into numerous distinct settlements or into miBip 
ting tribes, of which some have become nations more or MS- 
lasnng. From the results we may infer that it was his IntentiBa^ ' jj| 
that human nature should exist upon the earth in this conditWD ; > 
and should have their various transactions with each other of 
amity lud -hostility which the annals of each nation record. 

It is clear, from what has taken place, that no irresistibki 
or unchangeable, or ungovemed law of population has evtf 
operated or displayed itself in any part, and never in the |I0> .- 
metrical ratio ; but that, in all ages and nations, the wxHuA. }, 
cation of mankind has been permitted or conducted hbht Ji 
special laws and to special results, peculiar, not to each tesir 
torial region, but to each aggregation of human society tiat - 
has spreaid and settled in its habitual locality. 

We perceive, from the history of each nation, that it has 
never been in any unceasing course or ratio of augmentation 
or decline, nor fixed in any stationary pause. If a stationary 
law had been made the permanent rule, mankind could not 
have multiplied from the time of its promulgation. But we psr- 
ceive that they have enlarged into tneir present state. Theie* 
fare, no paralysis of this aoit Yiaa \m«gl xmy wA "osyaLthflk 

m TIfS WOftlr»« 141 

Mr Imw iJU t mi m U tm km nl uny mikw*i4m^ nih, 
MU* !«• wif Um* t4 4*^\Uitf At^fit^uiiMt, m mnmf 

«M Mft« l"fi|f muitf. ig^rtiis li/ ^mU:, HM fMMi|(ifl4 IkOuEl 
•4 ^ •:ilt««r# </f UffcMK Uw« tuVllfg Ui*!! IMmU l|i« mU 

fek m/-j«m: i4 ItUitmk UUi, l/iit U*«l tttti «|{*M:y m/ «Mb 
tfit OtiK jthu Uir i^tjtitiitiyfiiM *A KgfM|«ft li«ir« 


Mi ' 

t IMM £i*ftfi «l ffiMMi kitti lu fh*^ ^t vkry, «« Uutiimt mil 
|^< Iff f.«i ./i^, |/i'«i-fiii«l t<« >i lf<i( w)f|j»fi Om:«* lim- 

tf M ■*« ^i<«^j««l ^t<«'* <«f i|«* 4«; WblAlt |i«»« J«Ml «-«MM W- 

4«M*My. I*-*/ 

HMUMtwr' **M.*miu» « icM*^ !»•« }^i^l»um*d tH^A^i.^ tut IMM, 

MMW ik« H.«<*f <i>i«t/«4 uinuth* *^ 1f,*4f*yt, tii tuil i/mmrm mud 
f, te« ■!•* «•«•«>: :«»• '(.HI. • i(,ffi> iiiif4 |A«i ill i«« )*«'•; 

Ifgrr- ' I «Mi III* MJMi •ugWfCNiMfMd «Matii««4 yii<l<ii n iiii«li*4 

* About SOO years ago, Olaiu Radbeek, in bis ** Attantlea,* 
of tbe prolific nature of bis Swedisb countrywomen. He IbM 
tobe oneoftbedistinguiabing natural advantages wbieb Swsdsi' 
Joying; yet notwitbsundin^ tbe Act, of wbich begiTeo loMH 
Qaasual increase baa muluplied tbe population or Swedes. Oo Ihi 
contrary, we see in tbe fbllowing oerieo tbe same fradoal 


wiji under his saperinteudeiice, and baTe always takm thi ; 
conne which his purposes hare requiied. Hence eroy »> 
tion exhibits a special and peculiar series of result, both aa ti 
its coexisting numbers and its social state. Those whkk 
once flourished have at length disappeared, as his plana i^ 
pointed ; and those which arc now prominent have anaen no 
thpir present multitudes and history by no fixed law er ntii 
whatever, but by those graduationa, suspensions, alteroatiosib 
and auccessions which each displays to the obserring jid|f* 

The Divine plans as to each particular population mmk be 
aought and studied in its particular history ; and with tki 
lights afiforded by this, in the bearinss and connexion of it on 
the transactions and states of the omer nations with which it 
has been concerned ; extending, likewise, tho observatiOB ts 
the condition and course of the rest of the cmitemptHSiy wodd, 
and of the future events which it haa more remotely oontab- 
nted to effect ; for the plans and agencies <^ Proridsncs OS 
framed on a large scale, and with long, and eaqMoaifSf ad 
numerous consequences. 

laghiMi ] 

wbieb aeens to bave been tbe moat general law in Europe doriag ihi 
last century, and wbieb confirms tbe view we bave taken of the ml 
laws of population and tbeir natural results. Tbe CoL Carl, af Vnril, 
in bia ** Siatistik von Scbweden," presents tbis statemont to as, falvlli 
tbr tbe lenpli and eootinuity of tbe series, being elgbty years >— 
In 1751 tbe population amounted to . I,785,7f7 

1700 l,89S,Mt 

177i 1,019,771 

1780 ....*.. f,118J81 

1785 1,143,171 

1700 1,150,401 

1705 1,980.441 

1800 1,347301 

1805 1,411,771 

1810 1,377,851 

1815 1,405,000 

18S0 1,564.000 

1825 9,771,151 

1830 1,888,061 

Af fhls rate, Sweden would be 100 yean in doal>ling its pnpoliHH^ 
JTU ooocinued in a sUnUar au|;m«n\ax\«»i 


coding to all these relatione iias iiii- popuiaiiun o: even* 
y been regfulated and couUucied \^"iii'- jm- utt: ihb- 
pected to be repeated in tiit pTun:\\n' i>' i;m (jir<--.:u: 
rill ao cODtinuc. always witi: n-lerfur* i-- fa'.*:, jw a!.- 
I evolving luturc. Wt- mreui djspariv. j:o;:. »■«.■■■ m:-!*- 
T- ill frequent competlUou^ aiiri alifiiaiiuii^. ntvpr imiitk- 
lat, as nations, wt have- any aflinilii-> wii: t-o'-'. uUiei. * 

hesc are human ffei:n(r!i unc! prt-!U(ll<.'t■^ \\ ' 'ai' al- 
tera of oiie earthly family ui tii* vtvw hu(: uif<i;::'i_' o: 
relator. AVe art aiHM><:iaieC loantitr. unc: ri-^drar'" «^ .* 

icv and order of beiiius ni ni^ nnnd and piuii^ : ant! t:. ^ 

all the generations that apiH-'ar and at-uan ari hkev^i^i . C 

jcted together. Our personal inn-res** wii:. uur woric ' 

fith each other ceaae on our individual death. a« in»- p«i- 
of our own body aeparati- from u> to be repidced by 
i. But every now generation and all their individuaU 
1 his sight, but so many suecrd(<ivt- portions of one hu- 
laturc, of one great order of humai. being : uia expaii- 
^wing. fertihzing. fructifying, and unpruiuig uiind. tx- 
in milhons of individual frames, and acquiruii: iii each 
and qualities which otiiers art withuur : hu: all vtill tin < 

lified compartments' of unt- {ireat MritvnH and lueair* o' 
nee, whose linai stale ttecintt hkely ic i» in*, cunceni ru- 
in the last populations tha: Fiial! }ius»'t.'&> th< eariti. of ul. 
ttainments and impruveluent.^ wuici. a'.! iiii-ir '{•rdiicia> 
nredeceaaors mav liave acquued. This colifciivi vou- 
ition of the past and ])rei*ent. hi the individual imiit! thai 
«8 to lead an inu-Ueciual life, is already iurui-ly lakiug 
; and our many ^scK•mlric, literary, poliiical. eoiniiier- 
md civil associations of all tforia. art eacii cuniributiug 
St result. Innuisiiive {H>rcioiis art beeunuiiL' more tiu n-ul 


The expaoBiont or contnctions of our Tarioas pc 
hare bden always governed on theae principles. 1 
des are invisible, but their effects appear in the reev 
•re saccessively educed. At present an au^^menti 
•Dce has been given to them ; but even this is actii 
moderation in its impulses which implies a directing i 
Oar own numbers seem to increase most largely ; and 
advert to the fact that we are now the most colonixi 
in the world, we see an intellectual connexion of dt 
execution between this political tendency and our 

The English, Scotch, and Irish populations are a 
led to be the greatest settlers of the distant and l 
vated regions ; and they carry Christianity, morals, 
erature, science, manufactures, commerce, taste, 
good feeling, and good sense wherever they enter 

Tlieir increased multiplication bears a coeval d 
these increasing colonizations ; and I cannot but ii 
there is a mutual relation between them. The coi 
corresponds with the supposition, and indicates the 
from which it originates. So, in ancient times, th 
jdyinff nations wore the founders of new states, a 
urged by their increasing numbers to be so. But wh 
great objects were accomplished, we hear no more 
exuberant populations whicn had occasioned their moi 
The augmentation was imparted to induce and enali 
to perform what they were appointed to effectuate ; a 
the more stationary laws came upon them, because th 
ing ones had ceased to be necessary, and would, by tl 
tinuance, have been pernicious. 

Let us, then, regard the populations of the world a 
and instruments in a great providential drama, movii 
all the scenes that surround them, to accomplish in di 
and succession what the Divine Author and Invento 
universe has conceived as to our earth, and is, in thei 
actions and revolutions, proceeding to occasion and co 
His plans are always moral and intellectual, and are 
and put in execution to produce moral and intellectual 
He is a moral and intellectual being in the most absoii 
Action ; and he has created us viilh. «l u&tuie^ and ei 
us with a capacity, to whicU t^e aaxoA «^\\)Gt&\A«x«w^ 


ikh mint be tnined to tcqaira tho oualitios and excel- 
which Bppertaifi to such a bemg. From theto consid- 
• we may infer that one of the chief purpoaea of auch * 
r aa to ua haa beeoi and continuea to bo, to moraliae 
aUectnalixe our improvcable amrit into all the improre- 
a of which it ia auaccptible. The proccM ho haa been 
ig to thia end haa already workea out reaulta which 
tficlicd our nature with wonderful acquiaitiona. Man 
what man never waa before. Nationa, like aome of 
which now arc flourmhing, never did or could appear 
ih in ancient timea or in pn-ceding agea. Hia plana 
mcieH are atill in full operation, to extend, and refine, 
akiply the aatoniahing produce which ia everywhere 
jng from human talent and induatry. 
ihe haa already done for uii all, and inapired and aa- 
Jl to attain and accomplifih, dnmonatratea that mankind 
ighly-favoured portion of hia intelligent creation ; and 
le our own fault if hia bencfactiona to ua, even in this 
are not greater and moro univeraal to our various 
than thoM! wn have already experienced, llic bounty 
ipoteiire haa no limit to tho poaaibility of ita diifuaion ; 
iquireii a fitnem to receive before itH munificence can be 
1. Hie more we increaiie our capacity to be bleaaed, 
e brnfdirtiona he will he dGniroua to grant to ua. Such 
t will ii«*v«fr confine bin progromive blcfwingn to those 
m haH already ao diHtiiif^uiiilieid, if they will be aa grate- 
he gift an he in willing U) givn. Hia kindnoMoa will 
imrn, if we Im! an attarhrd and aa obedient to him as 
ee to In* brnign, and gftnoroua, and aflfoctionate to us. 
ion 111 rl(N|ueiit on thin prinripln of hin Divine nature, 
conrliinion from th«'Hn vi«*wii of jKipiiUtion will be, 
the lawH and Hyntcm of it liavo been ao carefully 
and adjuatmi bv our Creator, and are ao fitly and de- 
y Hu|)rrint«.Mi(iRd and mgulalcKl by him, ita augmenta- 
ould l»e connidfn-d always aa hia will, pennitting or 
Ig, ami therefore aa never detrimental to the welfare 
A aocirty. We cannot too often remember that the 
B of hia governmftiit, in all thinga, ia to do good and to 
;ood. In thin Npini and on thia principle he creatrd 
ih and all that it containH ; on thia he eiaminrd and 
of what he had made. He fo\ind them to be giood, atid 
iaed their penn*tuMium becauao thev ¥f«re lO. ^^ 



crane of pojunitioa ib cieiy 

efitfbodi mdrndnJ 

b wiA ctiop to OS, becran H ii tt«l to 

and miMt be attached; and it k a 

eonfined m an* merelf to tlMBMeltei. Ia 

are an designed to be beaefita to eacb otlHr, Wm btMbM 

IttBetyaomeverf ageandnatioQ; MdfkwSih^mKpmmm 

fnat if we be not always untnalhf eecvioaaf " 

benefit tbe nchea^ end th^ tbar iofcrion. 

enst ID aaj peeoeable Batkm witbotft tU 

advantage to each odier. Tha beoigii uflau wad ti 

creased if it were BBore intentjonallj DRMecntad. 

I^ in next coDBider aooie of the adhnataMi wlidi ■« ii 
to - - . - -- "" 

or TBI WORLD. 147 


fcfWi M PmmilmlUm mmw n^uirt tomt mw Cittil HigulaUcns^^ 
SlaUmtntt 9f fk£ fiMiurml AdvamUge$ /Hm it.—tt cannot wtim if 

That an c:nUrged md enlarging popnUtion ia n national 
food, whinh rvery atatcarnan aliouUl (rrumoUi, and which pn^ 
(mfian in all rouritriea ahould de.mrUf had bccofn«*, fmin the 
npmwttrte of th«! hpM'fit, a uttri of maxim in politics lioforo 
dte MallhiiHiiin th#!ory infuflMJ an unrtatunil dread of it, from 
the allrgfNl fiflertu of the n\t\t\t(3mt\ alliarico lM'tw«;<;n multipli- 
cation and atATTation. Tlie mmpicUni of auch a link, whirii 
ihe puMic aawertion of thia do«;tmic ftx<:itcd, haa orraaion<:d 
tant to regard thoM poorer multitiidnM, of whom all natioria 
MMtly and iierraaarily conaiat, an MuUngeririg and opproiiHive 
•nruinlirariri'ii, which r.%wuiH and jMiffjotuatc tlie Uurgcfft ixir- 
bon of the miiwiry aiKl crime with which ao<:ietv ia uf^icUnl. 
TVae idean havf put philanthropy int/i a Htia«M)f civil warfare 
Within iiM'lf, and have arrayed hoiiks of her hcNt frieiulH into 
an ijiHt«'«iraidf lioHtility agaiii>!l each othfir. 

T^ir f lamination of the coiit<rHt«rd {lointa haa made me 
■urk rpgn-t tlie diflr';rciif«*N of tliom; who are all really zealous 
(or the piihlw goo«l, and I hclii-ve nn much m on the one Hide 
aa on tdf othi-r. ( hnve at U-aiit In^'U iu-(|iittintcd with wry 
honour. t!il*' and taliinbh* me!i who have CHfHiiJNed op\tt>HiUi 
vi^wa fin I hi II i:n[Hirlaiit lh«'iiif' ; lint the mrditatiouN u|Kiii it 
have rrvli-d in my foiiviftioii that |iOpiiiulioii m-ver will rii- 
danircr any rivili/«d fMN'iity. On the contrary, that, an it 
miilriplii'N. it will hi: thr Htn-ii^tli, and i(iJp|>ort, arul Ix'iii-fartor 
of Itif- rfiinniiinifv, wlx-revi-r it pn-vailN. It will iiuUu'd or- 
raaiiiii Miini* new lawK uikI mi'HMiireN to Im; neccHHary to adupt 
Umi" I -viI NtMte, ainl nomw of itN priivJNioriN and iimtitutioiiM, to 
!!.#■ nrw rirr-innHtHiirfH whif'h ariM! from it aiKl will acrom- 
p4nv il . hut tlim in no more than what th(^ irif-rcMfK.' of our 
rriinmi-r'-i- and iiiiiriufarlures, and of <-very oth<'r elfiiii-iit of 
^0Ajtu:J wrmlth mwI gr*'»Uit'HH, alhO r«:<^uuea. Nc>N toNCwV.^^ 


of MUBiniilntioii ind Bnek 

popolatioo wiD place vm 

abo bnng with it the aqg 

which w3l not be dow iB 

that will make the 

ment, MndaganTalco m iai t Mid 

riiowtfaaft ineverf itifB w« heva haA 

liafaed b^ our legu ~ 

est, in (nder to meet and anaqge the new 

arose, beneficially for the parties ' 

mnnitj at laige. The 

adjustments most be, from 

n^; for manhfad arealways 

cncimistaDeesy and into new~ 

We are not iHiat oar 

new minds, and with n ofetea a 

ing aU aronnd na ; t h e i efate, 

comphined of the " 

like the panah pmnp which vrmj'mm 

dMKigh it ia a qoenilooa objeetioii to 

that they are tiaina of Toramea iBBtaadef 

pamphlets ; jti, until socie^ b e c eme e pandyaid 

aiy — until both oar monl uoA inte l l e cn Md 

into ignonmce and torpor, we mast, in every 

ceiTe and pat in action the additional 

which the safety, as weU as eonhit of aoeie^, te ill um 

state anddiiBcnltiee, will leqoire. The move wi^y Aii ii 

done, the more the public weUaze, and the indtvidonl OMtaal 

aatis&ction, will be reconciled and promoted ; hoi it hhI iI 

no time be omitted, unless we sink into liossiilmBa 

Spanish debility. Nor will there now be any waai of alhff 

men or minds capable and willing to effectoate whtt ini hi 

thus needed. Benevcrfence never infloenced matm 

a nation than it is now actnatii^ the Biitiah domin 

also, in wish and spirit, if not m effioaey, eveiy othar 

pean state. We may hare most power, frendcan, aid <MI^ 
tanity of practically obeying and realiangita aqgmlMMM^^ 
others are deairing what they cannot yet eizecate.^rh 
if manifestly now beccMning, more than evw, a poblic 
of conduct ; and even statesmen are, in moot 4 
Mig rery moch theix old MachkvciiMDLCxafi&DoaB fo tba aofaler 


I: If is« pBB" L c^^tir* t: ?• — zi: »*ac cl rr 
Lf*. ts "n :* ELi.~":sr zst rA:z:-*r: r r^ t 
II 2f I ZEUi Eni s. Florae. :.t r "-casJi-- «•• '^zj^ :>- 

is tj.: E r:»>i Ks- -'" ":ac Tr.:-r -ziifi. jiil.— • : ^-m *":*:=_ 

2aer.:«. tiit rDsa:^:*^ ▼3-*::: fi-^-jsi:- ii^.-rrr-r: -::t -- i u-^a. 
bc'ri.i;i;r ^^it luiii.* r«" tl c.jav?«- :: ik»--rr ; »- »-- lui 

XzA tr_n.e* :: ?:■:':•■" '^i^. l*^- .r.— -_ j* — .• *. i 
ro-tt lit* £.»•'. •i^rrLiL-.'.-': n:.-: .: "«' ::r^-f ".- iirsr.. • .— -:.-.-.r- 
i:i^ 'JiPiL !: if ''s<^ ■*.:-:■ n:.-:._c=-^ ■- i-r-r- r*. >,.'. j— » 

meR' '• g tut h>?.i. »-t-.-i^.^:_Li ^* l»-v. .!.- -rrt' 
cretFirifc TtXtUEiii*: v::: :>• •-\s» j^_i-r ■ .• r. «■- ' ' - 
liiiccl wibii^n. tH 1. V 1^- .• i.-T-.-'-ss.r" a^-r> • -.-- -- 

po-irfd "wr.i. Ejor-Ofc:.:»: t. «•- :: iij:> i_« .- ■ r ■r-. ;— — 

c2t!c: \zxi. rjiir*-!!* :: via." i.fc:.:>:i^ : t . t^- *^— — ^ r_ -^j. > 
rise till ***-fc:'-s!. 

Let I.!. li«ei. iix ir*rbt •rr-.a.r;^:^ L--i_-»rr-. '•-• rvrr.- 

lioi. fcijf k_:ii:i*r»- :z. •.!":i*'* ;; r*vr->- :.rr?:: . - »^ - 
inB*.*ri.i- ; jt hj'jt. -ji-irs-.'^? ru^uu- "•" «-a-. : 4 "--1- — ' 
wiici. :: :i "iit^ 1'.".:k :j.e.i i;:.t ; --.».»' 1. .--.—'.: • -••"'*= -' 
Xoizit &c»c-fc- >tii*^.: :•■ kL vm :.,. .,:«? ..•>:...- > — ■=— 
juiT IG tnT c^m o: o"jr Kistrr.uiir' 

Let ^u avvr laisvsrt ski izie ziesietni v:u^ « 

or TUB WORLD. 151 

n liiifl caUM lU iIm giwAt rnnpirtt* of Antiquity, And tht 
ouA kingdoniA of uiod«ni dtyii, l»v« Aiic«tidttd to thoir 
Mid colrbnty, Thii uiultiplicAtiutui of tlmir uo|iulAttoiiA 
IwAVA bciiii Um bAAiN of tlwif prof^iwivfl AiniiMucA, And 
WW bo tbo indinpooiMbUi uiAtoriAU of iboir ftmbility, 
dRiMMco, Uwir iiitonor iitn»tf(tli, aim! th«ir AxtoniAl 
'J*hi! Kocnmu wn|iira full fur ttvur wliott itn po|MilAtioii 
•ttefod and coiMumod. ItA liilU, And I'ibAr, And city 
, ImI tins Aiiciunt graAtiMM And tba Aiiciant IloiiuinA 
uu»bMl iugirtlicr, to ruAppeAr no more. A iiAtion onco 
uiAied cMi iiirvor ht rfeniAdn. 

feletiiriiia uf a11 politicAl AdvAiitA|{eA Atid gnndflur to a 
f be III iiA po|iuliUion, And uowkero aUmi. Tba nclwAt 
■ fubl Aiid diAinond iniiM'A, ttio fitiMt c^uAmtiA aihI no- 
ivon of Ally rogioii, Arts nothing to AOciAty witliout tbo 
Atti ArinN tluit uxtrAct aimI A|i|dy tlieir utihtioA from tbo 
t gfouiid wbii:b cotiUiiM And tioncifAbi tb<;in. It ia miU- 
wlucb niAkisA A propbs, And thoir IocaJ AtAtion bocouMA 
AMt Aiid digniliisd in pcoporlion to tlioir increAAo, And to 
ictlTitirA wbifth i\ttii AuginentAtion Axcitui And uiAkiM 
Ary. \Vi:aUli, iiMliiMiry, prmiurit, »rtN, romfort, ronve- 
, infliiriii:r, tubiiil, Aiid piiw«>r AU((iiii!nt aa tiiify inulliiily 
scbnt; MA tlnry diniiriuh. 'Vlwtti In not a Aingfa AtAt« or 
wbifib tut* wiMn to noticfl or fAlIrn froui it but iUuA- 
lliAflr cotirluAionA. It in, ttMimfori), to Act in cotitnulic- 
9 rerurdisd hi«tory aimI Ut living iri|ifrioiii:o to AMMnt 
dargiiig fiupubUiouA Ant ih>i a luiiioiuil bonirfit, And hAve 
•n tlia Mulul uiMAiiA by wliicli luittiHuil AggrAiidiXAinAnt 
NUiiilun liAVu bran iiMwt otfcfctUAlly ifittabTiNb«d And up- 

n tbiM grnond reAAoiiing let ua pAAA into more pArticu- 


aiIaIhih cAiiiiot iiwirfAiM, uiiIaaa Ui^rn b«f AubAiAtancA to 

lin It, Aiid riiivrr AriM:A wliera tliarn Ia no provision for 

Vb fuud WAA niAdn At tint rriMition, beforu tlie living 

I wcro furiued wlio wcrn to UAtt it ; And in every period 

Miaailoii niaM Uev« b«en betmmn ihAl rAfMi AAd Adrte. Ne 
Hiea in uiri«ni Attibora alueUlAlad ib« qUMiUtn : but In UilA IaaI 
V, IHM. Mr. L. Hmm, wIhi I« nwking neat MImm a1 AUwaa. fn 
MMi uf hM arrh»«il<igir«l rmmrrhm, Aug up An UMrnpibM), wlUck 
tiMi A nilony frufii Aih«fM, ttudcr • Immst iMinad MilirndM, Ml* 
A4na 9M VMr* halun IIm <.1iruAlMi wn. II* Iiaa Uiel| ^|iAUiAl«A 
M iW" JC«aa(Maii eriliWiArA'' •( ihiA 4MMVi«n • 


lincA the same order in the course of nature has cmmI 
Pitmsion eyerywhere precedes the gift of life. No animall 
of any kmd arise where there is no f(M)d ; but all which oobm 
into beinff find their maintenance at haiid. This plan is as 
zemarkabTy and inyariably pursued in> all the systems ti n^ 
ture, that every animal mother which does not herself ML 
her young, is always led to lay her eggs where the em agiBg 
oflbpring will find what they require. I believe I have mn- 
tioned some instances of this sort in the first volume of thsM 

In the human race, the parents would not be alive to htM 
their children unless they had sufficient sustenance to keep 
themselves in being. Therefore, the existence of those ivhi 
live, and the fact o? females being mothers, are at all tiiMi 
evidence that there is on the earth, or regulariy arising btiait, 
enough to maintain every coexisting race. There osuU Mt 
be either parents or offspring unless this were the esse. Pop- 
ulation thus follows subsistence, and never comes wheie thH 
is not. Hence the very a^^iearance of population is a tsslJF 
mony that the food which supports them is at that time in si- 
istence also. 

That food is then in existence is likewise a pledge to w 
from nature that it will continue to be producible. Mora 
food has hitherto always come from the earth as man has ap- 
plied for it, although he has been increasing from six perBoni 
to a thousand millions of human beings. The eTpeneoce ai 
her past bounty is the only pledge we have from nature iv 
her future supplies : for we must remember that she new 
gives more than an annual sufficiency. She must renew her 

Sft every year, or we all perish. The whole of mankind aie» 
erefore, as much living with the possibility of being stsrved 
as any increasii^ population can be, and perhaps as mudi M 
any individual is. We cannot command the sunshine, nor 
govern the rain, nor avert the frost or hail. We are therafa* 
at the mercy, every year, of him who has this power ; and il 
his constant kindness in this respect releases us from ai^ se- 
tual dread of the failure that would ruin us, it is fractious ssIP 
tormenting to harass ourselves with fear that the additiowl 
need of a fiftieth or a hundreth part more will not still be m 
producible as it hitherto has been. The existence of etfiy 
/x>puiation, whatever be its numbers, is therefore a demoa- 
Btntion that it has sufficient {cx>d.\ sxA xlbA uniiorm 

OF THS womiA. 15t 

of it, with ererf eidtfmmeiit of maakiiid lor tte ImC 40M 

yean, it the sorest ple£ne we can hare that the aagMCBtataoa 
of the one will be atten£d with the aame aagmeatatioB of the 
other, which has hitherto neyer failed to aiiae. We have as 
much reason to doobt the coming of the enppij at aOlbr •uf, 
as to be apprehensiYe that it will not come with the angneaft- 
ation we may require. He who giants it has thus §u alwqrs 
granted it to our fair industry, in the qoanti^ which has been 
nromtimeto time wanted, atehong^ oar daims far the dnnanon 
have been from age to age enlarging. To s mn>o ee that he 
will not continue to do in this respect what he hai, up to this 
moment, inyahably done, is to behere without the ■Ballast 
eridence, and in opposition to all experience, Ihat he will 
now suddenly change his system, both of nature and Pnrn- 
dence, and doom us to desduction for continuing to fidfil his 
will in perpetuating the series of his human nee. Our con- 
clusion therefore is, that the Tery rise oi population is in il> 
self an evidence of present 8nfficiencr» and that is a token and 
an assurance of the continuation of the aupply. 


Further con»id§rationa on the Ben^fiU wkUk «aruej¥am an imttrmaimg 


Mt dear Sydnkt, 

The visible results of an increasinfir population display to us 
the benefits we derive from it. We will notice the most 
prominent of these, as they regard the nation, the age, and the 
mdividual, and as they affect human nature itself 

The appointed and sustained division of mankind into many 
nations makes their comparative populations important objects 
of their concern with respect to each other. *The most nu- 
merous are always the most powerful, if other things are equal ; 
and this superiority balances many disadvantages, and puts 
the less populous in the greater danger of aggression or con- 
quest. Unless, then, other nations are willing or able to cur- 
tail their populations, we must grow aa they grow, oi yi^ «balV 


be in oar ordinary power wlule they hare mmgnified into I 
giant's streneth. If, then, we desire national saUetyi vmSb 
pendence, and foreign respect, we riiould rejoice that the hfiiii 
materials from which we derive them increase in fiill pmpor 
tion to the popular multiplications of the sunouxidingr comm 
nities. The smaller our numbers, the less most be tb 
amount of our naval and military protectors. These must h 
always in a proper ratio to the amount of the whole yta^ 
for a due portion only can be spared or maintained by tos Ml 
To be in the first rank of existing powers, our numbers nm 
keep in that quantity which raises others into that stage ; il 
not, the diminution will lower us into those inferior rates % 
which national disadvantages are continually accruing. HeM 
in this day of large kinedoms and populous nations Siere is a 
alternative between enlarging numbers and inferiority, dangi 
and decline. But experience everywhere shows that thoe i 
far more general comfort and competence to every clns ( 
society in a prosperous and powerful nation than in dm 
which are feeble and subordinate. One of the statesonP 
greatest objects, in taking the census of his countrymen, is t 
riiow to other states the advanced strength, the ability t 
maintain its independence, and the flourishing condition o 
his own. The increase of its population is the most conqM 
dious evidence to other governments of the internal vigour an 
social healthfulness from which it has arisen, and its sufl 
cieney to be its own protector. An increasing census is i 
enlarging shield of defence from all exterior agression; it 
an sBgis which deters as well as guards. 

Every newborn individual, even the poorest, must, if 1 
lives, have food, clothes, and habitation, furniture and impl 
ments, and conveniences of many kinds which he cannot, m 
civilized society, make for himself, but which must be woriu 
and provided by others, and be sought for from them. Eve 
new comer, by this demand and its supply, cannot but an 
roent the productions, and, in them, the property of the soc 
ety to which he is added, and furnishes further employme 
for those who must earn their enjoyments by their laboc 
and who are ever willing to do so wherever that is require 
Agriculture must raise more com ; the manufacturers fab 
cate more goods ; the builders erect fresh houses or cottase 
artisans of all sorts must make more of their conmioditie 
Mnd there must be eveTywYieie mote i^o^c^^t%\si ^R}\^3a« 

OF THS WOEU>. 156 

Thus inciMsiiig popiktioa incfeues die actintia of 
part of society ; and no ope ran deny that, if tbe added mmf- 
bers find enough to eat, they do good to all by their ocher ne- 
cessities. The more they want the more they benefit ^ for 
all the aits, trades, professmis, and mannfactarea seek for baa»- 
neas and demaiuis. The more ordcra airiTO the h^ipier and 
more thriving they are. It is for their feUow-creatnrea that 
they work, uid by the nae which others make of their pro- 
dnctions that they lire. They send their goods abroad only be- 
cause they weave and woik more than is wanted at home ; bat 
if the domestic demand enlarges, aa from additional numbera 
it always must, their profits are ereater, and Um remuneration 
more immediate, and their trouble of the exportation avoided. 
Thus augmented population stimulates the industry, increasea 
the ingenuity, and augments the property of the countxy, and 
causes the working families to be more employed, more com- 
fortable, and more contoited. Every man wants as mnch aa 
he could make himself. The newborn being, therefore, never 
bnngs into society hands to be idle or ind<3ence to be main- 
tains. The necessaiiea he requires others must supply ; but 
he must also exert an adequate degree of his own labour for 
their benefit in order to procure them. H^ace no additional 
population is a burden on any one. The existing work for 
the new arriving, and these for them. It cannot be otherwise. 
We do not pass the newborn into an island to stroll and slum- 
ber while the rest maintain them. They shoot up amon^ us, 
and min^ with us in all our business and activities ; and the 
young, as they mature, contribute as much to support and ben- 
efitueir elders as they have been benefited by them. But 
if the population languish, arts, industry, production, and com- 
fort lessen and languish too. There cannot be more of these 
than there are individuals to exercise them and to give them 

Thus far I see no reason to question the advantages of an 
enla^png population, viewing them in the lowest and most 
material form, and in their national effects ; but other consid- 
erations open before us, and present to us benefits which en- 
larging numbers occasion to their age, to themselves, and to 
human nature itself. 

The takm, the energies, the inventive skill ; new discov- 
eries of the iitilities of natural substances ; new thoughu and 
■lodes cf applying thrae properties to the productiona oi nvw 


commodities, or to the mnltiplicatioii of foimer ones; tfa 
ciettive actiyities of the humkn mind, and the now man 
tbmidant, more diversified, and mors nniversallj diffused eo* 
Teniences of life have in every countir increaaed with thH 
increasing populations, and most signally in oar own. Tk 
man people appear in our country, the more we inyeoti fiib 
ricate, possess, and enjoy. Our comforts have iUMmiiiid 
with our numbers, and ever will and must do so, becaMi 
they are the makers of all ; the more comers the more makni 
and the more consumers too ; eyenr newborn person is mm 
to be a new customer, for every birth multiplies the hands tbl 
are to make, the minds that are to devise, and the bodiH 
that want suj^y ; but all who want must provide thenudfii 
with what they need, and nrast therefore make it, or do whit 
will induce otner makers to give them what they require. Ni 
one can live without the necessaries of life, vod no ons b^ 
stows them sratis on another in the general course of tinigk 
We exact of each other that every one shall exert his om 
powers to provide his own maintenance ; and thiacan be onif 
effected by doing something that will be serviceable to otiMi% 
and that will induce them to exchange for it what will be oit- 
ful to themselves. Hence the more people that arise thi 
more of the necessaries and conveniences of life must-bt 
made ; for if, as in wilder countries, others will not providi 
them for us, every one of us must make more for ourselves. 
Thus the necessaries and conveniences of life in any comi' 
tiy, that is, its property and wealth (for these constitute ito 
substantial wealth), must increase with its population. The 
sreater number need more than the less, and cannot exist if 
tktej have not the due sufmly. Production, therefcnre, moit 
ana does invariably multiply with population. Its quantil^ 
depends upon their augmentation, and arises from it, waA. cah 
n(^ fail to do so unless mankind cease to want and detfi*< 
They must have the amount enlarged as they enlarge. Hun- 
ger, cold, and rain, desires, active limbs, love of action, te 
si^t of pleasurable things about them which others have ac- 
quired, the wish for enjoyment, and to obtain that they may 
enjoy, stimulate every new generation which grows up u 
they actuated their predecessors. And thus it is impossifafe 
for a population to increase wijthout productive activi^, and 
Bivduce of all sorts multiplying in a country. We may tnly 
oeem it impoesible to be oCbawiae\ fw ix\a -uKtoassSk) vsaqa^ 


to ft Mrf phot thtmtlfM en dM ImhImi 

Mrii wmi/hm-ki tht nibiiibt tf ow eitiM, and con- 

rw mmr m fanlB^ bt e iwi thijr wttl do nolhing for 

whit tlitv Mod, bat iomIto to poritb in 

nioii vomho or nvono will bring tbem 

tMr own lo rt looo and ipqaiiy. TUo, I uy, 

"' f , tor tlio notml tppotitoo will not lot thorn 

ollaiiiloto, and ofory now indi?idual of tbo 

m Moko to hfortily to pnnrido himiolf with 

■ttd oonlbrto oo anj ot tboto who woro ez- 

Imrbvo bo woo bore* 

wImoo tbo popolotton io nun, tho produotiono and prop- 
} te oooMiT ovo in a di m iniibod itato. If population 
Mm iMqr Bovor ineioooo. Pororty or scanty etieoniatancea, 
mm hmm eosfoiiionooo, aro tbo coropaniono of imaH tocie- 
m wiolth and abmidanco aro of all nraltiplying comma- 
o woobb to tbom, ao oompaiod with tboir pro- 
oloiOv and woobb ontargingi ao to ito conporiaon with 
. m tbojr mnltiply and loom bow to gain or nako what 
Ah dooin. I odmit uiat bappinoaa ia indopondont of ricboa 
mi i b ond oB OO, and may bo always onjoyod without thorn, 
tf BOtioBo doom an aflloonco of all that human ingonaity 
or noo a distinction and an advantago, tboy wiU 
moro largoly ao tboir inhabitanta multiply and 
onploy tbomsohroa. 
Row popdlotion onooioa likowiao now Undo of produce 
if ril OD^ ao woU aa groator ozuberanco ; for ao it comoo 
^ fato a ooeioty whore all ibrmer brancboo of iodootnr aro 
«dl AM, the yoimgor must oithor wait till the older die off 
li oidCT to take tboir place, or muat think and contrire for 
AiBoolvoo eomo additiom to the utilitiea or pleaeuree o( their 
Mbw-OMS, in order to have the employment and tbo profit 
%m dooin. Now men have new ideaa, and etiiko out new 
ftm, attd oeek to bo diatinguisbed by their noreltiee ; and 
Immm they aro new men, m new circumotancoa , and with 
aw hfMo, they think new thougfata, they dtacemnew tbinga, 
ittf iBrm BOW imaginationa, and deriao new prodoetiona of 
MHi sort or other, and can no moro help doing ao than they 
mm sfoid aloopnig, dreaming, awaking, or eiereiaing any of 
Ai taetiona of their fiame. 
Honoo, aa popolationa enkugOy tbo in re n t i v o powen of ho- 
tmmmm e tkiwi/ i l o d to niw conciBtoiBt laA nwt lOr 


tMtiei, ind to new crattioiMof the DtccMiriei, coamABOfemg 
and pleasares of society. They cannot hot endeavoiir to h^ 
creese the meens and materiab of mtifying, benefiting, ml 
intereetinff their fellow-men, in order to be gratified thoi- 
salTes. X^ere is nothing left to their choice in this lesped; 
they must thus act or stanre ; and no man will staire if kt 
can derise or obtain employment that will enable him to ob* 
tain what he needs. Population, therefore, cannot mnhiplf 
without thus multiplying a nation*s property, wealth, comfarti^ 
convenience, talent, strength, and enjoyments. 

The MORAL and intellectual qualities of a nation most Ukf 
wise mcrease with its population ; must — ^I repeat the sb- 
phatic word — ^because it is the plan and will of Prorideoes 
that this should be the result, and therefore his eetabUslitd 
system of our nature and social economy compels it to be sol 
As to the intellect, this is very obvious, for it camot bs 
otherwise. The more minds that exist, there must be mm 
thinkers, end more thoughts, and more original imaginatkns; 
more reasoning and more knowledge. Every man idii 
something, and twenty must have and add more than five, md 
a thousand more than twenty. When that thousand multi- 
plies into a million, there will be ten hundred times more sah 
sations, ideas, and knowledge, of some s<Mt or other, thiB 
there were or could be while only the smaller number existed. 
A few may slumber and vegetate only ; but numbers exdts 
each other. They will talk and debate, as well as think snd 
eat They will strive to outdo each other, and each to be, it 
least, as clever as those they see and know. None willing 
submits to be inferior. The more there are, the more emwa* 
tion and ambition emerge and influence. The presence of 
human beings is always a little inspiration to each othff ; 
common chitchat shows this ; and the more there are that coo* 
giegate tc^ther, the greater is the animation and the mentil 
result. When this spirit begins, we daily see, that thongby 
like sheep, they will often follow one another, yet, like sheepi 
tfaey also love to wander from each other, and to find out new 
pasture and neW ways for themselves. Hence it is an in- 
Tariable law in all societies, that their intellectualities increase 
and become more diversified and universal as their memben 
multiply. Nothing can prevent this result. 

But I grant that mental activity without morality is a for* 
Bddable weapon, thai is moiQ ^SIl&Vi xo)^ 


■ • ,i • 


■»■ -t 

B^ 3= 



£i .; .'^^- 


pwpot tnB iBv snTMnH ^0007 v v^ 

un will not M vnnUMhodL 

I am old onoogk to bo ablo to itsMHikv ^ite f 
known ond oeen, andwlMt aiTpoiittls nlitoA t»M^t 
compore wliot I lomowihwr ont fceofd of wiA wit 1 1 
•enro tnd know; ond my po w onoi coi mti oii of iko 
nting het which I am nTpmoMig ii ft 4»Sfy wmoanm «f 
cmtion to mo tnd of Mlf<OB^iotsliftMi ; wl no 
reol gntitodo likewise to Hun fnm wImm oil ' 
flo m th ot I am liring at thia timo^ m aoch a 
with such a pcoapeet around no. 

Bat it wouhi be moat nnjnat to ay 
not to admit, and slate abo» Uio coinciding 'tml^ 
meliorationa which do so moch honour to hnaMtn 1 
not confined to our inaobr community. Theepiiil«fi 
ing good is moring open eveiy one ; Uie bnath «f M.^ 
^nUy breenng i^pon all. In eech» a new iwpniM to 
IS rignt and best is exciting the honaa hsoit, aai mi 
the mind, and creating a difRwingd i ssa tirf a eti o a irtl^ 
appears of a difierent character. The world ia Tisgiii 

ixioff oTerywhere aa its nmnbers inereeae. Thm k tft 
much to be done to be efiected rapidly or ns>n«<Mj ; «Ml 
diat is well accomplished will bo unseen, beeovao il to |ri«ift 
and can only take place hr ito indifidual oflkoey. MtH 
tions and consequences will, by degreee, be p eipe to ely MHf 
ing out eridence of the new process that is woridnf; wi A 
moral progression in which human society is 

A few more particular considerations may be 
the ineyitable connexion between the increaaii^ MprirtlNI 
and the increasing morality of a nation, taking thin aHiimh 
its fair and Urge sense, in the actual geowu traih^ mm Ml 
judging by the partial exceptions or intemptii^ an 

If the mora] rirtues were not the most noeliil to 
and the most beneficial to the indiridual, thej wouM 
long since become obeolete among mankind. No 
son would willingly pot others into handeuA aai 
they were unnecessary, or soontaneoualy eneumbor „ 
with them if he could uye without them. None would* 1 
im, lestnin or legv^e ib:^ Vnc>ua^0Daidl%cftaMH kf irijf 


dnmkaid to the sober, or the profligate to the monl m 
This certainty, mnd the unvairing cilice of the better whi 
the better is to be had, act like a premium and atimnhv 
create the habit and qualitv which, even in their woridly i 
fecta, are found to be so aavantageoua. 

This principle operates alike in every class of sodil 
Whoever will unite the moral qualities and habits with di 
skill and industry in any walk of life, will be superior bsin 
in estimation, in real value, and in conduct, to those wl 
choose to be immoral or irregular, and will be preferred ■ 
such wherever the best and fittest are wanted or sought fi 
The improvement which their individual virtues will occask 
in their minds and manners will increase their ability in i 
^ir employments, and their own comfort likewise. It : 
such a recommendation to be in this state and to have Ai 
character, that the propensity to acquire it is always opeiitB| 
and increases as knowledge and education enlace the pa 
ception of the utilities, and as the failures, and sufferings, a 
disgraceful conduct of the contrary tendency are seen uid M 
ticed. But the more population enlarges, the more the diffisi 
ence is observed and felt. The respectability of the monl i 
every rank rises always so high above the vicious and tb 
criminal as to be a distinction in every town and villigi 
Such characters are more wanted as numbers increase ; ss 
the demand and preference for them are continually drawi^ 
others to become like them, and cause the young to ka 
themselves by such modeb. This is as true of the hamUei 
as of the greatest, and in all the intermediate states. W 
seek for honest and moral servants, and never willingly «■ 
pk^ those who are otherwise. In all our dealings, we den 
to meet with such characters and prefer them. All magii 
tiates desire such assistants, and the public require such IM 
gistrates. In every public office and private circle, intcgn^ 
and virtue distinguish the individuals who have them with A! 
silent esteem and approbation of those who know them ; sod 
therefore, as soon as the mind becomes generally cultivated 
and the knowledge of right and wrong is circulated, the man 
virtues increase in their power and influence. Success id 
rarely be attained, or not be permanent without them ; aai 
whoever wishes to be most safe, most forward, most honoaisd 
Mod most happy, is uimd \>^ Yoa ^^iMtai VhVaxm^ to be en 
oo$t to Acquire and loiscVuraa to \ii%i«cv^VJb»odu 

ressir w im.'!; vci.. i»« aii«niit':ii« wi;. u,- lrl•^: 
^ tna: aiifH. Tiir-*' wil n- luur-.- apprvjian'u *■■> iiif 
1 ^ranTec. Tue^" ■wi". !•• iiiup- sf terit ui!_ prt-Jrrret 
' -utihiiefe : and a- lue' niuiiiii: i:: nuiiiii«-:. b:. iiiui art 
vil. iai. aiiL anfic. ii even cui»>> iri'i:. uif.: ue^ircc-- 
nc init^nonn. oi accoun: c^ Uifi- ueiicienr-. Wiui* 

iicii oursi'ivef- u wiia: ir L>e:ic:. wv aual uvvcr Uk- 
: worst 

di lie erijr aiicuil ai in^rR'aw p* pomiiBiiui Nuiil. '. 
roD. tin iiicrcaw aiuiir. Ni: iie*\ oik'> accrue wuici 

cxjs: t»eit»rt Tiu vouu:: general iuii> cudm- uiiofit:ik<- 
OQioii^ U5 as t< UicniM-ivc: . ace ijBV< m^-i. uuuiaei. u 
. tn< UKis: ueipiest auu uocut luni.. liii!'. wt- iija% luouK 

our wisije:.. aiu. makv lueii: wuai Uit-^ oucii- u- !•• 1: 
le^" ali-'nvarL" i»fconiv producer^ c: ev... itn-. ap- iraiiM-. 
so tn- on: iiauiit. aui. uru; uiiiiai' c u^^■ wiui' luc 
c conimut i: i>ecauiM liie^ ua\i icariit-i iruii. u^ i> 
^ 11. 

tnit;. the^' wan: subi$isieuc'. . aiiL luus' acuuir* :* DC' 
ili amour wuun. tiicv cuiii'. am unt:. iiaiur* luu- u 
f wjia: liieir mdusin' eoiicu^ irui: v., liter* wil ut 

for tueiL u> auart.. at wcl. a^ wr uier preue:'t»iKur> u 

: bavc likewiet tc Ik ^cttttfc i: M)uit ciaaniieis br 
Lher mav ^aii. wha: liiev reqiiir* hit nif '■ i»riu«: utv. 

. It 


BKVTBir dust snrwraii dbt 

acac* q£ «iir Livt3w 1% osuk. wbkli 
«fi jQAw »ctMpIaKiiiiiii]fiafiHaL4if llirC 
■g chem,. *oid in mifimiii^ 
liTc wiE bcipii oar ia^ixir 

Oat icmaikabfie fiKt spp«iRfe» «i tt «at K««||^ wdlL 
wbidk ilk tiufi the nutM wtt&t «t « abaMft «firi^#riB 
bccwKn tiMae vriw «r anicr twwfer t«an ^ «|» wAiIhi 
wbo u« oUcr. In the vwr l^Sl. ^Mttihr mr iSJr^ dl ii 

old ; and tfte ocibK lamtt l» W aftnw^lliCM.* 
fact ocraneii mnt m tb» cu M t ^ 1931.t fhk 

M trae ofFngbmi ud Wafes W iha 111111 tut «i «f 3 
kad, wkh a littie noK on ^ 


m tHS mWLD. \M 

kMi Mnwiw MMlf A* CMt te IfrfMid, wMi Mtw hrgw 

PhHM to h« )hVMMI« fMfftlMI,* TiMt MO tlw fTMl ffMm- 

fmmf «# tWif Iwaiim fcaMUi ttid eiitmmiuuiemf sm y«t 

■kr Miek MjriM^fltktf mAiimmsm m to iHiirA mi m uo iO Mm m^ 
is OT m iih t mu y of Mwkil rofiditimi m Utm nn^tm^, m an 
■MwCiM emuimff wMeh ^mtr/tm oar rrrolUwtMm : Um 
M^ «M A« Mtliiif* thm ImImm;« «arh <Ah«;r in the r.«niititif- 
Im flf MV tovmf wwfld t fMfi^ ctirtl and mpchU coiiimmiimmm 
IHl Mkm from voeb » MitiUon. 

Wl A* finvciM VMf 01 tbo tf whkh dhridoa tbo fVopOT' 
Ini if lk» j«t*fiik Mid tUor population ia not tho aano aa 
■M ai ji oilwr eoqnCriaa. 1 ^ko all tha ntioa wfakh eon- 
■n ««r fcwtli and UUtf tha torm that aaparaloa tlia yotmijar 
■i »alflff«r part of aocMity variaa in oacb notion $ bot y«t 
MM. bfco Ibam, tlia vanatMw ar« boondod, in tboao dirarai- 
■L bf iMaila wniiranially amrtain^Nl. 

1km, bi Amortca, aa wa hava bafora fwnarfcad« ono balf of 
b llMManIa am under aixtaan yaara of ife, and afl tba raat 
Mmf f» ftoaaia« wa found that half of lUt nawbom nmmr- 
(ina 4Md ondar lifiamit whibi in Hax'iny^ a moiaty ara 
Mv Iban ntbar of thaaa, batAK alm^Mt twanty-thraa yaara ;^ 
■I in f fWK#, twanty-aii yputn m Urn dividing hovMarjr of 
IvlMfar bvinf youth I ilanca iwyra of tha young aiirfiira 
ilMMy io fifaat Mntain than in «ti(har tha IJnitad ntataa or 
ll Umimm mauum ; but wH mt many aa in Maxony, and par- 
' ' ' aa in Irntmo ; aa if thia Uai-mantionad ecmntry bad 

-Ibrftai , Ik . IMS. Hm 4lvM«n Im'« w«aM l« a«ar«r iwtMf' 
• ftnifilf. 
5Ji l«ff »nwly «M liair«f llw iTMlM «r«T« lw<Mly jrMninrtf««bHa(| 

IAUM, ilMwt y i iaa f i r w«r« l,fV7,llft li wa* im iiaawla «aek of 

M3.9m , , i#lJJ| 

Vlalar . Ma/I7tt , . tTf^ai* 

C aaaaa iH i . . Sia.lM , , MJJM 

Ifti laai ttmrntf havlaf IM grmmmr f^mkm of iIm yming«f, wmiM imIm 

laHrftf AvMMf aa* 9htt>mi twt 

avMbf», f^f Wu,p M ai. 

fat tartam, tMt. XIV . |» if7. 
la MM Ma awl« «Mr« V^Mi 

la MM Ma awl« «Mr« n*.W4 ; «f thMM, iIim* aaJffr ifNof ymr«a 

CMaHVw Mf mva« ^favaf^a ky laa c#afaa4AA KMaam« 
«/ /inaaaa la ba«a fcaao, a4 ONI IhMa, IttlMMM^V 



been, at the time of this census, more &TOan!ble to f 
All dnntion thsn even our own. I have not mm a 
discrimination. The portions in Canada^ at the osmi 
1885, resembled those of England in thia point* 

The subsequent ages present to na some inmcMHii^' 
cations of the superior duration of indiyidoal In in Hi 
aa compared witn the United States of Amoricat n 
have not yet seen noticed. Whether the d^evenoe tt 
brity arises from climate, nature of soil, habits of thapi 
their employments, their political excitementa, or tbts. 
moveable life, or from a mixture of all these accidents, it 
be difficult to decide. It is, howeyer, striking tuong 

Under years . 

. . 6,06M10 

OrOsadAadsria . 

. 1,054470 

16 . . tl . 

. 1,651^ 


. . 15 . 

. i,oig;HO 


. . 16 . 

. 1.167^ 

16 . 

. . 16 . . 

. 1,101440 

» . 

. . 40 . 

. 1,016486 

40 . 

. 46 . 

. 1414,780 

46 . 

. 80 . 

. 1,641,480 

80 . 

. 65 . 

. 1,461460 

65 . 

. 60 . 

. 1,339,140 

60 . 

. 65 . 


66 . 

. 70 . . 


70 . 
80 an 

. 80 . . 
id above 


Fer. Ball. Unir., 1837, pi H 
Aecordinc to this eeries, those under twenty-five were 14404488 
that the nill moiety would be nearer twenty-eix, If each number be ^ 
* Mr. Boachetie thus eutes the ages there- 
under 6 83470 

6 to 14 74,439 

14 to 18 38,935 


18 to 60 60495 marrAd. 

60 and upward .... 9443 ditto. 

18 to 60 13.941 sinfle. 

60 and upward .... 1994 ditto. 


18 to 45 53464 marrlod. 

46 and upward .... 1860 ditto. 

18 to 46 19418 sinfle. 

dftandapward .... 6063 ditto. 


or TM WORLD. 167 

I M fhit Imgtb of Uft beyond cho middlo porlod w 
' lo bo at ifTOMfit aoufjbt for thaw ; but ntiier to 
'by Ummo wbo tiisy go to Ibo Hudmm or to tbo 
m ocbor •dfontogea from » MttlmiMit in Umnm 

between the two couiitriee lui to dumtion of 
irf Uh tbiM •PP0v* : In AiiHdrice, neerly orM third 
4er lea.* In Eni^aiid and Wel«ii, the Mune propor- 
Pt • jetr older, t While alKnit half were oulv mx- 
BUtee, with ae they were twenty, t Neerly two 

I were under twenty-nix, but the Heine <|u«iitity 

•i becw«:«;n Uijrty erifl thjrty-one.4 In Amencey one 
I onlv wtitti forty ; one eighth forty-five ; one twelfth 
yel (njt oner MVftntieth were aeventy.l In our own 
MM Mfvc-nth wfrir fifty ; one fifth were forty-fiTO ; leee 
e friurth wttf. Unty ; end e thirty-fifth pert were eoT' 
Thu* WK Iwvt! twice mm |(reet e mopofftlon o( eiped 
et Mfvuiy 8« this Ainericiui republic poeeooiee; only 
cnth \fm i\mn double tlie Muie profiortion of the num- 
ifiy ; kU/vf: oik* h«lf e« nieny more et fortv-fife ; not 
birty ; fivi: yt-urn loiigfr at iweniy-Nix ; eno four yeeni 
It MiiUtrtt Ht'W.ti Kiiglinhmen live longer in Kngletid, 
iea« eg*-«t by tht; diff'freiiri;* elM/ve ftipr e eaedt then the 
int« of till: fjnitiid .StMt^« in tlurir doiii<:»tir, lorelitiee, 
eifiigrvtton Ut Ui«* Airutrimn roriiifioriwiriiltli frtmi our 
Mil iiMy \f«- rimniAf.rt'ii to vurr^ with it a prolwble etibre* 
of liffj. Not «</ to th«T (lunnAmt. TIm; duration of vi- 
■tfe r*-M'riibl<'ii nmrh lliut whirh taki-a plans in f«rtfet 
** J am lll^lul^d to ttiiiik that th«T advantage di?{iendil 

•Wi»r«-. I^ii Vllf .p Mfil. 

•a I iiir maifM liviiiK Hn&ft irn In KriftaiMl and Walaa ware 
Tif <Mv iliiril wouM havi; liM:n 1,717.017. Tha addiuoa of 
mu ifi^f wHiM tirifif itHi numlMrH i» ihia amuaiit. 
aaniiMf* w«r« %^JHfi3h. 'J'Im rxai:i half would have baao 

Moloa rrfuriMril oriikr tbirijr w«r« S,3M,416. Two tbirde 
iv» bom 1.434 OM. 
«#««, fi fle-«i. 

w of HAy «iiif upward wt^t 7)0.446 'hia afrrMith woeld bavo 
IM , under f'lftj wera S/J4fi,(r7fi , adding to ihaaa 00a half of 
iwoMi tuny and ttfiy, wa liava tnt itwoa wbo wara furiy'Ave 
ciffM Anb wuuid tM l.oao^lO. Hmmw or ftirtjr and abofo ytmrm 
faarib waa l,9#l,lOli al arvcntjr w«fa l4A,Vn, wbicb 

owiUimyflnb of »JAl;(iM. -NaaHiRhm.TaliU,viA.\.,«.Vl. 


on the hahiU tfam on the te iiiuwy > monj ntfaar th 
ft plnracal eliect. 

On comparing tho liTing world in some other elalM wH 
ma own and with each other, aome of the leralta tffm 
highlr favourable to Eneland, especially as it legaidi ft 
loB jf et it y of existence. None equal onr tslaad in the pHpa 
tion of Terr old people with one exception ; that I wiU 
in the latest term. 

In Saxony, np to the age of sixty, then was some 

b rt wee n their duration of ufe and our own ; bat after tint m 
the kmgcrity of Enriand exceeded the Saxon with an bsoh 
ii^ superiority as the years augmented. One fourth cf At 
Saxon males were above forty ; one seventh above fifty; mi 
abom one fouxteenth and a half above sixty.* So ftr I 
was near the proportions of England ; as here ahioit a« 
fourth were above forty ; one seventh above fif^ ; wA OM 
thirteenth and two thirds were above sixty.f But \t&jwi 
this we find that in Saxony one fiftieth only were above «^ 
enty ; not a three hundredth part were above eighty, and Ml 
a ten thousandth part above ninety.^ Whereas of &^ 

tUbitmL, whooB he has oat separated into sexes, and 
Ik* aU unsc be has distingoiabed, amonnt to 1W,800. Ofttaaett 
of sixtT and upward were nearly one eerenteeiith and a half; thsai li 
tte Uaited Slates of this age were not one twenty-flfth part In 18tl.^i* 
Uttn^p. 90-61. 
* The Bale aces of Saxony in 18M, of fbrty and upward, were— 

40 to 50 78,SS8 

50 10 60 03,345 

00 to 70 38.000 

70 10 80 13»15t 

SO loOO SS56 

Above 00 73 

ne wbole oMleo were 775,944.-11. Preston., StaL 8oc 

t b Ki«laad and Walee in 1831 the Uving males of fbrty and abiW 


40IO40 483,330 

00 to 50 843,904 

00 to 00 931,000 

70 to 70 115,003 

80 to 80 90,587 

00 to 00 9358 

100 and apwaid 00 

Oat of 5,159,058, Ibe male population.— 1 Rickm., xxxvtt. 
t Saxon nales, aeventy and upward, 15^81, or aboot fifty snl «BS 

tMrteentb ; tboee of eighty were 9398, which ie the M3Sd pert if 

77$JH4. Thossof tttaMiy aBAabnTaanVYTBotttofthis BUiab«,«llo 

MimMdoM third. 



ft tfabty-ifth portion mchod MTonty ; • huiidrecl 
■1 outicth put were eighty, eiid I in 2t63 were ninety end 
pmA.* Tbne there wee twice ee greet eproportion in £ng- 
■i eft eefo ut y ee in Sezony ; nearly the eeme et ei^ity, and 
bwe iear timee ee many at the age t^ ninety. 
On eompering Prance with England in this respect, we find, 
hi IB Ike moot preciee enumeration of her melee in 1830 who 
im be t wee n twenty and sixty, England and Wales exceeded 
hmtm by the difference between a one fifth and a one eighth, 
V ee eigm to &V9 ; for our continental neighbour had little 
Wtn Ikon one eighth of her malce between tbeee affes,t while 
BhAmA had the larger proportion of above one fifth. t 

On eontiBsting the French population of 1889 with the 
EufUk of IStl, we obeenre that the former had most males 
llSity and fifty, and likewise, though in a lees proportion, at 
itaty, and aleo at seventy.^ But England had a much greater 
Mii of thoee who reeched eighty, and, apparently, wouM have 

• IB BBfleii« ead Wsles, In May, IMI. fboss of dfbty and above 
nntUMior I iRlOI;ibossorslnMy,S31S,orl hi fMi and oos third. 
Ihatsfsec bondrcd w«rs flO. TImm wers bat I in 89,807. 

t IV Bopelaiton ef Francs In IHIO was sscertainsd co be tlJUi^W. 
Itoeaeter of amies bscwssa tWMMv sad silly ferm Uw NsUoeal Geards 

an sisiad sad disUeg alstasd in ilis Mluwiag mea- 

w raa cooHTaT 

15 ... . I17.MS 

10 ... . 4W.«» 

tl and M . Mlftt^n 

IN Towm: 

W sad tft 107,091 

M snd 10 lftft>99 

II and W 701,871 


OstifgMl wseld have bsn S,W0,«78. 


Bell. Univ., 1810, Oct., p. 14. 
S Tls msles «r Bng lead sad Wslss in 1811 bscvrem iwsniy sad stity 
^n ^ITt JI8 oet oT s popalsilan of 10,580,011 la Uiat year ; one iAh 
«*ai «eeld beve bssn 1,100,185. 

raAMi-a. bsolamb. 

40MdBbova .1-10.. BolqaiUM 
•• ... M .... 1-7 
88 ... Mt .... MI 

70 ... I-M • . • • Vl% 


Engbnd in 1811 ; wUe te 
Of dl tho 

96S.4i7,i8a,l ^FCC tlie umbMI of 


tb»t », not a two thnnMiirfikpMt ; Mr4iA% 

•udth put iMb lUMtT 2«n &«. MiA «[4^ 1 » 11MMW 
livcdtobeaccatiii7oM.T TlMfnp«tiM«rr 

•FnM«.il diMr.lMi MMMWK 
t Thus,' ia 

la Aoicnea. oae ttmrnk aalr abava tatr, aM twMli mmmmi 
which ia Ftaaee vera iktMtaMtaaai aae MM^^telha IMniM^ 

la Prmnee. oae twalfth woa sixty, aai aae ttatMh waioaMMttu 
TteAawrkncithiywcfvliBlM: ia FVaac% 1 la HIl 
ITbe Aawrkaa aiaaiy.ia 18M^ wwa tH7, «r 1 la 

^ These nwa sf one haadred ia Ai 

Wf the «flbnace hetwwa 1 ia ItiSM with llNiai aai 1 la 

Mil, or betweea fear aad five liam ai VMij ; AM < 
B SMTcd Hiat. World, ««L H^ Ut. XXL, PL aoi 
T In 180, dn Eaverar Xaiif Ha, ia tl» 



IIM ihej taai a right, fhaa ibwr 

Tb evh of thoae of eighcy he ordeiai a aitae ar 
ar^onoa, a ehi, or laa hwhala of ftea, and Ha Ua «r 


nowof abiecyweretahrretarteothioqaaailqr. Til 
i«a to ba Bide of tMrmriNKa. ThMaaC«l|jh(f Ml 



Mty MtnA In btr ••? tnl prormcM, Imt th«ir «▼«•£• 
» in niiw of Umm wm 1 in 818.» £oglM4, th«r«foro/&r 
Me«f»d« tliU MtnmdifMrjr country In (£b hnmBwHy o( her 
ibiuotoft Mid, imUedy HKwt otb«n. Bot in u« proportion 

I<4m TMinf 


KMMf Nsii 

E*u«fiff To<u4( 
KiUMiifffM , 
Vim Kmh 

YmNm . 


. . lun 




























OHB nvimii*. 



^ , AnhttUs JMimtf, IMO. n. M|. 

jM w«r* rwivriMd MMT«nif ; hot, m Am yrm\n99m AUi mh Motf op 
ir MMter«, ilM wboto amottai of Um MpCMg^MirlAiM eaooot IM »ra- 


Tk« r«f wrfM iliiM •p«etfl«d iIm nttmlwni «r thoM who had altalMd 

•Mf i» ilM Mltfwlfig miM provtn«««, 

AMU rrwAAp, 

iJaoToVfiff 944 

t'tan-m 4l.9tfl 


ll«M«n HIM 

riMrfl.HI )3.3HS 

Hoa K«NMnff 97.954 
K'Hianir TtfUOff (f/'Mttmi) 17 Mtf 

Pou Kmii . 10,313 

MMTvlliMVlMA . 170 



1W/« . . 1M,793.300 
te inrt of fiMM mtmrn l« UMily ih« ntiHh |i«rt of ih« fMlMrr. 
I tmi mtrntglf ilw wM4om<if il»« MiImmw ffftvrrnniMit tn glirinff Uito 
If likrffBJliy lo tti^ rsirnfM MciWfft* of old igc. WhMvtr mi«Im 
ly ghr<v • af rofiff gfffMiral «v)4«nM tluM ib«ir« hm Umn mntMthing no 
I M muiil, irmfMr, ti«l;iia. or moral qunUtUm daring kU priM'odinff 
niMrft iMn M « n rtrd hM cmalllulkNifll Mium to |a«c lo ifcct longovHy i 
•n, wtiAUivrr b« ilMir habiu. iiood m mneli lumtHMf M iImi porlod 
fc,lbol I wJali ■ IrffUlaiiva proMriatoa ordorrd ovary mtIoIi Io fivoM 
Mfir aliowMiM fo all oclogMMrlaM. It WMlU Vtt MinikMll >»>»r 
m4amM i» MMikty, 


of the greatest extent of vital duiabiljty on earth, Rosni, 
who«e mortality is so much more active in the first part of her 
individual life, seems to surpass any other nation that I hafB 
read of. In 1824, in the bishopric of Woronesk, oat of 
38,060 deaths, 66 reached one hundred years, and 28 mat 
one hundred and twenty-five ;* and in the census of 18S7 
there were stated to be 947 above one hundred, and of these 
202 were one hundred and ten, and one was one hundred ind 
thirty-five, t , 

Yet if the account of the Austrian mortalities be accural^ 
taken, the number of her population who fulfil their centmy 
must rival that of Russia ; for, with less than half the popoU* 
tion, she had in 1834 more than half as many as the noitben 
empire at that period of life.l 

This extreme longevity is confined to no country or elime. 
It was found, in 18&, in Asia Minor among the daugfaten of 
Judea.^ It appears in the Indian region of CabuLn Ewi 

Sipsy life, with all its wanderings, exposures, and hsrdrfiipet 
oes not prevent the attainment of it ;5[ nor have the itiU 
greater vicissitudes and fatigues of military life precluded Ae 
possibility of it.** So Holland, though not the healtliieit 

* Hertha, 1825. Dr. Pinkerton mentions that he saw a female lit 
Knsaeh village on tlie Don who was In her one liondred and twenty-Itt 
year. — Pink. Kuania. 

t Tlie greater ages were thos atated. Among the 047, 

903 . . above . 

. 110 

21 . . above . . ISS 

WV • fl • • 

. 115 

andl . . . " . . 139 

52 ..." . 

. ISO 

Lit. Gaz., 8th Jan., 1810. 

t ** In the Austrian dominiona there died laat year 450 persons abowc 
one hundred yeura of age.** — Morn. Herald and Standard, 4th FSbM iSMb 

$ ** During my sojourn at Jaffk, a Sardinian veMel arrived having oa 
board twenty Jeweiwea fVoin Smyrna, one of whom bore lightly tit 
weight of one hundred and twenty years. Several counted a eentaiyit 
exiatence. They were going to purchase, at a high price, a ptaue is thi 
Valley of Jeho8aphat."—Corresp. d'Orient., tom. 5. 

II ** Among the Nawab** llriends we met a man one hundred and ttav* 
teen years old, who had served under Nadir Shah. He had been apwiri 
of eighty years in Cabool, and seen the Dooranee dynasty foandad tad 
passed away. This venerable person walked up stairs to oar roen.'^ 
Barnes's Trav. in Bokhara, vol. i., p. 162. 

II ** Died laat week, in Loughton-Iane, near Gainsborough, in herM* 
hundred and second year, Merriley Buckley, well known throughout OMit 
of the midland counties as the Mothkr of a tribe of Gipsiks wbohaveftr 
yoars perambulated that district. Her Aineral took place in Gaiosbor- 
aagh ehurchyard on Sunday last."— Doncaster GazeUe, July. 1894. 
****Uied at Murano,near Venice, afed oMbaiMlrad and sevesieen 
ymi% J, diioMick. He waa \Mm^KMLl>«b.A*t^«Ba^ «iiMaL«y^.v«i. 


country in Europe, can prencnt an occattional inHtanco of t 
Iwif^h of Ijff, rartfly parallelled in our duyH, among the weath- 
tr-beaivn citiirna of her navy.* 

IrclaiMl, with all the eccentricities and imprudenccfl of at 
■oine of her children, ran niaiiituiii a coni|>ctition with 
any other nation in tbia vivaciouH bleaaing ;t and even a 8uc- 
ccuion uf Huch uhra loiig-livcm.t 

but in another iniitancc, tlio age stated is ho uncommonly 

Srfat, iluit, witliout a careful exaniinution and strong evidi-nre, 
inrct ur collateral, it cannot bo taken as an authcnticutid 
fact. I thertffurc merely mention it as it appears in the pub- 
lic news(>a|M-ni, that tluNio who have connexions in (Jork, 
sod ire nitenistrd by such a circumstance, may inquire into 
the proof uf its reality.^ 

IW: be •ntariid ihe Aiwfnan army In 1710, nt ibe sgo of eight, as a ilCvj, 
mi liad served nil 17V7, fur eighi)'flvo >i'arii L-fliiciivHy, and aflrr ihaC 
■Bong the Invalide fur iw«inty-ihrre vi'srs, having thUN lM>cn a itoldiur lor 
tsc kundrsd and ten yitnni. lie had sfrvrd iNiih on hub and land. IIih 
■■■lerrHK camintgMN never Hliook hiMronHiiiniion. lit* alwuyn preiiKrved 
Im fsycty. Avoiding violent |wmiioii, he hv«d in grmt Mimpliciiy or 
iRaniicffB, snd with u ntiimrkahle r.ha-^lily. JIin Aifhiir hud rcai'hrd one 
kaadrcd and llvr. and hia jiaii>rniii undo onehunilrod and itrven.**- Hull. 
I'aiv. lUI. p. 137. 

* " There in now living si l)ort a sailor naint* d ( 'onrtid VanrouvRr, who 
•■ Ihe WHh of IttNl iiMiiilh rrarlii'd the agii ol one hundriil and Ihirty-llve 
}nn. This le iIm* uldeiir man in exniii'iice in Kumiie.**— Duirh pcriodi- 
(H. quoted in Hiniidard, Wd Hepl.. |HS4. 

t**IlMd Bi CuolcanN'y, on WediieiHliiy InM, near Ualllna, Waller 
laaa, sfcd one hundred and lineen years, lie wuh liorn In Ihe reign 
■rGaorre 1., in ihe lownland of Ciirrown'agh, where he endrd hiii rxlat- 
•tea. Ilia hralih and innnury wen; reni:irk»My giNNl." Ballina Iniuar- 
■•I.Juiie, IH34. Another of one hundred and luurioen is mentioned in 
IktUcnl. Maj{.. Feb., Ih30. 

t ** Mr. Luke (iibiion. of Temple Patrirk, alnles Ihnl he has dincovered 
h iho lownehip of liullynanmn, wiihin one mile of (•laSNlough, Cicely 
I'sooey. boiler known by the nsme or (.'irely llatlle. Hlie Is one hundred 
lad ihiny years of sge. Her youngest daughitfr is eighty. 8he never 
look a durbM'N drng in all her lil'f, nor was bled. Wh« is perferily free 
km aOecliiina in Iht rliest. Hunng the laM reiiiury or lier litis she has 
hwB a strangrr lo |>ain. Her pulee doea not exreed B<>venty. 

** ller f randfkilM'r died ai Ihe age of one hundreil and twenty-nine. 
Oar Caihcr, John <.'ooney, was bred in ili« town of Donegal, and (61 lowed 
lbs amy of Janwe to Mayo, where he died, in ihe one hundred and twen* 
tmh year of lus age.**— cicocch Newspaper, quoted in Standard, Htb Jan., 


■•On IMh Deeemlier last (tNS4), Denis M'Kinley, of Rbeans, near 
Uyeaoilc, depaned this life, sged onk iiUNnKsn and HBvasTv-HKVBM 
TBAaa. He never had a day's slrkneso, rould read llie smslleHt print 
Willwal spectsclefi. usually rose al three o'clock \n v>m nmitiWiV^^^^ 
mm fa bmd wtth fte ikauly. Ua died oa Uio Mma te^ oC Vda u«r^ 



Wb find Uwgnltr tl" >■ SoBtt AfiiM, M tb* nA« « 
mtto, lucthtnde KMe oF pma^awUMiraoa^Biviii 
loulitT, pTBraoU U> occonraM.* K inacml tet^A 
AmMinilniUiMtbawitlMnit bM A«b of Ikfa nU iJm- 
1^* whan ollicn exhibit H; ud nsk iW^i^ta m mi aA 
ogoiu lohnmui cxpoHDC* a l— w h wa %n, ■ jqittii »>r 
general pievdeDce of aociil lancitjr, be iimmnti.f W^m 
■omeaf her citiiens ue maw bad of A* HNnaHiM IW rf 
(be accurUe.t ahe muat not ba aBMdad If «■• |niihi w^k 
Aence ia raqniced Icj hn i " 


LuiDBiul indiTidiul* mww dm in Fi— i. ^im 
ODK thiee jean ago had rcubad one hondred and tmw^S 
ScoUiod bu hel eumplei likewise ;¥ and lliB mom «• 

dOdlbeHnwBwUiOBWblihliawutxini. lie vu temunla ta fit 

la|.'~OBr1iOi>iMlla[ii».d[EdlnHanilii«Hcnld.3l«FiBr^taA ^ 

«■!»•■«■ uHrii •iBHi 111 «!iM». 11 U dalntiLi u lun nwn W 

UhelDTT flvwoDee ilMut LL Bm u InnpnbBbiJriy la na aenal 4lit«iA 

Ibg oppanDnlty. ^S 

• CipulB Owia nniA| of Uis blind of Abdul Eoory, nnr ladB ' 
■Tha natlna wen miwriUy junr. One old natlVE earaa an MankK' 

«iid li««>aaiiiwtiaB4i«dTanaran, ud iraiiiiliHaii ■ i uimuTTia'' 

kad DBCBrrad alihiT «■■» »ack.'~&maV naat, m. L, o. »I. 

t " On W Nk, ini, II Wake Omur, wSpeBdani. and itom 
iriiHiT, Mr. Jwa Wala, aaa aT Hi, Ankw Wi^Mk ia tnoi^ ai Uk 
■dTaneadanDfHialuuidndaBdllaeil. IM J WH^&aia ibe Riolnlni 
wUhMalMMT. HI>iiaaihwiaBai»albrall&;-j»iirhiinAdTern<«, 
April, I8N. na-OaMIanaa^H^aiia^kr MTMHbmedFriK"! 
AweaaimdTlDitalfaiTlndMTlB vatTaor' — ' " ' 

i I alliidD 10 Ikla Hiwark Id Iha " BawlaOMA IbnUiK,* irlilo>i, 
af oMirM, haabaaniaian ffinn ImnrtBm luamlB : "Md Febnian. laiii 
«ad .1 S«w.r«* lala Hmh, a^ed «.« Imnilnf and rtirr-iwo. B»S 

D ■' LlKlJ dkd, aced one Unndied anrt iwrnly. W. Drnldo, (ba ridK 

—Gen.. M.J.. 1S34, p. IM. ^!Sm 

^ " There i> nxiimg 11 Jopm, nair Edlnbnriti, an am-neRtfiMl^l 

ObalHi Ho.pli.1. nanwd Jami iVriglil. He ™ birn dil, h 

no hundred and aevan. 

4'arii^id_l^lW>% taw—* " f l* 


/oand, facU Nipetr, wbkli leiul u« to the eonclittioB 
diiknrnee of toil, climtte, cirrainiitaneM, or iuhita 
thr Ktiwl occiirrfrticc, rioC nwrely of «xtnoKliiitiy» 
wnforuMt! lorifpevity in flome individuak in mwtnj n- 
Urt: tbf^ ftlwm will hn, tnjt occ«iiio»ftlly thtj >ppeu 
put of ffur i^\if. ; though w<! do not find tliat anjr 
««rkft It wiih II diHtiiirtion of iiuMk Ikiikhit but tha 
, wlio, t}i(fij|()i inferior to civil iz«:d KumKt in moiit 
'ftf, lit Ijjii':*, di«iUy a moral windom wliicn dMnnroa 
UiK/n * ' OiK! of itie girat^fnt tmt» of this in a coun- 
tjf ■ourid niorki f«9«fliri{{ in an individual, ia a ueraonal 
u oUl fe((«r. It ofurna^a di>wiiwar<i, tliruij|fh all our ao- 
1, Um mtr v«rry rrtdlf; (UTiod, with a benirficiai iufluenco 
ry Chin ily will Im! tlin U;t(i:r (or. 

aluunty of KriKJand, Mlhcr from ittf rliiiiati?, ita man- 
it* ifi(«-lii-<:liial <:uUivalion, to iIhi inori: advai^ed iie- 
vicuil lifir, u indirati^ \ry i\m fact, tltat in J 434 it 
rulatfd itiat tlMrre were then HcrvL'iity |K;cra in the 
f I>#rd« wIhi WfrTK lN;tw«;f:ti Mcvimty and eiKtity yftara 
ttf a Kiktli |«art«if tin? 4!W of whriin tlv; houac, iiirlu- 
tfiah'ipa, foiiniiitv Yllf.vrn of tlnM were noticed aa 
'Utnrti»nim*t or »lill older, f 

a aarrihinK tin: louKCrvily of Knffland, and tlicrcfora 
eoplr, to manwira or coruliirt, I U;tt\ niVMlf to Imi ar- 
il luy ofiiiiMfi liv a cirruinauiiffs tluU i have juat ra- 
in nutarrk, in hia tKaliM? on tlui opiiiionii of tho |iii- 
I of hia own and lint anlinor tiniMi ', for I Usam llwra 
^ our anriirnt llntona, in all titrir jiaiiilcd nudity and 
., wImii tm-n-.f. luMiuitJB, and J-i/Uric halllt^ and all lU 

ud in 1T4S. arid wm ijMidr tit-ni-nl Wolfo wboi lie fell on Iha 
Qiictirr 'll« M'rvMl in tlir army ihirf y-nlMi yeara and a bmlt. 
iMThargM ai a|lMy onr. m January, IHIO. ll** la Aeati and 
•ftd rirtaifia alJ liia nuruliwv enlirft. Al quarlcf-dav tw walka 

• to I be KArtw OlDrr at Kdinliiirgh, a dlaunna of ftwr mllaa, 
.« fW a«fnp da) " KAin. Wrrkly J<i«rnal, Feb., IHU. 
Iniilaff ii*i-iiiUMia " 111 «nr ffTlbe iKiuaea w« aaw aliMk 0|j a yel- 

• fivea by ih*^ anipprfr in uikcn of liia araal r aa p agt towafda aa 
'who had livftd one liuiidrrd y^ra."— fJola. Voyaga, p. MO. 

ia alevrfi porfa wrro ibiia fe p reaa f ilBd :- 
Vu^t^mm . tf> l^afd Nc. Ilaiann . Bl 

vivAjHi . M Karl Fortcocva HI 

Mwell . . . W Karl Uanhirly . W 

Idrni . . . W Kam«jwh» ...» 


9wO» of unclTilization, or what was neaily mcl 
ckanetariatiet of their population, yet had the n 
Ufing to 180 yean. He quotes the Greek physic 
iMMurked this circumstance, and contrasts the; 
Ethiopians, who became old at thirty. The Gi 
the British longevity to their colder climate, and it 
not possible to attribute it to any civilized im 
Ytom the manner in which it is mentioned, it s 
have been an accidental circumstance, but sufl^iei 
to have drawn the notice of foreign observers at the 
ment of our Christian era.* 


71u Natural Division qf PoptdeUion, into moieties of 7< 
in Bmglmid. — Ths settled Preponderanes and Povosr q 
I^eet (tf this established Arrangement.— Their respect, 
on each other. 

My dejlr Son, 

From the facts and laws we have been recapiti 
that state and fabric of our social world in which : 
vine plan that mankind shall generally appear and 
constitution of society, in our British community, 
to you a sufficient notion of what it is in the civil 
of the world, though each country, amid a commc 
in the great outhnes, has its own specific variatioi 

That one half, or nearly so, of our male populat 
tinuously under twenty years of age is an ordinati 
the government of human life is permanently 
steamly kept in the hands and under the control 
moiety, t In other countries the same division hi 

* ** Awlepladas reports that the Ethiopians become so 
Is, bv the time they are thirty years old ; because their bod 
and burnt by the sun. But in Britain, men live on to 120 } 
their countnr is cold, and their natural heat is kept by this li 
wUle the Ethiopian bodies are more open, flrom their pc 
lazed by the son's action. I'hose in the arctic climes an 
and on this account they attain to greater longeyity.**— F 
sf^x, or PJas. Pbil., 1. 6, e. M, p. Mf . Ed. Yea., 1509, 
f SselMlbii0,p.'lo4. 

OF nil WORLD. 177 

iJMrafph with MMfift 6i0(ttnttinfn ■« Ut Um tt%nr.i and 
'fhi^ f-aliiljilaliMj l«w, whlfth Im iJiilVrriMil ill Itn fgtn- 

r liM •jfkiMfi iff himmu ti09ft»iiyt umnu*;ut\y iur th<> M* 
«ir|^i«« UmI titff ttmiarf. \Mn <i( Um \mu\tku «:r««tur«« 

irc, II w«4 hf-'fiMiry Umi hi« Uiw« of ImhIi mm dMlh 
tii" ar/ arrarif/Mi Mifi '■oi*(li«< («:<i tlml Ui/r^f utiotiUI nlwMyti 
iffli </f tti^ f\At^ liviiiff Jfim y<;«r U/ yt-Mt to Im: in tlii« 
ri4ifi(f f If ««f^>i I loii 14/ iti«? yotiff|/i'r. Hwrh « rc^wiilt r</ijld 
^tMi'ti <«) l/y M far^fiii wljiiaiiiifiit i#f Uitim two «;f«rrii<riiU 

Jilalion, with «n «i|/r«r»N vm-w to tliia»n:t. 'Hiougk 
ItU- i« uivtuyn alfiKiitfjP iifid llc-^lift|r, )r<:t ihia i:oim«»- 
n iilii«liii|/1y •tiatMiiM-'l 

»• fiif(ti< r w-i ufMl tt)«r tft»l/iltt)r «r»d wuowi (;«itii1iirt of 
•m), for tli«i |i«jr|iok^, iU*: (C/v<fff(hff \ntwir mid luflu- 
II of tlir MMtiirtr «r><i miifrit'ttft'tl iHiftHiu of l(» l»)r «JiM 
, III oor i*liiiKi, t||i- iiwili'M from tlnrly t/i uiHy, whuti 
'«kfi ffaiii«: l» III lt« li«/At (rf|ir<;tlV«! ktMt4; <if iMifly Mild 
> If ut^tf. |jiiifii-r«iii« lliMii tliOM* fioffi fifU'f-ii i// thirty ;* 
if *itt- y'fiti'/t I *houl/l IfT iriilu'i'il lo ii(K' 111 iii«iirr4'i:tioii 
itM'ir i'UUi titU rm, mtt*i atruf^f/lir for lii*' doiiiifiioo, l)*<Ty 
I iiu- itliymti.iti |y/iiir«-i ti; tiM-oiif|«li«h lli<rir|i<ir|MMMt, 'Dm 
ill ihifiy lo Mftiy woofii iilvy«y»)i»v«r itM^ vutory Uf/htuml 
A youint nil- II In twi-i II fill<'4 ii iiimI thirty, lH:»Mfi'* lh<i 

f Vk«/Ol«l ri'^t-IV** flt/lfl IIm: I'lfKllVI: |Mlt of itlOMt wUv 

iiiifd oi fiiiaM^f tliMf MiftHi-ih Vi-ar ^ 
i-bUr Mfi- *ittiUi luoii atiiiihly Ulioriouii and iur<|iiirilitf 
of mtttt'.iy, kffl ki<'|i ffi'l Ilk'- ^hul liM'y ifmn witli 
rt«/li|i«i- mmI i«4/iifii/iy l|(;ifi Itti- yiliilif/i'r ni'lir'tr thft 
f f#f •'/<i*'iy IM iiliMi <)iif/fy with th< III, <'*jii-< ully ^U^ 
raliitj K . ii/i<t ffoifi liiiir Rii|>< f loi iiif:ntal iihlhlyf ami 
Ipff, miai |/rii'li«<- of h('', ahnoat «li lh<: M<ij><:ilor f/flif<;« 
ivrttm of ^iitiffiity, rviik, hii»ifif-k«, iiifliii'iM <•, jiikI iifi 

««llMl|«-« <if hfl-, «f<: hll<-Wlk<: Wllh tlml |H/ll|i/ll wltf/ 

ttfltfid feiid i-i'i-f'^li-fi t^iiri/ lhirl)<'lh yf.iif. 'J'h« inaUw 

m pm^lniym iiT li«l, <ff fti* ft.lM/iM hmImi. I.;iM,M« w«r< U 
lMk|iaMl<liin)r, aiMl ly4Ji|,l1/&WwaimlliJfi)'aiidality. Huthw. 
I , V'll I , u ■■■»ll 

«a war* r/H,44l . a »Mirili '4 tha iianiUr UlwaMi fliiny a«4 
mU tiava iiMtN MifTth. AH iImnm tiMii tUiiK «yNM4 >m >te 


from thirty to sixty are a f ull thiid part of the inrkole male p 
vlatitm. t 

To moralise, consolidate, and iinproye our social vn 
■till more, the yet older classes, who, from their age, are n 
ezporienced and usually wiser, or at least with more praet 
ara with the most calm, sediate, and peace-lovinff teiii| 
and habits — those of sixty and above an In nmxmer ab 
one fourth of the mature. These intellectoally influence 
modify the mature and middle-aged population, while t 
assist them to govern the rest. Thus human life, in 
country, and analogously so everywhere else, is regtdate^ 
the mind and will, at all times, of the elder and aged m 
bers of the community. Their preponderance and powei 
so decided, that no contest ever takes place about it. 
ever was disputed in any country, the point has long s 
been settled ; and, by some instances of ancient times, 
find that the younff, who disliked their subordination to t 
superiors in years, had no resource but to emigrate from d 
and to found new settlements for themselves in other k 

* Though it will be always proper for the young, amid their iti 
ens efTorts to elevate or benefit themselves, to keep steadily in viei 
principle so shortly, bat emphatically expressed by Shakspeare— 

" I dare do all that may beoonne a man ; 
Who dares do more is none ;" 

yet it will be always true, that they must derive their worldly com 
and mental iofrovements (torn their own spontaneoas and well-din 
activities. %Mf must resist the temptations to self-indulgent rei 
ness. Bat «■ tois point I cannot quote a more impresiive avthorit 
a more per s a asl ve recommendation, than the sendmenta or Sir Si 
Peel, in that address to the students of Glasgow which so admii 
combines the characters of the statesman, the philoaopher, and 
Christian, and which lias come to my hand as about to send these ps 
to the prcm. 

*< Let me assure yon, with all the earnestness of the deepest eo( 
tion, founded on the opportunities of observation which public life 
intercourse with the worid have sflbrded, that your success, your 
nence, your happiness, are much more independent of the accident! 
eapriees of fortune, and infinitely more within your own control, than 
appear to be to superficial obnervers. There lies before you a boun 
lieid of exertion. Whatever be your pursuit, whatever be the profe 
which you may choose, the avenues of fame are open to you, or at 
are obstructed by no barriers of which you may not conunand the 1 

**I have said that the avenues to distinction are flree, and that 

within your power to command an entrance to them. I repeat, wit 

MfiMStveps of the deepest oonviotion, there is in my mind a presuis) 

Mmoanting almost to certainty , Um \t asvn «ia» «c l<v^ ^'^ 4«^tv« 

'» TUTS, r 

>•: ■: 

:. J' if 


Of*lf:f l."Jl Ik..: iij_- . . b«-_.- ^ 

^»^ '.' ■.!.•:• •■ .•■ »-.--r »• •• .!...■ .^ ... . 
C '!.:<>. ..K*. :.•*:. U'. • ;«:<.-•«;.. .: .mtt. a.4.1 .m>>. ««•. 

.1. "^ti." .' 'J* -"i.'- .->.:.! fr»-_i« u ...^ > 
T'^* .' ..K": •^i,f^: I f _^<-<. t.. •■«....«. 

•-.. I •■*■•■ .,- ,^ 

■ • 

» ■-' .j: : I,'.*, -r. ct- 

i :•' :^ f. If- • ..I.--" 

.«• .Ai* 



the civil peace, and order, and the monl etrength of sodaljrf 
and keeps its constituent elements compact and its count ; 
consistent, yet the young are never without that poitiflo of 
influence which henefits their elder lords and makes all man 
happy. For such is the marvellous and mysterions cooitite* 
tion of human nature, that while the juvimile body reipeel 
and rather fear their seniors, the mature and aged fed lyA- 
pathies of affection and regard for the younger, and espedsflf 
m their filial relationship, which soften autTOrity into a deut 
to caress and sooth rather than to sternly govern. In retm^ 
also, for the subjection and obedience of the junior ages, i 
has been made a law of nature, and thence a universal law rf 
society, that the elder shall maintain the younger, and teaek 
them how to acquire the goods of life for themselves as tbcy 
advance into its maturer pehods. 

Thus admirably and happily has our social econony ben 
planned and is upheld by its Divine inventor. The loang 
obey and revere the elder, and these love and nouriu tht 
younger. The latter have been also so devised and frimad 
as to be always giving pleasure by the natural beauty and B* 
terestingness of their countenance, limbs, form, and motioDS. 
They arc, when properly nurtured and not wrongly behaved 
to, perpetual pictures of living happiness, playing, smiling 
laughing, bustling, and chatting around us ; and by their filiil 
origin they are so interminglea in every family, that we can* 
not look anywhere without seeing them. The quantity* of 
pleasing sensations and emotions which they cause to the 
elder {wrt of mankind in daily life is incalculable. Feeble ti 
they seem and powerless as they are, they constitute no sdmU 
proportion of the existing happiness of life. What we need on 
this point is not merely occasional enjoyment, but ever-springing 
fountains of pleasurable consciousness. We have to be happy 
day after day, and every day, and the children and youth of cveiy 
community are no small part of the needed sources of com- 
fort to us. They increase the gratification from their appeal^ 
ance, and easy society, and moving sportiveness, and by the 
numerous httlo services of various kinds which they render 
to others, as domestic occasions require. They are alwaji 
furnishing employment for the mother, which, being for their 
benefit, is more interesting to her than any other substituted 
labour would be ; and they are the chief masters and cinaw 
oi tiieir lather's useful acVm\\«t. '^\>Cbnra!(.^CDin&.>Bftni«aU 

or ma world. 181 

aniBdOMent Mof ; but thejr nre liim» n ther ariMf 
obI object for hit thougbu tna indattriat aa long m 

• raapect tbty ara of vaat iniportaiica to lociety. Tho 
J inpoaed by tka plan of Providence on the parent to 
I them, canaea them to be unconacious ediicatora and 
ra of him, imperceptibly even to himaelf. They guidoi 
le, and channel, and moralixe hia activitiea, and msen* 
■nel him to exert theae for the good of aociety in hia 
hieh ha cannot eacape, of protidmg ibr them until 
I efficiently operate for tbemaeWea. Thoa they train 
•dy the father aa nroch aa he regulates and goTema 
They make him a more active, ami prudent, and 8kit> 
1 tniatworthy member of hia aocial world ; and again 
him for hit care of them, by giving him, in thomaelveaf 
cnda and assiatanta aa he wiU nowhere else meet with. 
rill ever find abroad the diainterested love, the xealooa 
IB attracting feeling, the active friendship for hikn, and 
in to promote bis comfort, which he can obtain, and 
«aya keep aUve and fervent in his filial circle. It ia 
ami magic, this intellectual enchantment^->«ll natural* 
lart artificial — all tho emanation of our Creator's de^ 
id formation of both our soul and bodv, which makea 

delightful to every one in all ranks of life. We know 
Bra are beings there who take a kindly interest in ua | 
DO forma, or doubts, or interest divide from us ; whoao 

1 coincides with our own, and with whom we can ro« 
tm happineaa, confidence, and regard. No competin|f 
ta array ita members against each other. All are folly 

to each other and mutually appreciated. AU theae 
s arise from the appointed law, Uut all the young shall 
irally related to the old, and these to the young. None 
pear without this afllnity ; for they come into existence 
the sweetest and dearest relationship of life. Hence 
lie, in a domesticated family, an aflfection, a feeling, a 
Jrr, a aafety, a confidence, and attachment arising fnmi 
aiionship and its gradual consequences, which resemble 
I else, and for which there cannot be an adequate sub- 
All else that pleases us is of a diiferent nature, and 
aer reaulu. If these effecU be not universally expe- 
i the iauk lies not in the system of tbia CnaUn \ uA 
9et ; Mad it li&a cnly with oiiraelvea to m% Vl> XB^^«t- 


nlly, ita indxfiduwl tpplicatUm. None, then, wonU be mH^ 
out a penonal experience and enjojrment of iu bleeemn. 

But the young do not merely pleaee end aesiet ; tner nt 
alio great benefi^tors to lociety, in the Teiy qualitiea and pi^ 
akuia which, without the predominance and nnnSmBogm' 
emment of the elder, would be alwaya ahaking it into fi^ 
menta and confusion. Though not eo nomenma aa efw li 
get the command of the ■ociaT world, they are enough to Ml 
powerfully and uiefully upon it ; they are continnally ezcM^ 
enlivening, and agitating it. They difiuae an ever-renewim 
apirit through it, which, though not strong enough to injoie « 
overpower it, yet is always animating it, and preventing itif- 
nation, and that indolence and apathy which the contioMd 
poaaeaiion of enjoyment, authority, and property uaoallyjia* 
duces. It is from the younffer that our social chai^geit aw* 
tivities, and improvementa diiefly arise. The fact tkrt, by 
the plan of Heaven for our world and for our wel&ie, day 
are all bom destitute of all things, except their bodily famt, 
and its inspiring and directing soul ; ana that they ahall hut 
to acquire, and roust, by their own exertiona, obtain thiir 
wanteid portion of the goods of life, as soon aa they beeons 

EMe of the operation, puts them into the sitiiati<m of cdsi* 
ry activity. The young who were in this condition, thai 
itween iUtecn and twenty, were, in 1821, a tenth paztcf 
the males, and with those from twenty to thirty, who are abo 
mostly unprovided, and in the act of striving for their on 
support and establishment, were^one fourth of all their itt 
These are continually devising and pursuing new scheoM, 
starting new adventures, inventing new means, and nqM 
the aged to new enterprises and obiects, which the coDtentn 
elder would never think of, or wiUingly take the risk oi^ a 
trouble themselves about. But the young cannot, for tbdr 
own aake, bo indolent or satisfied, until they are provided dio 
with what they desire. Hence the two antagonist prindpki 
of niution and rest are ever usefully striving against eadi 
other ; and the result is, that alternate sway and constant in^ 
fluence of both — that excitation and repreasion ; that fOf* 
- emed activity and modified repose, by which society is Kept 
in healthful stability and vigour, with progressive advantage. 
It is the estsblinhcd system of our natural births, and thit 
MiTUiged SQCcession of them, one after another, in such linked 
gnd uaf$iling order and conlmmt'}^ ^^\. lyci ^b^ «i ^niBw—cT 

Ik Mrtf 

II tlie great occm €4 hintitj, but iMk? itr lnMnwny tirtwf 
■k cj0uuiNDt^. WMt fCfnun^p nmmmhmcmim #f ywi 

0Bi ttlSfllgCflMIlt yOB otMMWH ttMlt iCMHfMy 9fptmWf MM 

r m pfBKJpaSy fHtn t^ tlMr yvMMif, mm tiMmni MHt 
bdlge to dieddcf ; md it in by fbi« «fM IwtwMii tipwi^ 
UrW-liTe that Ike kffHt piort «< ha wi n Uh»b»; ami m$ 
I which re<|iiirB bbmmc tttiwuj ml awuttMft^ OTt cwimb 
^K^idMwt a chM 0/ foeb bcincii m the tum6aw'w(iam M 
b Mippfyy hoBMi Mim wmiid b# n^^A^ountjf mm! ibmI'' 
mrfj iiiip ro du ctn^ Mid iiiiiiiyimi*i f> It » at this mi 
Im lore of penoml dMtmetioii, the dcafee of htam^ wm 

for DOTc^ end e my l u y iiie pt moit kecaJy sthMi^ 
e it k, that froai jo«rch the ptofieaHre y t iuMm 
ta been aaaigiied to origmatOy and has heeo and ia 
iaainnffand opentng; whfle the later pcfioda of lifeara 
eDed,lij the eneigj that aaaaila them, to exert and apply 
iqperior jndynent andenarieiice to mo d er a t e the m»- 
fapeaaof their TiraeioaaoihpdBfi and to tapiktbamiirta 


wefol ehumals. Thus society is equally benefited and _ 

tinuaUy improved by the guaidian chaiacter of the one portin 

of iti population, and by the spirit and impetuosities of tbt 

other ; and thus its various classes are made, by the planosd 

and secret mechanism of our social economy, to be toe eoi^ 

tinual instruments of practical good to each other, hom ths 

very circumstances of their arrangement and position, boi^ 

ever unintended or unperceived by themselves such a ooh^ 

quence may be. 

" There's a Divinity tbat shapes oar snds^ 
Roufh-bew them tiow we wilL*** 

It has been an interestinff part of the Divine system of ihi 
livinff world that there should be so many children in it ThsN 
pecv£arly embellish it. They may even compete with the i»- 
male world for the beauty and pleasantness wnich they add ts 
U. If we were to compare society, in its diversified farni, 
to the varieties of the vegetable kingdom, though we nii|^ 
rank youth as the nutritious and succulent plants, matme III 
as the fruit-bearing trees, and age as the venerable forest, nf 
riwuld still more justly deem children to be the flowert d 
social life. Too young to be useful, yet always pleasing, ife> 

* I eannoc cloee this letter withoot dting another psssase ftoa ^r 
Bobert Peei'e exhortation, iMcaiue it so rtoquently describes the bnhs 
and qualities to which youth will always owe its most certain aoeeNa 

** It is incumbent on you to acquire inose qualities whieh shsll At jot 
ftar action rather than speculation. It is not, therefbre, by mera mm% 
by the mere accumulation of knowledge, that you can hope Ibr enrioeaos 
Mental discipline, the exercise of the faculties oT the mind, the qaidsa' 
inf ofynnr apprehension, the strengthening of your memory, the Annim 
of a soand, rapid, and discriminating Judgment, are of even non l» 
portanoe than the store of learning. 

** If you will consider these fhculties ss the most preckNis gilki 9$ 
nature, and be persuaded that they are capable of constant proptBdn, 
and, theretbre, alnwist of indefinite improvement ; tbat, by acts rioriMr 
to those by which xreat Aiats of bodily dexterity are performed, s etp» 
cky ftH- the nobler (bats of the mind may be acquired, the first object tf 

2 our youth will be to establish that control over your own mind md 
abits which will ensure the proper cultivation of this precious hiheril- 
auee. Try, even for a short period, the experiment of exercising ssA 
oontrol. Practise the economy of time. Consider time, like the Ibeahla 
of your mind, a precious estate ; and that every moment of it, well t^ 
plied. Is put out to an exorbitant interest. 

*' when you have lived flfty years, you will have seen many instsBNi 

In which the man who finds time fi>r everything-*-^ punctuality in all 

Ibe relations or lifb ; for the pleasures of society ; for the cnltivaikn of 

Utetaian ; ibr every ratlonsl aiuQaenMRvv— Na ^ ^n^ >a xmsi i 

4o tim aetir9 pursoito of hto pro te w rtwi y 

yornlyir u> iiadtf . 

Ri MNBeJaUr deriaed to be wbai 

ujiiw tff wauw miMi bAv« 

10 make tbem Mich. For tbsi tkmt 

audi a tnin of dtfianoi feona «m1 

aad dqwwda eatirely upen tha fiaad 

y t li , wad upon tbeae bavuv 

aattfad to be wbat tber are. For it 

to Bake a babe to enlaiye ialo tbe p a rf p c t btt- 

at in fiftoeu or t w ent y . But iba 

wbicti ia ao interaating, Eiaa boan pW' 

to ^aadiMe the plffaaing effaeta wfaieh loaok 

Jfaaj arnmala aoon become complete ; but the btt- 




mwbti]^ is delmd in ita darelopiiient, that we may bimd; 
^yhag fl ii pg agM of chfldien ; and what abould be a conthBii 
MUice of further admiration ia, that in all theee changsa a 
tan and age the human being ia alwaya a perfect figine. 


atdek^tkt Plan tn wkidk tkt nmaie WurU apptan to kam IM 
mrrmtgtdf puUi/Ui mi aUOimud.—TU Iffket ^ Um Bmm 

Mt dkab Son, 

Oar view of the Divine economy of human life will not 1» 
ao complete as eiqperience enables ua to infer it, unkMVi 
eonaider the state of the female portion of human nature in 
the general course and order of society. It is so distinct b 
many points from that of the male division, and is so dite 
ently oirected, that it deserves a separate examination. 

Ine first great fact which it presents to us is, that daih 
lifis shows it to have been designed that the chief and ccon 
fountain of family happiness should be everywhere m 
Mother. * From her, toe blessing flows to her wedded seM* 
ciate and to her children, to both of whom she is, and hn 
been meant to be, the kindest friend and daily benefactmi; 
ever doing something serviceable to them, desirous and aeek' 
ing always to benefit them, and in her very presence a cob- 
ataat object of aentle pleasure to them, it was manifeitlf 
devised and setUed by the Creator, in his formation of fenuli 
nature, that this should be the effect ; and most succesefiilf 
■ad universally has his plan been executed. 

By the parental system which he has put into eontimiil 
operation, the mother is always so circumstanced with her ofr 
epring that they cannot see her without interest and sympatl^i 
Dom the constitution of their nature, and from the first portka 
of their life on earth. Their wants and their gratificatiooii 
their good and evil of all sorts, connect them perpetually witk 
h/K. She is the cause, the maker, the provider, and the dif» 
AzbQter of theiz dvly cofrnfotu; Vter; ^wMKfa, with npidi^i 

■ III 11 ^wmnm ttBaHMal ■ gi i 

^hni lyfcMiil^ ri J III JS^ 

fc*^r I 1 ■■ It wcfc At. TkMi*« 

1 ■ 1 ■ "l^ . " 1 ■ "j "^J ■ 

MM Ml ■« Mr. Mi t«%* 4^ |M Mf MrfM. Ml 

idM fa£t bat bcB« Uf anMal. wbovm or n« M I 

lOit a« KMbar •> m1m« Micnal btt, A* imI tf A* 
tab «vU UB Oma^ m Bf 

^^^— ---■ »,^ir-- 

B habitiul cawaqaanca of thor lint. 

Slu lAecti may not ba nollcad bj tinaa who poltt ft 
lithom Bi proceeding from tbaae lirjng canaat, but tha; ni 
' te Bins; e ihiis iHsmuE, fbr Uw; bave nc other Mmca. 
I fbea. the femalo maiden oT aoeietj- only keco AMlwd 
' fiom being clouckil ot diatnibad by wrong reetiDgi or r 
limits, iboy cunzini be inmatea ot any home without tbeaa la- 
. ulta nBtamllv dikI iwoUrlT flowioK ftom theli dailr Ufa, md 


tiwi tbeir own Ins 10 fitmmed tlnm, and Irr their fina 
devakm, gndtuDy leads tliein to theee otuitieB. 

If ttie mother hsTe good sense, good intentkmi 
knowledge of what she has to do, and the usual state o 
which, \^ the make and system of her heing, has h 
Tided to accme to her ; if she praeerre the suaTitr, a 
and gentle manner which hate been made, br all tbesi 
to be natural to her sex, she will, unaflbctedly and ini 
diffose anrand her emanations of these qnalitiee. i 
raise in others the placid feelings which are actoatin^ 
tAie will look, lod speak, and spread the moral beautM 
bod, and bloom, and expand within her impercep 
herself. What is assomed nerer, or bat abortly, n 
The charm lies in the natural reali^ ; the artificial wi 
disntisfies, and cannot be lasting or uniform. Wl 
ceiyed to be the mask, and not the genuine soul or f 
the detection always prevents the confidence and regar 
true benigni^ creates. Truth has in all things an 
attraction, which no counterfeit can retain. 

But so admirably is the fabric of human life cons 
and are all its component parts arranged and qualified 
the wife or mother be the true srowth of nature, w 
cultivation which her intellectual improvement in c 
societies now occasions, she will be the daily benefac 
her family; all her household will find a general 
about them, originating from her intentions and supei 
ence. Neatness, quiet, harmony, order, and prude 
regulation, both in mind and in manners, will, from 
ample, be the character of that home, of which she vi 
be the model, the attraction, and the presiding queen. 

This is what, in the plan and purpose of Provident 
have been designed to be, and what every wife and 
may be. It is but just to add, that it is only a descri 
what the female world of Europe and America most gi 
are; and what those of Asia and Africa would be 
their paganism or Mohammedanism were to be exchan 
Christianity. This religion is the true patron, friend, f 
and exalter of women o? all classes ; their best quaU 
peculiarly congenial with its Divine precepts, and < 
themselves most eflicaciously under its supporting prol 

But it will always rest with themselves to be of thi 
'CtfTtnd eondact, and to Yka-ve ^na moT«\ cscudNavVxsAsc 

OV THI WOEU>. 180 

lieat ibam. It may te lofC or it rnnf te KtAined ; eU 
nmy ba boried in the atith ; Um Uiunond may lie ot^* 

sad incnistMi in the mine. But the Uwt of nttura 
i Dmne •eoaony oi hnnMn MXm provide the cepecity, 
iMia, end the ■nenciei for lU iheiie wlminble retulte ; 
tmmm the epontuieoua will end •teadv poiMYerence of 
Inridual mind mutt co-openUe in order to pitiduce the 
m and Ueeitnge which they ere inteiidcsd to occeaion. 
never tlie finmale world exhibiia theae foaturea, it 
I the beauty of Um ayaiem under wlioae agency it ariaea. 
in we dfwbt that thie character will become more prev- 

The natural desire of both aeiea to be what ia 
4 iBAat cicellent while they live, in order to be preforred 
ipUuded, will tocreaae ita univenality aa the unprove- 
of aoci«!*<v elevate and refine ite moral and intellectual 
rde. iicjd taetc, riglit fooling, and aound judgment 
Mcomc mom roium'm ; and, aa they eproad, what they 
ralue and Mek for will multifily with the demand for it, 
a m^ira enlianced aa it ia more appreciated We are 

fond of \tM\i\M\v.nn not to Micourage every mode of pro* 

Lit tliat lMH:omi'« {Mirceptililfj and practicable. Hence 
e of the female amialiilitioa cannot biit riae aa their 
Ke are more diw:emed and felt. 'Hiuii, the more tht^ 
ictiaed, the higher will be tlie eatimation of them ; ana 
ore tliry are nateemed and wiihed for, the more common 
nil become. 

ice tbern can be no doubt that family happineaa will be 
aoiight and enjoye<l aa llie improvemnnta of human 
I iiirrciaa«! ; and thin in inoaiit to be one of thoao im- 
nenti. It can, liownvf^r, only ariae from the maternal 
mnubial virtuoa and qnaliti^N of tlie female worbl ; and 
\%m an: more cultivatetl, jMaiieaacd, and praetiaed, the 
carta m and tlir morn univrrnal will lie tlie domeatio 
rta which tlmy rrfatr;. Notiurig oUe can yield nurh to 
lid, iMicauan nfiiliiiig fihe can cauae tluit quantity of hi^ 
. and benefit which tlmy originate. Henro the itnpo^ 
rank, valuir, ami iinfirovfrriKjnt* of tlie female poitiot 
nan iiatun; will advanci; in vyury Mtale, with ita moral, 
rua, and iiitfllcctuNl |irogr<tNiiion, 

sre a«!«*mN to nm to In; no rii«Non to doulit tluit, from 
iuaee which wri can dmrfirn to Imj now in Ofieration, 
irid wjji hecottuf iuirinor in every auccaed\n% |||MMn)ikn^\ 



al tint it is the pha of Fkorideiiee tiMt it iImm! 
A ntm monl ^^t teema to be hnperted to hnnuni 
pramote this enSsct ; bat the great streams of ham 
aess most always come from the domestic sou 
theie fa ie mainly from the female worid. To this 
Bott participate in the improvementa which take pbc 
are Tuibiy advancing in a fair proportion of these ; 
thateby faie always on a lend with uieir age, and, fi« 
king in the generd p rogr ess , will contimie to be tin 
fliiential instraments in realizing whaterer further bi 
of earthly felicity it may be the design of the Crea 
stow on his hmnan race. Transgression having bet 
trodncer of eril, the moral improvement of the wori 
expected to be attended with an augmentation of i 
happmess. Hence there is no just ground to jrap 
• soeietT is doomed to be more wretched, if its pc 
should continue to multiply. 

Hie relative position m which the female sex ar 
by the natural laws of life and death, contributes | 
their influence on society. 

On surveying the table of the living population in 
and Wales in 1821, we perceive that, of the ages 
birth to fourteen years old, there were more boys t! 
existing in society;* but from the age of fourtee 
loncMt period of human life, there were most femalei 
the JBn^^h world, f This is a remarkable circumsti 
cause it foils in the most important seasons of life ; 
laiger quantity of women is the greatest in the maturei 

* Ths mates thm Is Boslaiid ander tiM Sfe of fimrteen weis 
lbs fcoiatos tJOMJiU ; nnkinf a diAraoee of 02,U8 more imIi 
t Pnmfbiiirtaen,lliegraacernamb«rorfemalMUriDf iaBs 
Wates is mi warr, at the eoeceeeiTe periods— 

FMm 15 lo 19 . 95,MS 


10 toS9 
10 to 19 
40 to 40 
SO to 90 
M to 00 
70 to 79 
80 to 80 
90 to 99 
100 and upward 







IbUnfflnall 191,105 

V9«iii Mff woftuk Ml 

«IM^MIIiMarlMMllil•; IwMm^fttM 
^H^AAM^. Id Ob fflCMTfil tlwjr oeecddlte 
^ttipUTIlMfln* Tbii oeaiii ia the tiM oT 
WJMMMvMotiien, and wfaBB all nepMAaMBf iiipoi 

atfTkUneM, aatt, mi dntjr in loeisty. Um^ 
W Mr civfl and polilkal MiplOTBMli I ~ 
itflMfMB m the pmte edanlioii, 4e dulfi 
il^tkB ■mal and idy oo a cuKi f aii on of Ifeiii 
Ab to wwlRf pflrfooMd by ff milfa ; miw tmk tmj 
wtetobeaMra anMNNM at the pmod wfaan tlMrwi 

jl waMmdiM liwiil fii iml m\mmmm4 

ttoi aoaa Mt take plaee acddanftallf ; bat ia MljrpM- 
lil far in aatnua, and prepared for by the fact that faii i §^ 
ii diabetwaan their birth and the ay of fciutoui ihaaaf 
■■lea. The difienneeia 80 great k the dietribalieBeflha 
l^tyof tiiuaeaaoBof begnnmgliie^thatabofe IM^lii 
» nMlea tfien die then fcuelea ;t that ia, Itt^ii Amt 
■hM die, andy by tiiat meana, 1SS,0M naoie jomm wmmm 
ir vp to be the naafol B M eaiberi and hehnnatea of eacialf* 
I could hive been in the woild if diebiva of deelh bed 
a aoliiBred to opente on them "mhtea giib aa aetnrdy ae 
r do on the other sex when boys. 

M this differeDce, at this part of life, ia the reaelt of Dinne 
^pnaent and not of accident, seems to me to be indicaCod 
fa aeq[aent£Kt, that in the next period of exiflteoea^ he* 
■I ifteen and forty-fire, the proportion rhaneea, and flMel 
■be die.t When we recoDeet that this is the aaetioB of 
r life m which diey add to the world the new laeo Aat b 
MBoeed them, we see the csnse of its greater mortality to 
n; bat yet eren tins is so goremed, that afchoogh mm* 
ham die than males dnniig thiese thirty yean^ 3fet atfOthef 

Tte oeeei was tte two 1 


ciMidMr 901^401. 


OtwakM mUU 

Of iiiBiiiiii, saiy mm 




huufliwl Old tweotj four, tad Uim wm • f^ 

Oa Ifci wImJii, there were, in 18S1, liriiif in EnfUnd and 
Wabi^ if dl 11098, SS7,567 more cyf the feminint aex Uma 9i 
tte ddMr.t "nns the Ihrioff fabric of Mcietjr m ihia pan ef 
onr Himd wm c o iupoie d of 9(XJBM more bofs, m Um •^m 
nader fiftoen, nd 991,105 more grown up fenieles,.» ail the 
■nheeqneiH Tom fipom fifteen to tne donoon of • eenuiry and 

So mat female mind and habita were opentmg u our 
neial wotld u e ailj a fixtieCh part more than the mafe, aa fw 
M greater nmnben and maturity affected it ; for thia aupenor 
qontlftrwaa that of the female mind m the two penodaof lU 
ttML p^— ^ and ita moat aerriceaUe atate, and thanbjr of 
'ftt gUMteat inflnence, eapecially in all that relate* to the mur- 
tare and education of the joun;, and to the direction, tone, 
dmaetef . and gorenmient of domeetic life ; and not ieaa ae 
hk all that power and benefit which eenaibfe women unaaau 
l^tofff ezerciae and impart to aenaiMe men in heir counaela 
Old co n Tetaation, and br their ezan|)le and manneia. 

It ii the female world which chiefly cemeiita aociety lo- 
sather, and gives it kind and tender feelings, and neigltlKHirly 
oiendliness, the Iotc of peace and rt'poac, and mutual esteem 
and good-win. Their natural regard and sympathies fer the 
•Ihet aex incline them to its society, draw it into theirs, and, 
bf promoting the desire to please, contribute to increase tlie 
outy and attachment of men to esch other as well as to them- 
AdVea. They foster and circulate the amiable sensibilitiee, 
waA. fflye a perpetual popularity to the gentle and obliging dis- 
pOetuon ; to that softened state of mind and manners which 
tt pecnliaily efficacious in civilizing and regulating the human 
•bength and energies. The virtues and qualities which most 
heautify the human character are most natural to the female 
nature in all its ages, but are less so to the male beyond his 
in&ncy. His greater powers, impetuosities, and activities 
aoppreaa their imuence as he rises into manhood and vigorous 
employment. As he grows into this, the emulations aixi am- 
bitMina, the strivings i^ the contests of human life tlien ex- 

J VSL L, Pi zzxtL 


• • • • 0479/19 

MarstaMlss ..••.. «R>8t 


cite more of hia attention, and make him a partim 
biuj world where all are struggling so eamestlj and 
naeiously for distinction, property, power, enjoyment, 
periority. It is in the female characters about him 
aeea anid feels the interestingness and the utilitiea of 1 
tender feelings, of the affectionate heart, of the mild ai 
temper, of the kind manner, the obliging readineea, 
desire to please ; of social peace and quiet, and of I 
dearing comforts and placid happiness which the fema] 
in its Tariooa conditions of mother, daughter, aister, ^ 
atiTc, or Tisiter, is continnallj producing or extoiding 

From all theae considerations we may diacem the 
menta of the Creator as to female life to have been ai 
planned. Fewer females in their childhood and gii 
than boys ; but from that period, more of them than 
after they become capable of being the cause, aids, an 
of a household ; more always in the mature population 
the larger part of the coexisting generation consists of 
liring always in their homes, and tending their young 
and relatives, and pervading general society as its mo 
lar and continual guides and supporters ; while thi 
labours of male life call that to different habits in th' 
scenes and occupations of the world ; and it cannot, tl 
be ao efficient in the moral direction and education of 
society and of the growing mind.* 

The benefits of Uiis part of the economy of human 
felt in all stages of its political condition ; but least 
savage and uncivilized tzibes and eras. They increi 
human cultivation, and will here preponderate as educa' 
ciplines the mind, as suitable knowledge enlarges its t 
and views, and as religion elevates and purifies its i 
hopes, and aspirations. 

* Theie are more males alive than females under ftmrteeo, 
there are more bom ; bat female infents appear to oatlive the m 
fer above one fifth of the males bom died in their flrat year, bat 
rixth of the females. One third of the males bora were del 
fhree, bnt not one third of the females till under six : thus In mn 
there died, within the flrat year oTtbeir aae, males 167,717; 
IS0,935 ; maUnc a difference of so many as 36,789 lees females 
that early period ; of one and two years, males 83,636 ; Ibmalei 
belnf 5176 less females. In the three next years, or under fS 
and six, there were 1347 lees females dying ; so that 43,30S moi 
etUdrmk than malea IWed u» attaiii >^ %%« ^ ^"^^ i«m« In Engl 
WMim mmi 1818 to i«4.— a<>aBkJk.,p.x».^Vu 



ThB pTHMM alslo of Amerkan woeiuty diflera from oun fai 
I computment of it ; tnd monl conMNjuencm ieem to foU 
' fraa the diTonity, And will probably continuo to do m, 
m§ ■omo improvoRMiit in the twbita or lifci loMmw the ihtm- 
mllo of mortality among its femal* claat^t. 
Maod of femalea bainir, aa in Rnffland, the largnr number, 
IIm wlwle cenaua in tm United Nutra in 1831 tbe malea 
« the moot nameroaa body, in a popuUtion nrariy the 
M aa, in IRS I, waa the Engliiih amount.* Up to fifleeu 
n the iamalea were, aa in England, fewer than the malea. t 
If wore more in the next five yearn of agn betwrm fifteen 
[twenty ;t but from that time of life to the period of eighty, 
■M alwaya atirpaaacd them in numbrr.^ From eight v to 
r hmwlrnd, the aged women wrre the largeat portion, II liat, 
hi contorial duration, the men wore in greater number. IT 
rhe remik of thia comparative ponitioii of the two aexea in 
■rica ia, that in all the most active and mature agm of life, 
■MR are more numeroua than the women. It correapoiida 
k oor preceding viewa, that there ia in America more of 
. alyle of conduct and mannem which characterixea the 
I moral and civiliied population. America ia at preaent 

na fti|iaraHvii aaMbna aadw tlima 


•7MI4 : frmalM. 007,713. 

Uom twcaty lo alghiy waa~ 


lAio . . OM.goi 

1010 40 



ly I* on* handrad 
Of MM hmmimi aa4 apward, 
VaU^, ^. U., p. n». 


• Mffli 













. 1S0.H06 
. 6H,0M 

Mid tO,flM IhMlw. 

iifcWrt atet tmtnei ftafoFaoo at 

Md MMnd jodpncal of the Ea^iib ooanm 
Till iBililiiiin iiiil tiwliiiiii iif h— !■ 1 
it* ctuncwiuuc u all >V°i* ■>' *'>**i>^ Wall* 
W b* ilw ba UnoB^oat £«ia^ ud *• Gad it m ■ 
dmrW^ niil a l^ ndaM m nil ai wtba In* m" 
■UiDDi. h indueneet tbe caodoEt ef tba aci m 1_ 
it (ciualcd Iba realoiBi of ike ae^ni ((ue«a la Woat A 
and hu bMD obaentid M f(c«ul u K«« Zakbul.f 1 
it piompting to Amchcui Udj to nsiilTe We 
dttet. though with ■ heaiy fecmaay taat, •• K 
•cquind Iha righl Is da so. toi to take luuch li 
■hue tba full piopen; id il^em th*t >he might t 
- ' ' -"ich peneTsimg aoddi 


1 WtH U Ik* B(fR> ktaptoai er Ab«, Mr. Later •_ , ,.^ 

■Mora MA IM bu uid kudi or bi; feratHt uid iqwjr «)• i 
MnnyjHikliUTliteiiWIIiTinliMHgnMilMaua. -^•fMMI 

(■Hlitf AiaHiB'i (iMpuIiy ■InoK I 

W. p. 3M. """ " " " ^^' 

\l Wbca wfnM AnieriQin phUan-ihropuiB were Ibnnliu iMr etHB 

or TUB WORLD. 197 

Wa Me Um imtortwl fciclinK* m Htronf( and pro viilitnt in 
tbe Induii wcHiMiii of N(»rtli Aiiifrira mi itusy (miuIiI Im) nuumu 
•ur own, iiotwiUwUiidiiiK llwir imvunn ainl NuflliTiritf iiuMiit ut 
iih.* Among tint wild trilwn of tiiin quiirliir of Um hUAh:, 
ihmy tiavf! ■iicTi ciirioiiii kinI n'i«>iitiv<i niindii m to Uk tint tm- 
ditiutuil hmtoriBiii of l)ii*ir nation. t IiHlcfd, in other uncivil 
md iio|Mjbtiunii, tfioy luiv«t lM'i*n found to diNjiUy no wmit or 
inferMinty of artivo inli'llrct wiMtn tiiry liavn iM'im (Mtrnntti'd 
«r enrouragcd to cxcri it.t Wn nuiy infitr tliiii to imvo Im'cii 
•I all tiimsN tlMi raiM;, liy m> many of titii diMtiiiffUiKlicd nationii 
of aiitifjiiity liavniK iNNfn Kovcnii-d l>y f|iiiTiiit'- -a kind of mivi-r- 
njpM UiMi alwaya imjijy willing and luippy Niihji*ctM, Ihtiiiind 

Mmioii la aurh aa imirliidni tiM iuMMidllily vf my lUiinf inora than lo 

flM ikMu (iMir frewMii. lliry Bra awanitMi lu i«ia at a valuation ol 
100 dollar*. Tlii*y arn yiwiiK aii<l |iriiiiil«iii|C a nuiiilHir ol youiiK 
ba)B,aouM yoiin| |irla, aiKl a fnw old ihtmnim." Morili Aiiicr. Kav., No. 
:e. |i 147. 

* Ur Hirhardann alalra: "'J1n> I'nm umc a cradla nxlrcmnly wril 
atfapifid lu lliHir naidffi iK lllr. Tim infaiil la iilarnl in llie tia^, liaviiitf 
Ha luwar •iirrimuni wrapfml u|i in aoll NpliairnuHi, or httn iihnm; antl, 
WMlviui IIn! U-aal dangnr ol iiiihIiIuik <hiI, ran bi! Iiunf up in IIih Inni or 
«a a branrh, or Imi aiiapnnlH on itm rriolliRr'a Imi-k by a iMiid wliirli 
ffaaaaa tim fomliRad, ao an Co l«-avr lirr liaiidM iiriliN-ily Irtw. 

** Thr B|iba|nuifi Iti wlilrli ihn rinid la Iniil forma a Mill alaallc IimI, 
«htrh alforda aui-h a \triArr.lnHt fVoin iImi <'old ol a tinnrtiuu wint»r iliul 
ta plara wwild br III aii|»|ilif!d by riotli. I'bf nioili«r« am c.arnnil to col- 
laci a ■ullli-ii'nt ijuaHniy in nntiinin for winn-r iimh. 

" llotli Miiea ari! loud of ilM'ir rhiMrm. Tbn lailinr niivrr |iiinlNlif'« 
Ikam, aiid if Hut iiuilliflr, iiMirn liirniy in ltiUi|Mr, MinHiiim«« bnaiowM a 
Maw or two on a tronbliwiMiHi rlnld, lii-r litiari In inalantly M»llnnrd liv 
IfeB ruar that folluwa, and alir iiinifdm Un inara wiib IImnm that atrcak 
Uw •ifioliy iarw of hrr darliiiK." Franklin'a Voy., p. nu. 

f llr. Franklin inrniNiiia ibia la<-i . "Thn Indian wmimn till Um 
IPBiind, itmo tiM fifuri, nurar ami liritiK up iba rluldrf>n, and prmrrvn 
and ImimI down |» iNMimiy ilm nmnory ol puMir irankariloiia." I(<- 
narka on the HavaRra, Wmkii, vol ii , p II n 

■ Thr Ainrriran miaaHinariiiM lo llm KiN-ii-ty lalanda In thi; Houili Hna, 
la IHM, olalH : " Muai of ilirai* InlaiidNarn KovRrmd by women. 'Ibt-y 
praMdai ai IImi drhaira of tbr rbirfu on tim public aflaira of Ilia lalnml. 
tad taka an ai-livr part In lluini. Tim inrriinKa urn o|i«n lo all llm om- 
Uvaa; and, wimllirr ol bi^b or low di-icin-, anv onn la allowi-il lo kivi* 
MaopinlMifNi Ihit aubjr<i m ijumiiion. In ifirnr tMmlrn ilm woiimfl 
ganrrally rviiirr iimnlal i|ualitli'« auprrNir lo tint »mn, and alao aur|HiM 
ihom III ilMtr attaiiiiimiiia at ilia iiiiaaioiiary M-.lioola.'' AiiMirlcaii ramira, 
liar.. IH34. 

ft amina, Iwwavrr, that U waa (lirlallanlly whirli hail brought ilmaa 
^jMHiifia iiiUi li|lit and anion; for llm aanm Inlirr ailda : "Hliirfiilm 
aaiaMiabiiMiHl uf ilia iniaaioriarma on tIm laland, llm coiidiiioii of iba 
haa uiidargoim a grrai rbaiiK". Vtwix a alilr lA a\tVM\ «\ai.'««\^ 
lfef*r Aav« kfomwo rvinparBlWi \y Umt luA \A^|^V Via. 


M much more eaaily displaced if their rale ihould be ofien- 


In Russia, so frequently gOTemed by empresses, who hats 
largely contributed to its national prosperity, the giftj fe- 
males are highly distinguished for their talent of yocSL mosie, 
and are found fit to hold a station in its aristocratic nnkiy 
when they have been selected for their attractions to be ss 
elevated. t But perhaps one of the most natural eflfusioai 
and exhibitions of the affectionate sensibility of the femalt 
heart, in its earliest, purely native, and instinctive form, is ths 
emotion displayed by a Hungarian child towards a bar tbit 
had nurtured her.t 

The Chinese females deserve our notice and amlanse bt 
that union of gentleness with steadiness and patient floda- 
ranee which everywhere claims and affects our sympstfaf. 
They displayed these qualities unaffectedly and unpntend- 
ingly lately at Canton, under the terror, amtation, and dia- 
tress of a great sudden conflagration there.^ 

* Yon will remember, fhmi your hintoricsl studies, several eeMuBMi 

5oeens ; Semiramia of Assyria, Nitocris of Babylon, Clec^MUrs oflMt, 
Lflemisia of Asia Minor, and Zenobia of Palmyra. In 1770, Mr. Swis* 
ton pablisbed, in the ** Philonopbiual Transactions,'^ the descriptioa ef s 
eoin bearing the veiled head of a woman, which, fhun the chancten oa 
it, he showed to be Philiatides, the QuKSit or Malta and Gozojisfeis 
the Carthacinlans became possessed of these islands. — PtiiL lYua, 
vol. Ix., p. 80. 

t " or the gipsies, or, as they style tbemselTes,'Roromany, iben sit 
several thoussiida in and about Moscow. The female gipsies srs Ihf 
moat distingaished, having, for time immennorial, cultivated their vbhI 
powers to sach an extent, that although in the heart of a eoaniry ia 
which the vocal art has attained to a greater perfection than is any Mhir 

Cirt of the world, yet the principal gipsy choruses in Moscow sis si- 
wed to be unrivalled. The sums obtained by ilieseperlbnners an vary 
large, enabling them to live in luxury of every description. Mssyoi 
them are married to Riuwian gentleman.**— Atlienseum, 1830, p. 568. 

t ** At a late bear-hunt in Hungary, the hunters succeeded, aflersMick 
difllculty, in liUIIiig a very savage she-bear. She was scsrcely braagkl 
to the ground, when s young giri sboui twelve years of sge rushed ffss 
a thicket, and threw herself on the dying animal, making tkt gratUd 
lamentations. With considerable trouble the huntsmen eootrived, bf 
means of cords with running knota, to capture the little savsgs. Ib> 
quiry being set on foot, it was asceriained that a country>wooMn had 
lootber child about twelve years before, snd had never been able to di» 
cover what had become of it. The giri has been placed under lbs csra 
of the Ck>untess Erdodi, who has commenced her treatoaent by Asdi^ 
her on roots, honey, and raw meat.**— Gazette des Fortes ds Irankfeit, 

f Ttulr behavioar la (boa deaeiVba^ \Il%^lM)K ti««a^:«Biin&^«iini1ia' 

OV THl WOELO. 100 

hm 9Xtnotdu»iy Mtion, in aotne pojnu mo UudBble« in 
Ml uofavouraJilj peculiar. tb« chanurUrr of thc-ir woineD 
icb kind Mid iinprciwivcrrieM •« to l«kJ uriv of iu pop- 
lien to akirlrli (he l«iukl« c-x<:i:llcnc« he dfrliiicatM m 
iiiig ifTttat delicacy, cauiioua iiiodcaty. f^cntle fiiariri4-r», 
•uloua ffcar of censure, a love of bouuur and rcpuiatioti, 
jMd pnnciplc arid liigh-uiirided virtue.* Iu hia owu 

MM, iMailiaff iIm rfsMriMilen ei tb* mw eliy of C'aniofi by 
Tka alam waa gtvMi al ciighl cr'cUirli in iIm avaalnff, and Ite 
•re €ltmt4. Thu wind rrakhcnad, and iba IlimM aprnd mtuA, 
4 WMi, and ngri all nl|hl. TIm uirtfiu of iha attbartM w^n 
tf by a dniM! eratird of pM|il«, riNivcyinr ibMr goads, or awdMK 
■aJoa a«4 agod rslailoiui. i bs clnmuut of msfi and cUab of 
a aa ibry riearod Ibo way- ilic nboulins.Mcrasmlng, ibnahrning, 
^aiBiiif w<!r» hombls. M iwoo'cloili ii bkd burnt down lbs 
■ fsio. Al Ibai urns lb« fcmslm and rbildron of many fbmillos 
• Ibc walla, aiiiing or lying mi ihoir rumiiura; wbila albara 
iMHTtiiig and fuiding Ihrir hclpltia*. bedrid, ugM, and Mind ra- 

Tlbr liriiavkMir rif iba wMfKin wsn |wriirularly retnarkad; U 
•al adnirabla No eomplaming: no si-rcaining; no tainting; 
ifuicaa. r*signaiion, and MlfiMMMwiiiin. Ttio lonoa of Iboir 
wsfo wairbod, as lli^ arraMonally fa*e dirrrlirm lo Ihrlr etill 
«rr«anu and ibay wrm bland, sulidurd, and fintiin. TUr sight 
raing rii> la dreadful any wbrra ; but iia hwrora ara BiiiJii|diaa in 
'— ruiiiif HaiJftra. M Marcb, laM. 

poMa and ik»*c| wriUra, wban thay abeccb human mannara, uau- 
i« from rharariora llwy ara ai!<|usinicd wiib, I ciMiaider iba da* 
as af iha fJblnaaa author of " 'I Im- Fortunaia fmon" a ra^raaania- 
Iba Cbioaas ladiaa ha moal adnured. Ilia banaaa waa Nfattay- 

' ayabrawa wota Ilka Iho alender kalkl of Iba wilkrw la aprtnc ; 
r wIMa Mpart thai nf a delicaia aaiamnal Aowar. Biwigbl 
lafly in ito raiiremfeni »l itiR lainala afMrtinenta, aba aarpawaad 
^y a ailkrn liaaui! Mtill, Imwrvcr, wbaa Iba occaalua caltad 
IM ^MMoaH lalnila niMl rrMiluiioa beyond many of tba oibar 
Vol I . p M. 

wntinania aacnbod to her, in bar ronvaraalion with bar anela, 
w untimUy parMruiliig her, ara highly rrcditabia la iba kmala 
wf of fiiifia in Its hmmI rcaieKiabJa elm*. 

I violai ion of the lawa tu «*il and rriirl purpnaHa,** raplird Mbuay- 
, " awy Riahc ibe frail humaniiy i»f a worthy and nailed rhar- 
•nMc , but autb natural terlmga will never niiapel U lo deeceud 
I mmni aleealion Air. Iietiia goverii<^ by a flied pf iiiriple of rwr- 
Ifea pfsaenco af iba auipenir biuiaelf will net or ftace aucb a rbar- 
I dagrsdc ilarir ' 

la linber urging hrr to what abe daeincd wrang, aba anawerrd, 
pwater b aays wHI Dm winl«fr inaari muac not taJh of aumoaw : 
MiMfwfiba llueykiiO; never know* aprmg and nuiumn. Wa ara 
I antuainird wiib itw iiamre of our own atlueiiona. 1^ me 
yan, ttiiria, til mind yuur own nflhira. \'*mr Hicre kn<rwa ihal 
ra earn things aa propriaf y. vinor, ropataunn^ and •tir-apaeniP 
wub Uieaa, bappiiiaag auAwyaan ii% ^>ii(»>liiwi 


person he likewise sscribes the preservation of numfitriniam 
nis own sex to the influence of such examples,* aaa sbowi^ 
by the verses which he adds on his heroine, that be felt wfart 
he delineates to be the natural beauty, as well as the cnhi- 
vated excellence, of the female spirit. f 

Thus in every country the peculiar amiabilities of the fe- 
male mind are felt to be distinguishing moral beauties to it; 
are valued as such, and are everywhere disclosing themsdiVL 
The male spirit, however entangled with other habits sod A- 
surdities, yet is interested by the more delicste snd gonds 
nature of his allotted companion, as long as she p m sar f w 
lier attracting virtues, undebased by wluit sallies sod dt* 
atroys them. She is, however, susceptible of such d^pidip 
tion ; she may become all that is most odious and abinniL 
it is painful to find that such a perversion exists at pnsMt m 

te hsr. Pray, tlien, fire yoorself no ancaUed-fiir anxiety oo nqr < 
p. 935. 

** To die once is notliing in compaiisoa with tlie lossof virtM," ^Ml. 
—The FortaoaCe Unioo, translated ftom tbe Chinese offigiBsl by J. f* 
DsTio. 18S9. 

* " Reason's hij^hway is str^gbt and |4ain ; unlike 

The crooked, devious path of worthless men. 

Did not a nnultless tieroine lometinies sliine. 

Virtue's great cauwe entirely would flUI."— lb., p. fiS. 
t ** Her nature was ardent in tbe cause of Tirtoe, 

Though the soilness of her afTectione was easily influenced. 
Tb blend thus the warmth of passion with the ri^ness of priaeifK 

Is the perfection of moral exeellence.''— lb., ^m. iL, p. M7. 
** Wonder not at this female. 

With slender waist and delicate hands. 

Her heart, though warm, was pore ; 

Her temper chaste as ice ; 

In the sing lenees of her purpose she reUed upon taenelf; 

Unconscious of wrong, what need had she fbr distmac r*— lb., tBL 
'* While her tlither's wish was yet nndivulged, 

The daughter's heart already understood iL" 
* ♦ • * * 

« Mildness, without yielding, constitates true firmness : 
Would you seeli an emblem of mildness and resistance eombinsdl 
The watery element affords the flitest illnstratiun."— lb., SSO. 

On being introduced to the emperor : " the son of Heaven turned Ui 
•yes npon her, and eaw that she surpassed a flower or a willow in deli* 
cacy and grace." Her firmness in right conduct was the chief subject 
of his imperial commendation. 

" We linow that the relative duties are most honoured by a strict eb- 

mr ra ace under circomstances of difficulty. The excellence of virtse 

/(as ia continuing inflexible ; paniiciA»x\) wXMia ««u«bt ailbrds oppsfto- 

ov nv woKU). 901 

;ftl of a eoimtnr wbote femalet haye been praised for 
ightlineM, good feeling, and kind manners ; but Spain 
eat mmal improTement :* yet all laxge cities have some 
tkt anomalies ; and we may class this among those of 
at, but still deplonble description, which disgrace our 
lut eyen for the existence of these we must accuse our 
; for what are they but the yictims of the men wIms 
own eelfiah ends, mtve deceived and corrupted them f 
ny sensibilities, then, make them both more misera- 
more evil beings, increased by the utter hopelessness 
Mir of obliterating the past ; of recovering their Ibr- 
L or estimation ; or of obtaining any creditable means 
stance. To such wretchedness does the self-gratify- 
l«r lead and consign the female spirit he seduces and 

The human ruin and misery ot the suffering indi- 
icome in time so complete, that it can never be suxpri- 
t a temper half demoniacal should occasionally result 

Nothing but the native good qualities of the female 
events tms effect from f^lowing universally such a 
but these are so generally indestructible, that even 
norse, famine, contempt, and disease cannot wboUy 
s overpower their instinctive opera^on. 

meriean iravvller In Bpaln has given us ilit MIowhiff seesanl, 
hi ino : ** Pnrbaos tosra are no women In tlie woni poasse- 

Mtsia nors scron«y marked wUh reckless crime than uwse q€ 
dass In Msdrid, Known by the name of Manolae. Unheeded 

lc«, and abasdonod to their own trlndlciive p ae ei ews, the ba^ 
•Ucli ihey Itve are the nightly aeenes of TMenee aad marder i 
ily Intimation wbkeh juotice has of their crimes Is when the dea4 

IM murdered of either aex, instesd ofbelns concealed, are ihmsl 
hs 4reef. As many of these women nabituallr carry efwn 
■est through their garters, the means of dealing a deaik*hUiw Is 
Ad."— Spain Bevlaiied, by an Amsricao. 



tltt Agtd Cla$9 qf Soeielv emuUeni.— Stau mtd P roport i i m ^ flM 
te\&Rrteiut oiuC WoiM.— Review ^ thnr Ckaracter, PoaUitm,mi 
VtiUtua in the Living World. 

My dear Stdnbt, 

We find every population on the earth, and neailj eroy 
family, consisting of persons in the three succeeding stages oif 
life — ^the young, the mature, and the aged ; presentinff to « 
at all times a living picture of the beginning, the midcUe^ utf 
the end of our designated earthly eiistence. The prapoitioni 
of these to each other have hien already noticed, aod tkeii 
mutual utilities likewise. I would now direct your ■t ten tiB B 
for a short time to the consideration of the last divisioa, lAom 
ve characterize as the aged portion of society. It has beea i 
contioual part of the Divine economy of our world tbit it 
idiould, in all its societies, contain a certain portion of dat 
class of its human beings, interrain^ed with the rest, but vi- 
rying in t^ length of their protracted duration. They hnv 
outlived atf the causes of dissolution which have taken (M 
the great bulk of those with whom they were coexisting ; sod 
have adwotages^ qualities, utilities, and purposes pecdisiif 
connected wim Uiemselves, by which they are separated and 
distinguished from all the younger portion of the conummitf. 

In 1821 the state of living society in England and Wtles 
tompriaad ten millions and a half of both sexes. Of thest 
the aged formed nearly a thirteenth psrt, if we date this ebm 
of seniority from the attainment of tne sixtieth year of hamia 
life. At this period of it' the character and qualities of old 
age begin to be most visible and operative ; and those who 
had reached this duration formed at that time an ^mnnnt of 
791,997 individuals of both sexes; being in number, at the 
latter end of human life here, about half of those who were at 
its conunencing period, or under five years of age.* 

* TtM males of sixty sad ahovs ware 366,441 ; tbe finnalas, 41S,SM^ 
JUek., p. 97' Those under |Lve w«ie T9l^70 mslss, sod 774,060 UssBSlsi. 

OP THB WOftL0« 909 

*DaM ^^ p o rti pn of toeietr were difCugvMlMd frvia evb 
odwr ^the differeDoes of their revfMsctJve •nuwitv. T»« 
aeTenthi cf diem were b e t w e e u teTenty itud eijefaiy : uv*. 5^rt« 
« twelfth between eishtj tnd ninetj. The tint tMsuuf «^v- 
tlent to afanost one ftNty-ibarth put of th(e wiMlv fivpuWuun ; 
Che kit being onlj e hundred and sixtieib pc^rtjfvrj '>ulv ^UVi 
flfbodtseue were between ninety end one huudrvd T«ti/», Uriffjf 
obIt 1 in 1908 of the whde commuuitr. 11m; venr l*'w w i**^ 
faM iiechnd one hundred yeen end ftbov« wtr^ vrjjr J^ , 
b«ng bat as 1 in 96,717 in a pofjuhaxw of tm ouUmui auid n 
halt* Of thoae enjoying this eztreue Unigrviiy, twv Uiude 
we fenulee. 

In all pcrittda and atatea of aociety we fiud auck a daa* vi^ 
irting ; «id in p roportiona, thoucfa not ao Uxge im (iiia, v^ «^ 
Mtyu of eoflieient number to make it a diirtjnct <tfd«r arid atai^ 
•f evcrf popalation. In cofl^ui«cU(in with the iuatuf«, tUvy 
fann, aa beuKe remaiked, the cooeolidaUijip arjd ataU* Imqj 
9i aU aocietiaa ; pieeenting alwaya a retuarJubk; ooutourt U/ 
the intereeting diviaiona of infancy and ciiiJdiwod, aa w«U aa 
to the ardent, feaileaa, TigOFOua, imagifiauve, «uterpriwii|{(, awd 
MBtleea yoQth. 

A distinct moral and intellectual cLiaxacter from tii«M Jmm 
to the aged members, a»d i» ;;«rier«iiy «c4jujr4d 
i, and ia moat uaualJy auvUJti^ by tiietu. 'J'}ij«, 
hi ita com^eteneaa, ia auch aa tUev jfrvduailly «fid updntaMfa^ 
•gaiy fonn out of their accumuUted kr^/wl^^dj^e, tUrir variwl 
obaerration, their loi^-ezereiMsd judjriJMrut, their repeated es- 
perieoee of the reaulu of earlier fericie*, hopes, apeculatioua, 
and pmanita, and their more solid reasotiiog and cahner wia- 
dooL thence arising. They are mttn convinced o( the need 
of aelf-gOTcnmientby the auflexings tiiey have eodored from 
many unreatrained self-indulgences ; and, by the changea in 
their bodily conatitution, they are more able as well as willing 
topnctiae iL 

All thoae elementa of wiaer life bring witb them a aedate- 

•Bidm^pLzlfiL Tbenvnitarawe 





m-m . . . 111400 . . 

l^^mf 1 Ow 

. . 4MMW9 

70-79 . . . ll&/ttS . . . 

, 194.048 . 

. . t39/m 

80-60 . . . 38^67 . . 

. 96^15 . 

. . 05.909 

90^ • . . »U . . 

9990 . 

. . 9099 

lOOandopward 00 . . . 

UO . . 

. . 189 

lb., ixzrtf. 


nen of resting mind, a love of repose, a contentcdneaB with 
moderate comforts, settled habits of condact, and an indispi^ 
sition to further competitions and exertions, which inikt 
their existence an advantage to society as well as to than- 

As a possession and gift of existence, which has not ben 
permitted or granted to Si\ the rest of the generation, of wUdi 
they are the surviving portion, old age may be considend bf 
those who enioy it as one of the greatest blessings whn 
their Creator has bestowed upon them. It is a special bens- 
faction of which they are the jsnbjects ; for such a class of s^ 
ciety could only be in it, from the laws of death beiif N 
moaified in their individual cases as to produce this rsnlt 
The plan of life as to all the ages has been delibentdf a^ 
ranged and steadily sustained ; and could be carried iatoesi- 
stant execution, as it has been, only by a continual gotem* 
mcnt and adjustment of the annual births and deaths, to M to 
cause society to be always composed of these yarious cosDit- 
ingntages from infancy to old age. 

That such a portion of the aged shall always be in the fif- 
ing world has thcreforo been a special ordainment of PiOfir 
dence, specially effectuated by the specific process which \m 
been established, and is ever operating to this end. Of whit 
individuals this section of human life shall from time to tiw 
be composed, is the selecting determination of the sopeiifr 
tending Sovereign of all, made on the principles on which to 
regulates human life in its individual arolication ; but heinffs 
choice and a favour extending only to tlioso who receiva tti 
benefit of it, their personal gratitude to the Almighty GKver cf 
what he alone can grant or take away should be as onceaang 
as the prolongation they enjoy. It is a temporary pref«reiwe 
which none can claim or deserve, but which should exdte 
the desire not to uso it unworthily ; the gift makes it mois 
imperious on those who have it, to show, by ri^t condoct, 
and thankful feelings, and obedient heart, tlMt a longer con- 
tinuity of existence may not be unfitly granted to them, either 
in this world or in that which is to succeed. Misusi^ lon- 
gevity here can be no recommendation to the addition of an 
endless life hereafter, as it gives the strongest evidence that 
the future blessing would be misemployed. 

It luB been an adm\ia\Ae ig\axv X>MX\x>axsMaw«ociaty should be 
composed of all agca, co\MQXAi«nc«a,^mjia«%,*5A. ^W5»»v^ 

W'Vn WOBIA. 906 

!• iMflMf I isd Atl Meb ilrndd act 
Mr Kvfcif whM tap tl ill tknm, a oMMi pfet«raft)u«, 

i ( #f MM MBtiMd mMB to fww tip ffuda^nly from 

ftpvliltak* Bon of thoM modot of otfffo w«r« 

^ iM OfMiy oiPf to tllo UnlforMl Makor. 

IM io fcoojfoAmvl M ftn adopt* tbo aebomo of citwfiig 

to to dMi nUtiuM of aU tho ataiMi of biifnan 

I ooeta^r • fiat and moUfforioaa dnuna of nii' 

•ad iB lw attoB ( in wbidi all aro paHbtming 

I Biftiip wMli • BNttiMUtr of \mw4A and pttaaum 

Thii piM of 9m aoetal worfd ta poeuUaflf frroonMo to it« 

M«i doftaod wftli atproaa raiiiiwiico to ita afiMabk} 

AH wataro would hara mado Ufo a mora counting' 

oftoafMaaoranamnaofwariaM: all agad would )uiv« 

«od Md aaddanad it ; youtha alono would ha? a diaor- 

H; Md ffcidhood only would bafa eomrartad it into a 

p«ap of whim and k^f. But on tha aebama wbieh baa 

■dpptod md malifod, tbara m alwaya anougli of tha al- 

§m tto MOft ianpoftant oAaaa and au h ^a nt ial raalittaa, 

MPttoalaMUtyoftliaaoeialfidiriet and thia baiug pro- 

fm and tbna uphflld, alt tba othara baeoma agnaaaUa 

lalo and asliilarating c<iuipaniona to it, 'Vhu weattorad 

and noving Cnrma of tlia younger a/a alwava plaaaing ; 

^''^^ wbo futm ttia aiory m Ufa to ba ao man poaticaJ 

~ podrnta. fifing ebioHy on tbair /aney and faalinga* and 

aOrtilidMarlaitaiaraacliaaMtfaaranaaflaf awabMla yi«<Mi' 
4MiaM< wfeaa i}nimm Im4 kJltoa iha drafMi« MHwrva uf^^*t 
m mm ifca aarpaa il a laaili la Hm gftaad ha fUJa^ aa Hm ** papaii la- 




fond of actiTity, it is from the ardent, adventurous, fearieiii 
hoping, restless, il ly-dreaming, and stnigglii^ youth that tht 
most moving, agreeable, axM startling incmenta originala. 
Ever pursuing meteors of their imagination ; often like ihoot* 
ing stars themselves ; elastic in nature, and bounding ficn 
disappointment, their wishes, passions, and projects are alwm 
infusinff into the world they mingle with a vivacious and Bh 
vigorating influence. But the inexperienced Telemackm 
wants perpetually his Mentor ; and the afcd supply in dii^ 
life the presence and services of the PaUadian sage. Hn 
Homeric fable, so intellectually continued and expanded Iv 
Fenelon, is a parable of our living world. Youth goideo, 
lessoned, and guarded by age, is a dramatic representation of 
the plan on which our social economy has been framed and k 
still conducted. The aged are thus indispensable elemeoteof 
human life, and are so arranged as never to be absent from it 

This is a settled law : and the agencies and ratios of death 
are so governed, and the preceding stages are by these so it- 
moved, that all population shall have their necdjhil propoitki 
of these conservative seniors. 

But the aged are not only designed to be the counseOoiii 
the directors, safeguards, and intelligent rulers of societf, 
though rather by pervading influence than by exerted autboritj, 
but they are also always subsisting with other great benefiti 
to themselves, and to all those with whom they have their 
ordinary intercourse and neighbourhood. It will be ridit to 
think of these advantages, because the remembrance of dien 
will increase their utilities, and the gratification derivable froa 

Human life has, in all its stages, two great purposks and 
two groat OBJECTS continually connected with it. The ron- 
P08BS are good to the individual himself, and good to thi 
society to which he belongs, and thence to human nature gen- 
erally, as far as the effects of his existence may extend, llie 
OBJECTS are his present comfort and improvement in his nca- 
ent life on earth, and the preparation, adaptation, and edocar 
tion of his undying spirit for those scenes of its future abode 
which lie beyond the grave. For, however we may forget the 
fact or be insensible of it, we have been created to be the be- 
ings of two worlds — of that before us with which we are 
familiarly acquainted, and of that to which death will intro- 
dace U8f but of which we can tvovi o\>VaATv tvq V^w^^wVAj^.^ ex.- 

or ms WORLD. £07 

i«l rwnwhtkm MtppliMi ; and thUi hun wpirtmA Mm urn 
W9mftA'9»m ynm^t-r\n, awful \ifyMtA «il«M|ijiit<5 ijAnrrip- 
•f^rm^ \i*rjttnA i\tn fumirt ni funry Ut «xii(|gef«t« or 

|f«»«>H Uf ih« mrfivirfifkl muikt Kiiva rHtmttrt! to both 

jj«^t«, r/r It will iifH m«rit tb« rhuriu-.Uir of n hmMrfit, 

>Tv«' fh« r»iifn«! in it« rmiMriftMff fobirn*, it nhotijd kavo 

fUit'/ri to (}»«• grnntltrr m't^tm t$1 ittn unr^sMinf; b«iriff 

!>»«' Iff iH ittt-mrttt iifxn whirh in ftlwsy* Uitupmury ftna 

.\«rMr riMkiri(( Mr^tiM Uf \m a |fr«ffet#Y WrMrfiMstion lo 

• lh«o kttiu hinff Uf hm lifr on •■ftftk mttU m mUUi and 

I fh»f 'if /fUf ii(ir«' i und tu^Utttf( way }t*! tniuU • gMiit^r 

f t/» «1l who llv^ t<i fttt«in It, urul wli«; will fl«nv« from 

t-ultyhtfut-ii fmuit^nn, it« /J^«lll<:lMM iitiliti^ft. 'lli* 

rfirM«- t« «« '/l/viin)« ftM iht: itftttUttt'd udvuutafgM. 

Sfy, tfir: ti^c of \niuy and m#«'I1iI llf<; l/«rf;Ofrifi l«KiMlM4| 

I . i*#- «r«- no lor»(f^r fjimiiififf, r-oiriiftiriif, or ntrvin^iniff 

aiffi fio Utufft-r i\ti Mttirr with «;fr«-rt. 'Jlii* tiitim$(tt and 

rff«-r|fri«in(ir nr*' |irfMiri{{ ior^utd l\tfnt*f.\¥tt*f and ago 

M-if ' orof««-||id to kav*: lo Ui/'in wl*at it baa b«fcofno 

tuy Uiri(f«-r t/i fmriitK- llf^n'o th«i i:/;fiji(itiitiori of tntr 

f^naiuij ftiaf rh«rM i« • fkifurMjr ttt antmnnift m MlMTf awaHlfig 

4»«T't*fr tff fii*»«#|i»v<i If. «n uiM^ay •p|fr*fi«n«iMi aUiM iMaaiaft 
^Ik^rw^^ «• ii «M/ffMkrri«-«. M«A> mniaftr^* ahow ihai naa^>^ 
■ft Af^iuj tfir /»ar r#f iIm; l;«-lii-r Iff mui-M pu^mhiUtUm. Tka 

b«Hf«-« fff f .h«rf«iTi« of ihf l»*f r-»nittry I* nn inaiaaMi Af HMn, 
M M«f«ri«Hj« frf l»i« •««ri«-^, fftpN#iiy. anil p9*4i\gmfy, lka( krt% 

||«fff«/fh WM4* hifti firM- fif ihrif ^nM% t4 wllfft YM, llMOgli IM 
I ifi f#ifii*ffi|«f •fir! viiilaiM#fi f>f all ff)«»rMl tfiiJ r«llffl<ftM aUlff^ 
,rfi iia rii.«l iif^ir «(/frrr/«'tM'' fiMiurr arKl raaaMi r««aM| a 

r («f ffi#- tfmu\m urtii'ii If h4«l ffiff*! riifiMiM w«ir« fi«c iMpaMl' 
n Vffi ri«v#- an ifiiirfiatiffft fff Una faahftf Af hia fnln4 la ihm 
»«i*r ffrffi ii>* IImi J r.rawfofrf dairri K4ifiMir|h, 97ih l^aa,, 
I a/<|iia.ii« )'/«j '«f Iff 4<-aMt f«r ili^ AiffMftja 1'tAtihiil i:U%tttfH, 
hy h»'t"- tif tiaa Irfi i,i, !•■•• Ilia* H./iMtf. ai«r1iffg • ^aar, 
a«aff.V(t|i» waa #-««^*Mjiffr]y niiMUi*tmitt kn**^ it ttt^fm warn 9nr% 
■ li»n ari«l aawl f h«f !»«■ •*i/iiM a ivr VifHM wrr* ha MMfra4 llMmi 
«#»! fiiH'r " Vtthtm l^umr U*rtu liic MMN. <«f frof WtMdnfmf 
Mag IH)4 I* >M 

lb {laifiti'l hifr* in iIm" flraf fn'iMf* tit liia " IfarlM'a frftgr»M^ aa 
« I Ik- 7"«jfi2 *>' iMft fif a |*r/i« umm , afi<l l'<f|ia baa iblM algfwJlMfl 

" a hall a<»ff«* <«I4 Uffiffl*-, fifiddifif fii lia fall, 
l''«r '■ liartfi-a' |*«^ yrarrf a ihr tiatiffitig ia«ll <" 


iifttim tnnw and weans the nund from the ainhitioiM and 
citements of worldly life, or makes disappointment tiie nsnk 
of any pertinacious e£forts to be the buatiinir actoca and esm- 
tenders that we may have been before. The Teij changsi 
in oar body prevent and diaincline us from being anj Itmg&e 
wrestlers or combatants in that arena from which we areabonl 
to be withdrawn. Our frame and functions have been fii[iasilr 
constructed so as to produce this e£fect upon us at this psrioi 
of our earthly duration. These alterations disable the iafr 
vidual spirit from being or doing any longer what it was ni 
did in its younger capacities. Tne intermd changes inciiSM 
as we advance to seventy years and beyond ; and tbersfaj thi 
mind is brought into a state of vacancy, quiet, and senlity 
as to all the endangering, agitating, and occupying poniiit^ 
passions, projects, conflicts, and perturbations of the pnMit 
world, winch, by their opposing effects, exclude the das smi- 
sideration of any other. 

To all these old age brings its natural anodyn ca th e Mdt- 
tives that act most efficaciously on the ethereal nature of iti 
Tivacious personality, and which gradually draw the spirit to 
that pausing tranquillity of thought and feelmg, that BuwM*n«"«* 
of all that would impede its better thoughts and further ilk* 
provement, which peculiarly suit the grander objects tiiat lit 
now awaitinff it, and to which nature is pressing it widi aa 
accelerated force and irresistible certainty. 

Protracted years thus enaUe and dispose the aged to gift 
that more direct and continued attention to the next stage of 
their bein^ to which they are unavoidably advancing, bit 
which, amid the activities and enjoyments of yoonger d^fiy 
they were less able or less inclined to think of. 

The bodily changes of affe are likewise admonitioiis to it 
to regard itself as a being wno is not to be much longer a re- 
siding or abiding portion of the present world, but who hss 
decidedly commenced his journey to anodier, or who soon 
will be conveyed to it. To this region, though its positioo and 
circumstances be involved in obscurity, age then invites as, 
and peculiar circumstances are always arising to giye its 
thou^t this direction. 

Age outlives every day more and more of its former bopai 

and attachments, and of all connected with them. Its parece- 

ding friends and acquaintances die off in every succeeding 

/aar ; often in every sequent moii\]i\. TViQa«^\A^«minatc liko 




• • « est 

V up w.:h it. and \v .tn ^ s: Mfi mo*, n m- ^^ 

lews, and hopes in coinnion. viisapj-car w m ,n 

[fr. 'u\t :.o*. la»- >d:u». ■.dta'" *i.d *.♦♦ ..:j:*. J-vf 
le sail* ;.'d!:- u: J.:u^l•t••■> Al. !:..:..'• ■»• ••:!.' 
uigtr :o ;.. T:.c j-Wv t..: ;•».:...• i \« :.*.• 4i*« :.*• 
;iai.u!.> ds ^•.r..^.: I. fci-.i •.•«—" .'•'• * ••■'■*»*. 
5« 'a.:l V .: ■.* a:*. H-!.- • •• "• «**:* • •• •' *• '•• ■ '• 
iiLer* •_;.£ i'"- .*. .1. ■ *:.: •'* •• .*• ••■ ■ '->*■' ••"• 

• »* •1."'! 

.« ■ • .• 

a-::i .: •.. ^ ?i •.:!• :,. 'f* . •:•-,• ... 

» .- .?. .,- ... • r* -.•• .- .• . ■• rfU.» «;.^ 

. ■•• ■'.^ V 7 1" ■ • •• . ..•".• 

<..'.:.•. •• 

..« . 

••-. . • 


^" < 



:.? - 

.*•. ". ' 

^- t" 

"* *•■ .." 

w j 


> t 









ted • 

.id, tat 





Mt iMk it it *ilb«it l«dBg it to k* m lU* M 
CHfJM an ihonriita imohmUEir U Ihe Rwi 
II Bknllr niD^d. it* owyMM Mh^ 

Sng waid, b; dw tctticvc^Ib wi haw if ft 
MDi&aliaD, B ahnTS n(tii( feoA diA nd flfM 
m; llw b^iamng aod Ob ad, ai Oa rikdK «3 
fuaoeaof 'Eamu lib. la Urn ftmrntam, » 

act liks die boddi of tiam to mgrn ■■ of di . _. 

ttmj ii» m elwhind w fiJ<y MM Ow .Kii fc fcrtWiMBj 
•VOT Jgto find dM dM7 lina*h9FMii Mb <&J 

bat, b«^ eontfanioiw and nninnd, HodoM In 
■t lo loCMty in their aiteiuiTe and cd&ctire use 

food i* nude up, in ererr iudtiidiul compositic . — i 

Bonunble imall puttcles, niccessTeljr, uid often iiii|iae<ft 

But tba (Hreci ind positive benefits of oU ue ts km 
irinle it un efficiently serve it, ire u iDeBlcnTable u 

... It diSiisea ill ihose tdvtuitBgee whirii 
konwledga, eipecienee, judgment, and practined wisdom eA 
eenfai lai are iJwaya imparting. T =--~— "-» 

iagiabttan, cugiatracy, all national 

lya impaitiD^. Literature, science, To^^ 
of ifi 

paetdiarij lis own. Such a resnll, w _. 

■MVantjr Taluable and deaired, will alio aooth tlta p 
4lf & iriUl one uf the nioit pleasing coidlali that ljS%. 

or ni w<ttLo« 811 

of thoM with wbom it Iim itf dmily in- 

a Mbjcct of inqiiify, whether longer life ic- 

to the flurried or to the single members of 

Tho Pneeiaii yntleman who has investi^ted the 

lidan it es certain, thit, inboth sexes, marriage con- 

lo loqgentjr.* 


Ufk^tU KMitUttM in AniiqMUy, md in aU Ptrioda ^ th» World 
Tmu.'-'TktmMt nmarkMi huUtnctt ifitintka 

Tho tables of both our liTing and dying world show us that 
jl has been a further part of the Divine plan of human life that 
ftere ahould ba, uiong its Tarious populations, some indi- 
vidaale who shoold enjoy such a prolongatfon of their human 
lifi as to reach the agn of one hundred years ; and thnt a 
r portion ahoukf last several years beyond this date. 
indiTiduals are found not only in almost every other 

Oaspsr, In a papsr puMfaiticd at Berlin In 1816, rmnariM, thst 
4, Uwpsreisai 

II, aa4 others !»«• SMcrtwl thai bselislo f s are U 
ihaii wirvM men. Odisr first msds lbs inquiry wiih any ex* 
lis fbsnd, " MM Diet.." 1814, ihat In rfemalas the mean duration 
tf Mb ftrlbs mamod women of iweniy-fltre was above thirty-six years, 
!■ fer lbs ofliaiamed only thtrtv and a half At thirty there was a dif- 
•r fear yosrs la Avoar of the narried, and at thlrty-flve an ad- 
•fiwo years. 
I le ewa. he Infcrrad fVora Depsrelenx end the Amsterdsm tables 
Iks MMrtalily sf those fyom thirty to fbrty-flve waa iwentynieven 
fer the unmsrrtsd, sad only elg hieen fbr the marrM; aleo, 
auained the afe of forty to 41 bsehelors. The dif- 
more striking se sfe adf aures ; fbr si the sas of sixty 
saly 11 anaMrrM slive to 48 who were msrriea. At sef- 
ihe Mportiea of II bachelors le 17 OMrrlcd men. end 
ly, t ea^ to 9. Nesriy the esme rceaiis wsre exhibited in the 
71 married women wert fbrty-flve, while only it unmarried 
M.— New Monthly May., ISM, p. 190. Henee Dr. fJseper 
Iks pslai lobs IneonleMsMy ssitled, thst In both sexes marnage 
li la Iks Wnphmkng at ihs individaal life. 

fM TBI* kieiiD libMfn 

eomitij, tat VkewiM In aD tna, nd 0f«il k A» Ml 
site itttes of sodetj ; in th* nacivilmd Mwvllit'ift 
ixaii These cirenmabuMM cooctt to 1iidie«W^teft^~' 
tnoidnitiy loi^pevity lios Imob ■& ippointod 
Immau nature ; contiiigenltetotfaopenQneiilMi 
and cahifait it, but certain and Axed ae to tfaa o< 
^ pbenomeacm, inthoee propo rti o n aanddmeeaiii^ 
liaa been foond to take plaee. Like all tEe leaalla 
laws (rf* our life and death, both the eortenaion of the T 
and the ratio of thaae idiobaTelt as to Aeieatof i 
monitj, Taxy in different tlmea and jdbeee ; bdt 
limits that are nerer oveipaasad Tjbeijr munben ■» 
few, but their q>peanneo ibnna a conatant noftte of 
aocietiea. It is, therefore, a law of hnman lilei, dat 1 
be thm prolonged hi this aeetian of its living wedd. 
Jasrinnat have been apectaOj deaigned, and, liko all 
cific laws and their resnlta, most bave aomeproeeaa fl 
attached to it from which ita effects origiwato and bf 
acta. Sonie ipofiW uuxppses mnat be alao aceoi 
operatioQ, fPT wh^cb it baa been jnatftnted. All 
are wortby of our eonsideiMtion. Indee^ tbeie Ut 
indiTidnal to wfaoqi tiwj can be laiinteraili^g ; fer 
contingence is certain, as an estaMiAed lair mmMSff 
cnr to aome, and as the possthfli^ is attaAed to tlia > 
of Ufa in one as well as in another, efetr one fa 
of the bebefit, and no one can beforehand know flat^ 
not be the aobject x>f it It ia ime of the ^prand pri«^ ; 
man eillstence intbiawoild, aoze tofi^ ™^ uiifoa 
of some one ; and therefore mson sqggeats to all 10' 
arhethar any skill or caxe can iocreaae to individn 
ehanee of aeqoixing it, 4nd of making it, if it ahmdd. 
as comfortable a period as «n]rx>tliar pOTtton of biafi 
iatence. Am it will bealwaTSA|dl[lof .ti^ JMxm 
to those who enjoy it, and, like aUbia bonntiaa, m 
Im ia bleadng, my own impression is Ibat it mwf bo ^ 
bappyepoeha of jKi earthly ufe. ThiaiamorewitlftKtt] 
than its attammen^ ; for thoogh much may be dooi ■ 
lightened jndgnient and aelf-tegnlating oaio to fiwoi. 
.euiren^e, stiQ it most alwayft depend o* .hia will wftio I 
it» to whom the benefaction shall be apifSed. 7et»'^ 
«BTity has been thus made an hnmui ■ 
iiepcobabili^ willalwaya be, $gt, by a dno «ao«f ttyt 


an within our power to tppiyf it may be acquired 
.joyed by a greater number Uian have hitherto ezpe- 


. Ihia extreme longevity haa been in the world in all 
re aee by the great age* of the first ancotton of the 
nation,* and by those of the chief heads of their tribes. f 
I instances occurred in ancient times of persons living 

a century. t To what is not improbabio in this rc- 
MHne of the Greek historians added other accounts, 
in their literal statement, must be deemed incredible 
..4 Modem writera have imitated their eztravsgance.d 

riMai 4M St oes knndral snd ssventy^flvs. Gen., e. xiv., v. 7 ; his 
rail al ons ksodrsd ind twnnty-ssven, r. xxlil., v. 1 ; his son 
9mm handled snd clfhty, e. xiit.. t. tfl . his iNher son Isbmssl 
wiirad sod thirty««even, e. »v , t. 17 : bis frandson Jacob si 
irad and Ibfty s s f an, c. xItU., v. S8. Jooaph livrd to one hua- 
d mh, c. I., v. M ; Mooes to one bnndrsd snd twenty, Ueot., e. 
V. 7 ; and Joobos lo see bsndrarf snd ten. Judges, c. 11., v. 8. 
AMU, one basdrsd snd (weniy*AHir ; Judah, one hundred snd 
I ; laoaebsr, one buudrad snd iweiity«(wo ; Aaber, one hundred 
NHy-eiK ; Mimeos, one hundred sod iweniy ; Ilsn, one hundisd 
■My-llBijr ; Zebukm, one hundred snd Iburtsen : Left, one hsD- 
d ibirty-aeTeii ; Nspbull, one hundred and thirty ; Joeepb, one 
I e«d leoi Osd,one hundred sod (wcnly-fltre.— Whllefaurst*S 
ly bse enamentted eome Inetsncee of longevity : M. V. Corvinus 

see hundred ycera. haTing been twenty-one tlmee In the ooq- 
«r. The PmhIISx Metellua waa as old ; (>orgl«a, a fliclllan, was 
•drad and etgbt. One at Botogiia was one hundred and fifty, 
srfcn of the fbwale world, thai Circro'a Terenils raerbed one ban- 
I three, snd AUodw one hnndred end flftven. Another spftesnid 
Niblie elsffe. In the votive ganiee for A ug ualus, at one hundred sod 
Inacreon aarribed one huiidml and ihy lo a king of the Tarles- 

Theovonipua one hundred snd fifty-seven lo the Crelsn EpI- 
I.— Plln. .Nst. lllBl., b. 7, c. 4tt. 
se, llellsnicuB steted that one fkmily among the Elollsns lived lo 

idred yeere. Dttnaatee added that one among Ihem resehed even 


fes five bandrcd yesre old. Evrn Xeno|ihon la cited as giving lo s 

ma yeere. 
■ndrM yesre. Epborue gravely attributed three hnndred yeais 
tiesdian kings ; snd AleiaiidAr f^imrliua believed a peraon In 11- 

Tyre etx buudrad yesre, snd se rompleilng the wonder by repre- 
Ws eon to heve been eight hundred yeers old. Bol Pliny reseon- 
nsrts ibsi the sppsreni extrsvagsnce of the acniunta msy sriss 
IS di l bient modee of rmniniilng the year. The Arflodlsn yesre 
riy of three montha* dursiion, snd othere, like the Egyptians', ware 
HSsod of eolar.— Pliny, ib. Ho Htrabo reporta the Seres to live 
iwe hundred years, snd Cieelss sscnbed two hundrsd to ihs lo- 
••. Ii,p r.ft. 

Asm, Ui his •« HMterr of Ihe Indlea," mentions s naUvs of Beaal 
disd la Ike year IM6, sgsd Uiree hnadiei and nvieBiLi; ladktlK. 


The most remaikable facte in antiquity on this subject thift 
Hecm to rest on respectable authority^ appear in the penooi 
pf this description stated to have been living in Italy in tJN 
time (^ Vespasian. But, though taken from a public doea- 
ment, the number is so ^reat for one portion only of Itily^ 
that I cannot avoid doubting the accuracy of the aooonni m 
to its numerical quantity.* 

Three instances of men, of as many different countries, wki 
were contemporaries in the fifth century, show that the Iim 
of such longevity were in continuing operation. These wan^ 
St. Patrick of Ireland ; Llywarch Hen, the Weht Baid; td 
Attila, the formidable king of the Huns.f 

England and Ireland were distinguished by several exn- 
ples of this kind in the seyente^nth century.^ Of these, twt 

BiimeCt says of the Bermudas : " One may reasonaMy suppm Ht *• 
natives would livu two hundred years."— Theory, vol. i., p. fn,6. 

* Lord Bacon thus states it, flrom his ancient authority : The yiv if 
our Lord 70, the reign of Vespasian, is memorable. Tor in that ynrini 
a taxing. Now taxing is the most auiheHtic method ibr knowiag ttl 
age of men. In that part of Italy lying between the Apennioe motsMM 
bimI the river Po there were fbund 134 persons that either cqnilM 9 
exceeded a hundred years of age, namely— 

54 100 years each 

57 110 « 

S 185 « 

4 130 « 

4 135 or 137 

3 140 

Besides the above, Parma contahwd five, v^iereoT three were one hondni 
and twenty years, and two one hundred and thirty ; one in Plseaatia 
pn6 hundred and thirty-one ; one in Faventia one hundred and tliiity- 
^wo ; pne in Rimino of one hundred and fifty, whose name was BlaiMi 
Aponias, and others.— -I^ord Bacon's Hist. Life and Death. 

t St. Patrick: was one tijondred and twenty-two ; Lljrwardi Bib, 
whose " Welsh Poems** are still existing, was one hundred nd tfty ; 
Attila died the day after his second nuptials, at one hundred aad iv« 
Some passages from Llywarch's "Poems'' are quoted in the** EM. 
Angl. Saxons," vol. i., and in the "Vindication of the Andent WeUl 
Bards.** Mr. Owen Pugh published them, viritb a translation. 

t The Countess of Desmond died in 1618, aged one hundred andfiw^- 
five ; on the ruin of her family she was obliged, at the nge of one hoa- 
dred and fbrty. to travel flrom Bristol to London, to solicit relief ftosi 
James. Mrs. Eckleston, of Philip's Town, King's County, Ireland, died 
Ln 1691, aged one hundred and forty three. In 1671, Robert Montgomery, 
born in Scotland, died at SIcipton in Graven at one hundr^ and tweotyi 
seven ; and Gustavus Holme, a Dover pilot, was buried in IMS, H 
Stoke, near Canterbury, in his one hundred and thirty-seoond yav. 
Thomas Damns was burVod Va V^^^^foA. oqa tLondred mad AAy-fbar ; «a 
pia gravestone at LeigYHon, ue«r "t&VnaYniL^Nxi ^\MHifiG^>x^\a»«^^««t ^ 

8 ^ 


The extremely aged of thoee mentioned in the Uit centmy 
were Hungarians, and the statements thorefwe, from the di^ 
Unce of their locality, can be less relied on.* The oldest d 
this period in England was a poor Yorkshireman, who ii 
1768 reached his one hundred and fiftieth year.t An Ink 
officer of the army died in 1766 at one hundred and forCy-aiz;| 
and, about the same time, an English farmer at one handnd 
and thirty-nine.^ In 1732 another Irishman reached one In- 
dred and forty ;|| and an English lady, in 1772, died at ow 
hundred and thirty-eight, leavins a family adTancing Umuk 
her own longevity. Y Another had, in the same year, attttnad 
one hundred and thirty-three ; had also children ofue same wtt 
yiving tendency.** These long lives appeared in all the tbni 


one hundred and fbrty-«ifbt. Ware, died 98tli Oct., 1650 ; Ibrtte WaMi* 
iMHise, one hundred and lorty, Biesley, Yorkshire ; Dumlier Badil9,M 
hundred ami forty, Ilarminsiead, died 16th Jan., 17dS; Willfan Btmi^ 
one hundred and fiirty-flrp, Camanron, living in 1789 ; JaoMi Bamit, 
one hundred and fifty-two, Killingworth, died 15th Auc^l656: Mi 
Brooluy, one hundred and thirty-four, Devon, living 1777 ; and sMi 

* These were, 1734, Peter Torton, of Temeswar, in Unngary, eai 
hundred and eighty-flve, a peasant.— Faston, p. 14. Of the same fisf 
nat, in 1741, Jobn Roviii, one hundred and teventy-two, and Us vrik 
one hundred and Rixty-four ; both died in the same year, the one haaim 
aiMl ANTty-eighth of their marriage, leaving two aona and two diaafciw. 
TlMir youngest son was one hundred and sixteen yean of age.— w^0> 
In 1797, Jonas Surington, aged one hundred and nfty-nine, resiiVi aav 
Berger, in Norway.— lb., 275. 

t '* Francis Consit, of Bury ihorpe, near Malton, in Yorkshire. Be«M 
very temperate in his living, occasionally eating a raw ntiw-lald Mg,Sii 
used great exeroise. For the last sixty yeara bo was maiataioedDykli 
parish, and retained his senses to the last."— lb., p. 104. 

t " Thomas Winslow, Esq , of Tippersry, in Ireland. He wm a cs- 
kmel In the army. He held the rank of a captain in the rcdni ofdiries 
L, and acoomuanled Oliver Cromwell into Ireland." — lb., 87. ^^ 

$ ** Mr. Dobaon, of Hatfield. By much ezereise and tempenla IMV 
he preserved bis health ; ninety-one children and grandehildm aUiaiM 
his Aineral.** — lb., 87. 

ii *' William Lnland, of Llsneskie, in Ireland. Though he lived tosiEk 
a great age, he was never sick, nor lost the use of any of his fiKulttos til 
the hour of his death.**— lb., 16. 

IT " Mra. Chum, near Litchfield, Stafibrdshire. She redded in tit 
same house one hundred and three yeara. By flnequent exerelse md 
temperate living she attained her great longevity. She left one sen mi 
two daughtera ; the youngest upward of one hundred years.'— lb., IB. 

** " Mra. Keiihe, of Newnham, Gloocesterahire. She lived modenulf, 

and retained her senses till within fourteen days of her death. Bbshil 

tbne daughtera : the e\deai sf^ cma ^T»i4xsd and elevan; ths saBHi 

one Aiindrad and ten *, lYie "s«mg,e«. ocA^'^-^.^^.Ul. 


thirty-eight yean in 1791, u mtflresting to w for hi* ^ 
accommodation and intended kindness to our illnstnoH'll 
ton. I will give the statement as I find it printftdi — 

" 1791. Died, Jonathan Barton, sfod one bandnd aod lliiljt||Hrf 
the Tillace oTAldboroagh, near Koroagbbridfe, Torfcahlie. 

** His mther and mother died of the plague. Id their II 
nories, in 16M, and be perftetly well remembewtf the gi 
don. He was abort in atatare, and bad boaa manlad llvs 
left aeren children, twmtv-aiz nanddUldmi, aarentj-lbar gMI 
cbildrrn, and one hundred and forty great great granMildnik 

" He eoald read to the last without speetaclei, and pUjjjfL rtft 
with the moat perfoet recolleetfcm. Ob Chriatmaa dagr, ini^ ^n 
bondred and thirty-aiz, be walked nlBemilas id dinewf^ sMiCHi 
great grandchildren. He remembered King Chariea EL, wadtattUth 
elled (hMn London to Torii with the fteeCkma KiUfgrew. 

** He ate but little, and bia only beverage was milk. Ba mj^f&i ■ 
iminterrupted flow of apirita. Hto third wifo was an UlegUfsasaa ia^ 
ter of OliTer Cromwell, who gare with her a portUn amoiynllsg la iM | 
five hundred pnanda. He p o a a eaae d a fine portrait of the «M 
which Bfr. Holiia oAred biro three hundred poonds, bet was n 

" Mr. Hartop lent the great Milton fifty poonda aooo after Ifaa 
tion, which the bard returned biro with honour, thoogh not wtOumwttll 
dUSculty, aa bia circuroataucea were very low. Mr. Haitop mrttWIi 
declined receiring it, but ttae pride of the poet was eqoal to Us '^ 
and he sent the money with an angry letter, which 
the coriona pooaesaiona of that Tenerable dd man.** 

The military profession, notwithstanding its fireqwiA piiH^' = 
tions, fatigues, exposures, hardshi(Mi, and snfierinn, eapioMf 
on active service, yet has comprised individuau who knt 
reached the extreme periods of human longevity. In 17I1L 
one of Oliver Cromwell's soldiers died at one hnndnd ol 
thirty-two years old.f In 1749, a dragoon was one hnM 
and twenty-five at his death.$ A French soldier, who W 
served under Louis XIV . at Malplaquet, and travelled Blip' 
sively afterward, reached one hundred and twenty.^ Airf Ai 
last surviver of the Duke of Marlborough's English annT|iAB 
lived until 1793, was one hundred and fourteen vdien ni ff^ 

* Eaaton*a Human Longevity, p. 941, 9. 
t Alex. M^CuUoek, near Aberdeen. After Cromwell, hs 
the army during the three following reigna.— lb., 46. 

t Alex. Bennet, of Down, in Ireland. He waa a dragoon al the 
of Boddle under Chariea. 11.— lb., 30. Another aoldier, who tasd 
under the reigna of George L and George H., died in I7V4, a 
Chelaea Hoapital, at one hundred and twenty-three.— lb., 99 

$ The Steur de la Haye died in 1774. Hewaaat the taking sCUInM 
in i(n\and at the battle of Malplaquet In 1700. Ha had tmvalMIV 
iaiid to Egypt, Persia, Uwln&Vca^atACMtoa. ikithaagoor 
nanied and tnd five cibUAx«a.^— ^.i\A&. 


W TBI WOftLD. 219 

Two loldien of the civil wan died at one hundred 
dve in 1733. f 

II lelect another inatmnce for your conaideration, aa it 
a a mnaikable inatance of one of the ffrcat pleaa- 
d benefita attending longevity — that of beholding the 
ementa which, during a ain^e life> a proapcring nation 
a into. He waa an American, who aaw the site on 
Philadelphia atanda before thia city was founded, and 
Uh and magnitude to which it had grown before he 
Aa the knowledge of auch a peraon may have aug- 
to Mr. Burke th^ aimilc of the angel and I^rd Bath- 
one of hia apeechea on America, which eouala the 
ffuaiona of ancient oratory, I will cite here the whole 
t that waa attached to the notice of hia death. 

'ABD Dai^KiB, of Pbiladdphia, agtfd one hundred and tbree. 
aa very aolid flml, drank lea in ihe aflenionn, but ate no aupper. 
vaa an amiable cbaracier, uniformly rheerAiI and kind to every- 
Iia reliji kNia principlea were aa eteady aa bla morale were pure. 
Awr limea married, and bad 18 ebifdren, all by hia Arat wift. 
Ua leeih thirty yeara before be died, by drawing [qu. chewing] 

?' hoi tobacco, 
lib of ihia man waa marked with aeveral drcumataneea which 
iom occurrMi in the lift of an individual, 
aw the aanie anot of earth covered with wood, and a receptacle 
la and birda or prey, afterward become the neat of a city, not 
Aral m wealth and ana in the New, but rivalling in both many 

iam Billlnra, aard one hundred and flnirteen, of FairfMdhead, 

igDor. Htaflhnlabire. *' He had lived to this age flree (hm aiek> 

i eiptrrd without a nrtmn. He waa ilie only aurviving private in 

who bad MTved under the great Duke of Marlburough. He waa 

ler a hnlge, in Ihe year 1679. not a hundred yarda from the cot- 
ire be dird.'*— Kaiiton, p. S57. 

Tnwa. of Clay Hill, near Knfleld. Middleaei, waa a aoldler in 
t of 4Mivcr t'runiwdl. and William Haeeling had aerved in the 
IH army at ttie batllr af Edgehill ; aAerward under King Wil- 
Ireland. and Marlborough in Flandera- Both were one hiuidred 
Iva —Ih.. 1«, 17. 

'ouae died in 17M, aged one hundred and twrlve. He waa bom 
•, and aervad three rampaigna in Flaiidera under IxNiia XIV., 
iffvd into the Dutrh aervire, came to Ireland under Duke Bchoni- 
lialed under King William, and diaiinguiHlied himaelf In moat of 
aa. (In leaving the army he look a farm — lb., S7. 
hw aged aaikira orcur. in 17ft3, a Duirbman who had been in 
ipaduioiM of Admiral Ruyier died at one huiiitred and ftnir, at 
im.^lti., Itt. Ill I7(W, a ahlp-ear|ienter waa one hundred and 
a waa at work in the yard when the ()tar Peter eama to learn 
Uoff.— lb., nil. In 17H0, William EUia dbad^OM Ikunlndiad 
«; of Urvpml, aboemafcar. Ua baA bava % aaaanaiTi >ia ^Qm 
ukoM^ and a aoidtar tnital oCQaQt|aU-^.^^AA> 


oT Um flrat citiM in tbe Old Worid. He ww ragnlar alictls wImr I 
once puraued a bare ; churcbea riaiiig upon mo fn ae a wbflre he hi 
oOen beard the croaking of (Iroga ; wbarvea and warehomea when I 
bad seen Indian aaTagea draw flab flmn tbe river Bar daUv autaaiMaBef 
f biiM of every aixe and uae in tboie atreama where be had oltao Me 
nothing but Indian canoea; a ataiely edifice, fllled with legWalan 
ajiioniahing tbe world with tbelr wiaann and vbiue, oa ihe ■■BMapa 
probably, where be bad beheld an Indian eonaeU-lire. 

" He saw ibe flrst treaty ratified between the newly-eoiMMtfai 
powers of America and tbe ancient monarehy of France, with all ch 
IbnnHiity of parchment and aeala, where he had aeen 'WUUhi Fmb 
raiii'y bia first and last treaty with the Indiana without thelkmaltttai 
of pen, ink, or paper. He beheld all the Intermediate ■!■(» thiN|h 
which a people pass, firom tbe towest to the h^beat degrse of dfUbar 
tiun— the beginning and end of tbe empire of Great Britain in PbbhiI- 
Tuiiia. He had been tbe aubiect of crowned heads, and aAerwud tm 
a citizen of tlie newly-created republic of America. He embneed Ihi 
liberties and independence of America, and triumphed, In the list JMD 
of his life, in the salvation of his country.*^ 

It has been remarked, that most of the persons 
guished for great longevity were short in stature ; but one ii 
mentioned who was unusually tall.f It has even ^^r**"^ 
nied deformity \t and, what must be still more unusual, UDca» 
mon fatness. ^ Even watery marshes, which in Ely and 'Emm 
have been found so unfavourable to the continuance oi hniBa 
life, yet have not prevented the term of a century horn bcn| 
exceeded. II The negro constitution is also susceptible of In 

* Easton, p. 184. This sketch baa In it so much of Bfr. Burkifs ■■ 
ner, both of style and thought at that time, that, If it be in the " ASMl 
Register" of 1782 or 1783, 1 should be induced to think be was thsasiha 
of it. As be was Ibr some years the political agent of tbe leading ■■ 
of America when tbey began their resiatance, be may have been la Mi 
respoiidence with Mr. Drinker. 

Philadelphia, in 1761, had a couple several years older; but as Aq 
died that year, tbey did not live to see either tbe revolt or tbe Ml 

Eendence ; tbey were, " Charles Cotteral, one hundred and twmrr 
is wife, one hundred and fifteen. This couple lived togecbar ia m 
marriage state ninety-eight years in great union and harmony, anddiii 
within four daya of each other."— lb., 56. 

t In 1769, " Peter Breman, aged one hundred and four, of Dyei^abMl 
St Giles, was six feet six inches high. He bad been a aoidier flraai Hi 
age of eighteen."— lb.,. 114. 

t Mary Jones, of Wem, in Shropabire, In 1773, was one himdnl 
8be was very deformed, and only two feet eight inches in helght.'-Ih. 

^ In 1786, Charles Blezard, of Newnbam, near Oxford Farm, dM I 
one hundred and seven. He was one of the most corpulent mm ia tk 
county.— lb., 206. 

// In 1706, Susan MUVs died, afgod <m»'bNm&Nd and two. She nrida 
lo tbo flhip-meadow liOciUbouBA, oa i^ IBiQam ^oaG^Vistaitanv. ^«k Iw 


Bwity, rivtOmff in dnntion the ipdiitet.* Giptj life, as be- 
fore mentioiied, with all its exposures and frequent miseiy, 
equaUy admika of it, and eren amid its infinnities.f 

The penooa of other nations besides our own, who have 
been mentioned for their lon^vity, show that no regions of 
the woirid or state of society are incompatible with it. The 
Soath American Indians, the Caraccas, Brazil, Egypt, Tyrol, 
TVnfcey, Norway, Spain, Denmark, and Poland, furnish in- 
stances of it, ¥mich mdicate that its causes reside not in soil, 
or atmoapheare, or manners, but in the individual frame, and 
in the personal application of the blessing by Him from whom 
lU tife baa originated, and by whom it is constantly regulated 
m erery member of human societies. We may therefore 
conclude that this great longevity is one of the established 
Laws of human life, although limited as yet to a ratio of indi- 

bvid was maaanr <m tbe locks. Her residence was mostly sonroanded 
kj floods thioagboat die winlte.— Easton, p. 266. 

* At KlDfBtoo. in Jamaica, in 1796, Samuel Pinoock, a negro man, at 
BBS bondred and twenty'flve. Till within the last two years his fteol- 
llaa wsra perfectly sound and his memory reniariiably retentive. He 
toi a paiect recollection of the earthquake which, in 169S, nearly de- 
frayed Fort Royal. He was on board a ship lying near Fort Augusta 
wksa it took jdace, and has frequently related the catastrophe with a 
■toateoess dr detail which no one but an eyewitness could have given. 
— IIl, 170. In 1798, Elisabeth Brown, a negro woman, died at Port 
limd St one hundred and twenty-fbur years old.— lb., 266. And another 
la Spanish Town of one hundred and nix : another of St. Jago de la 
Yflsa, a flree negro woman, aged one hundred and twenty-one. — lb., S87. 

fThiis, In 1740, died Margaret Finch, at one hundred and nine. ** She 
was one of tbe wandering IVatemity of gipsies, of whom she was called 
Msso. Her manner of life was the same as is usual with those people. 
TDWsrds its close she took up her residence at Norwood.**— lb., 23. In 
17W Anne Day died at one hundred and eight. " She was s well-known 
gtpsy. Being alnuwt double, she travelled the country on an ass, st- 
tsadifld by two or three of her nratemity. and was well known in nuMt 

SL 8be hsd not slept in a bed for seventy years ; and for tbe last 
' years bad not a tooth in her head ; nor sight, but in one eye ; about 
ve years before, she lost three of her toes by the flrost and the use 
sf one of ber arms. She died under a hedge near Henlow, in Bedford - 
Aire, and was buried at Arsley. The two of her people who attended 
hsr ranersl called themselves her son and daughter : he was eighty- two, 
aadrtko eighty-five. They had each great grandchildren.— lb., 288. 

AiKMb^** instance of gipsy longevity has just occurred. "Andrew 
BosweU, tbe King of the Gipsies, died on Monday afternoon, 30tb of 
Juiiiary, 1837, at tbe advanced age of ninety-nine. He was ixwsessed 
Of an ass nesriy ss old as himself, a camp, and a fiddle, and left one 
grandson, snd twelve nous and daughters. His remains were interred 
wn lbs tribe, with all tbe doe bonnwrs, in lisnehsm chnrchyani.—Not- 
OOfbam Joonal, Fab., 1837. 



Tidiul enjojment of it, which is sufScient to excite the de 
of ettaining it, and to testify to as its possibility, but w! 
has not hitherto been made a general acquisition.* 

* Frmn Mr. Eaatoii*S colketkm tttm tbs oUtoarles be met with, 
leet the fbllowlng instaneee oflbteifBen of gratt loofBrity :— 

** 1788. Jean Gayaion, and one hundrad and thirty, an Indian ol 
stntla, 111 New Spain, p. SI. 

"1781 Captain CeapedeSiOftlwCaneeas, one bnndred and l«] 
He belonged to tbe militia of Pardo^ and was estseoMd a prodicr fti 
eUmate, p. 89ft. 

** 1775. Andrew Vidal, of Siara, In BraiU, one bnndred and tw 
fbor. He bad thirty sons and fire danghten. In 1778 be lived t 
same boon with liia children and grandchildren, of whom the n 
amonnted to 149, p. 150. 

** 177S. Died, aged one hundred and twen^-eigbt, Abraham Shad 
■t Roven. He was a native of Alexandria, in Egypt, p. 130. 

" 1778. Jean Aragns, at one bnndred and twenty-three, of LbMb 
Toifcey, a caravan driver, p. 158. 

** 1765. Edglebert Hoff; at one hundred and twenty-eight, of 
Hill, New-Yorii. He waa born in Norway, and could remember tt 
was a lad driving a team there wb«n the news waa brought thai 
Charies I. was beheaded. He had served as a aiddier under the i 
of Orange, in the time of James II., p. 85. 

'* 1743. Peter Meatanca, of the vUlase of Veniel, in the kingdc 
Murcia, at one hundred and thirty. He waa a bachelor, never I 
wine, worked hard, and bathed every morning in the river Segnra, 
the beginning of spring until it firoze again. His teeth were a 
and he was never attacked by any acute distemper, p. 26. 

**1771. Christia Jacobaen Drackenberg, one hundred and fort 
of Aarhna, in Denmark, a celebrated and well-known charact«r, p 

** 1786. M. Ouroki, of Zodorsky, in Poland, one hundred and t« 
five. He attended as psge on Jirim Sobieeki when he relieved VI 
be^eged by the Turiu in 1083," p. 908. 

To these I will sdd~" 170a John Lovsh, the celebrated patita 
Mbnot Jura, aged one hundred and twenty-eight. He was sent, la 
aa a deputy to the National Aaaembly at Paris, to return thanki, i 
name of hia countrymen, for the abolition of the feudal system, i 
hundred and twenty-seven he was led into the hall by his daugbia 
sealed oppoolte the president. On his entrance, all the memben 
up in respect to hie old sge, snd received him standing, and desire 
to sit covered. A subscription wss immedistely msde fbr his sc 
sad the king granted him a penaion. He waa boiled the next f 
bli district with a public solemnity," p. S30, 

or THI WOftLD. 88f 


p HMrf' 4 N«lvMil I'tvpfttif ^ Numnn Nnivrf. 4 1 prntnt in- 
i in tttfupnfp. Nat atl'inM Hulttrutlif wtlk Ihtny nf Frnvl- 
fiulmHiU ^ fit l^uiuif. IH»lin4utak*4 Mm mnmi« Hu 
U wim wfrt Agml. 

' fiBAH H^in^ 

tt! fiiiiili'd, Uy llm |irm:fiflifiK furU, t(i iHtimvn tint lim* 

• (fi|i< fil lltfi tialuial i|iiiililii-ii tii ihii hiifiiNii IhnI^, in lU 

f-oiii|iiMiluiit, (liirinii; lliif nuMM-iulifiii uf our fitiiMl with 

I f ifiinlilnlf-a ffiir itniiiiiii lili* Tiu! iitiiifi iliiiill In:||i^ 

irltlflf iiy >fijr |iii-*i iiL iliMirli, wouhl miliiiiiiL Un n liioij- 

ir«, fir Un mi i-iifl)i-M »iii < fMioii uf tiiiir, if tin iNNllly 

ilMfiia li.ifl Imtii (imiifil lo liip.t •<! iuii^ Niil ffiffnly 

y, Ifiil |ici|ir1iiily iil f 4i«ri-iiii-, i» ouf of llm rMfiiLiiil 

r.afif ifir tiiiiiiitii Miii). Nu |HiWf-| lint ifk Mukff '«, niid 

|fi|l llif fiiiliuii of lii«i oiiiiiijioti'iiri', >-Hii <-iliiij(iiUh 

lul ihi- ri-iiii|f III f wliii )i tiiik lii t II HMiii^ffii'il lo It on llii« 

uii -lilt Iff In- only for h tiiiii- , nnil iln Iniily ha* lirrfi 

ril ■• lo Im- fillM-r u lonf{ or liri>-f roiii|fiiiiioii In it. 

loii of i)i( aifiil Willi il liMi- m of l|ii: niiiiifi li'iii|HitNty 

■t 'III* f liroiiolopry of lliin iiiiioii, mul of tlin iliirii- 

llii liiMhly ioiii|fOiin<l. 11 l|iiif-(oii- f oiiriirri'iil, ■ml Ini- 

ifl riiiU with tiolli nt lli» aaiiir nfriiNla llitlli (Oifi- 

aiiil <li -ith iiiiiiiiMif 1 il Uiii llii- Moiil la no nfrvaiil 

; to lliin ila iiii|fin ii|i|»i rlniiifil , Inil, oiift* UtmifiUi 

iifr, ii III luiiyn lo liiiii no liiiif/t r II waa frralfii lo \m 

ft uii'l 'III inlifiiioi III f Iniiiiy \ uu'l, Willi lliia tclalioii, 

lliroii^li ill |oijiiiiy III II , iiiiii ullff warij piiaNfa i'|«i:< 

Willi III* aiiiiit iiiitiii iKilili , iiii<lyiii|,( |iroprrly. Jli'iirn 

rril ol |iiii;/t viiy in lliia woiM la Iml a >iianialif aiTlioii 

I'Vi ilii9itiii)i liiaiiiiy anil ai hvily Wf< aif all ailora 

finr |iii«*iil lininnn li|'iir< n, 'Iniiiipr l|»t> afriifa tliriiti|{lt 

«■■ |iann ; Iml, likf iill lliOHf wlio |if-i*oiialii llii« |i«rta 

lo till III III iiiir lin^Mluaof >oin<<li<a, wi* liavf llio 

mi mi'liiii'f III fori- whom wit huvf lii-i-ii u|t(if aniiii lor 

iri|iloyin<'iiia, t'» n/iollinr lioiiii<, iiim\ \tii »i\\\Wi«n%\vVmA 

rtnt;a0, /// tht* twiltury, In miiiw *AW ^^«h ^ ^ 


abode, tf may be lUoCted to vi. Oar kingefitj, ^bmdan, 
here, it a question only of our bodfly incorpo n i i on end eutUf 
residence, not of the eziitenee of our inteikintnil prindHi 
iteelf ; that still liyea in nnditninishwd vitality, ilthoagfa d» 
body had dissolved and evaporated into tfaa mSlion peiticki 
of which it waa compaundea.* 

Bat, althon^ endileai k»gevi^ ia tfaa enate4 pnpoty of 
the soul, and its dnratioB on earth be t ween ons and two en- 
tories is a natural poeiibilsty to its bodily fiama and to ii 
union with this, yet, Uke some other propeitiaa and poeribii- 
ties of our human Ufa and corpoie s l oompoeition, it is M 
nrel^ brought into opentiondiinqf our pceeent enstenpe. It 
is neither made nor meant to be, at p r es e nt, a general law, lAt^ 
ever it may be intended to become in some series of ourpo^ 
terity . We have seyeral bodily properties which do but psrtaDf 
erolye and show themselves. Gigantic stature is one of these 
jwssibilities. We read of giants in Scripture : I ban teea 
two myself, t and some are mentioned by Dr. Adam CbdBB, 
with whom he was acquainted.^ They occur at all times oe- 
«asionally among us ;^ but it is not the will of Providence Art 
they should be frequent, and therefore the powers and ftsK-' 
ftions of the body which lead to procerity are so repressed Mi 
governed by other instrumentalities, that the larser quaatil^ 
.of mankind are only of the middle size ; a proportion otdjeil 

* Yoa may like to read tbe celebrated Dr. Franklin's fMiaf as»lta 
■body and sool. In 1750 he wrote, < ' ' ~ 
— ** We have loot a moot dear and 

•oTGod and nature that tlieoe mortal 

40 enter into real life. This is rather an embryo otato—annpaiMka ftr 
livlnf . A man is not oompletdr bom until he is dead, wlqri Ai^ 
Aoald we criere that a new child is bom among tbe iimmaials esse 
■inember added to their happy eociecv ? Wa asb enarrs. TIatbaAH 
■hoold belent ne while they can aflbrd as pleasare, aaeisc as ta aspl- 
ring knowledge, or in doing good to our Odlow-creauireo, is a Uad ael 
benoTolem act of God. When tbey become miflt tor theoe psipssii^ > 
ds eqnaUy kind that a way is prorided by which we may get rtd ttfttm. 
Death is that way."— Dr. Franklin's Private Wofffce, vol. Ii., p. 4. 

t One was between seren and eight ftet, the other between eUa ael 

t Dr. Adam Clarke, in his liflB of himseir, states that he know two iMdk 
ers named Knight, near his tether's house in Ireland, of great stnsfA, 
and each seven and a half feet high ; and also one, Charies BarM, «fhs 
measared eight ftet six inches, and was well proportioned. 

6 Thus, the Mlowing notice was in the ** Glamorgan OasetteP* of <M. 
i, i(fill^*< A native of the vUVag^ oC \a BkM, \VL Belf^mn, who 1 
n^ in Che army of the l)eihieT\anAa Vu YCSA^Na-Mm 
#79 wn to tbe height of elghi fee( tow Snft^taa.'^ 

B, on the death of his fluhsr, to a ftM 
id valuable relatioa ; but it Is Ihs wM 
tsl bodies be laid aside when Ite sNili 

or Tifs wotLhih 226 

d Um gifpalie nUtiire in ciUicth in not in « ffr««t«r r«tio 
IT cf/cal iMifstitjr fif thft hifiMn fruirM wforh w#i arc 
ml' rnfftelifif . 

if «trm|t}i ft aJiiO MfOth«r f|iwlitjr wMrh mmt^ yt^tintrm 
MM * w ain an cvtrMrrfliMry d«!g/m, trKJ whi«:h i« t^i«!r«' 
trayii • |(MMil/ility m hufn«n fMiture on tnrtU * Hut 
■ *MMn alMp jfnf«ft«'fl with utirh rarity, tti4t it i* wA 
nm mt ftt Ihiin I^iA h^'mI prnpcvtlmia a^f/irn rri<-ritiori#'^l t 

fUm r.nti ntrui in « lto|{rM m l«r((<! m to iH-<rri prit^^r- 
fj-i*. tt i« ri/H mz/TA MO t)mn uttsnt Imifrcvity, f{i((iiritic 
wi^-. umI feftM/^fliMiry «fri!ri((th. U m uu\y h dfr/i/m- 
t tfjk> *tif. UfTit rMtfirnl pfiNftifiiHi/ «xi«t«, )/nl m nhmnyn 
^rrtf'l «« t'' ^''!. Hi i'« i;'-ri«-r«il t.uutu:, kfjit iii thft >i«- 
uwpii *A 4 «irit;i'> ^jrfh, wi?h •v/iri^ «t t.ifn#'4, iri no lnrijA 

r%'« l«<«/i^. «^'i<iirMl itifr* *ii^h muvfilar ^i^*t, that MNsit e«r- 

f f&v« hui'Af»A «ri«l fTff 17 |i'*tiM'!« Mfffim M^rlifi, Jun*, laM. 

.1^ I2'# Af iri« ir'MiW'ffkii m M^rilirr T}r4vil, n yiMn^ man 

4iif*,at. \<ei.i*^n Wi|ii«m«.« vL«i*rm«ft t4 Wmtmr'ttih hMgtt. 
f a «r«c«r Mt^fi'* i/i f#raT*«»ii<t «ri/| i»«^k, h|i t/^ Hi*-hint/n4 im 

Viirtf r<r.*f7 411 rml»«. m ^-f^v^fi honr* «fi/l a half FvMk. 
4fk ftf A'i('f««. laM 1ft* Utv J M f/*«fi. 'M«> rif l)r MarhitCii 
Mi4 »««t»d irtih itnin wiifi • «trob« ttf hia »rm. afi4 r«i(l m^ ^vrcar 
i# « arr'fil Wifh rii« fffi|»r« f'r A«i«»i flarkA'n l.tfn 
rrifi##<i< r^/f rri*ritiMi*fl r,y Mi«- '!if*-r Arripif>yMl tn |f<M ai Var- 

f»f f*;» ir.» tr«««tir» ut Ui*- tstf^th^y. Iat«ljr aunk ihtra, thai 
«^|*r ■*^*«r h* nii'f* tii« «ir«rirMri »• ifi^raaaMl tlmf Im mh 
«N#r ffi* *ttAm *A Ui» i«rc» tr'<ri itnittmi. rhrwi and a baif fiiM 
ttar* ,r.' 'i*« a>i't • half iri *,/», wtw u M takM wiih him." tuO- 
t. I4"» A'iftiat. lif^sr. 

rf«*i>h p'Ftfi'iir*!. in I'iIt. i'^^'i. waa i)ti< imtngrnph " Al Nk^m 
igri*« •'• **>*■ ' a'r'ai. iMn i« a miri ai(H 'w^itiy Mn<i fff ll*r« 
r*Mr*ri M* '«m r»ia* a tnfl^n w*i(riinf Wfi .ha , aM with 
•'•t»r 'rf t'«* fif ^' h«n4 'an > f' 'i;i twr« hunffrMi |b«. |fii hnn ■ 
pMf 'wMntir. hr^i aM a aiviAr of i-nmuif fiT», «»r MMrly *4«al 
'ffi'/ 4r*- a I 11 r f rrn-'l m 'ii-«r«'i«f, and ai* tt^*:nfn*n in 
Iff t^if«, I'riiif* W*M. a Mri«)i«-r a- A/iiia^rp, (|i*4l a^ mm 
tffb4 f>»tr If' w<i« v> a*r'*(iff ihiti. ai afivAnijr 'hrM yaara Af aga, 
■ Muff *4 i«*«ir irii/f a fan wiihwii iha i»aai trivMm. Kaalaft, y. 

$f t$ftk0. 


estant of offiq[iriiig firom one pntarition wiien h^ 
be the boundarr.* In modem timee, howerer, one nntaM 
occoired in which a moUier by-in with eigfat.t AH tha 
facts concur to show that the coune and agenciee of bmM 
life are under a strict and adjusted resalation bj tbe Cnrii 
which constantly modifies the natural power imd posriidl; 
into that well-graduated operation whicn suits his a^jpointai 
scheme of human existence on earth, in its present rt^ga 
and generations. Lonffevity is thus goremed, alloiradt M 
allotted, and appears omy in minor propoitions, but with ad 
universality as to place, climate, and person, as to showAi 
it is possible to all, though as yet granted but to vezy few. 

One of Uie reasons for which th^se eztraordinaiy opentii 
of the laws and systems of our nature are sometimes sQoM 
to occur, may be, to ffive thereby an impressive testimoDyhn 
carefully governed all the functions of our body are, thik U^, 
may execute with accuracy the plan of our intended hk, n 
cany it on steadily in its appointed course. They show hn 
needed a strong and watchful reffulation is of the laws thik pn 
duce our life and growth, and their results ; for, without tU 
constant government and adaptation of them, the pretenutia 
phenomena, from the unruled powers and properties of oi 
body, would be so frequent as to confuse and disorder ; and t 
make that confidence in the regular recurrence and seq[neDCi 
of things impossible on which our foresight, and pradsna 
and even scientific calculations are founded. Hence, thiH| 
in our Kmbs extraordinary additions may occur, if the fftm 
ing powers of the organized vessels in the hands and fti 
were unrestrained, they are always so eovemed, by meaoi ( 
which we are ignorant, that their possibilities of increasa n 
kept in perpetual restriction, and only five fingers and five tM 
become the universal formation. More than these are bii 
very rare anomaly ; though, from occurring in some instanM 

* Plotarch, in the seeond of his Roman questions, inqolrinf wIit tk 
lighted five torebes at a wedding, gives as one repson of it that Tm 
a eymbol of lifb, and tliat a wonuui may bear at the most five twin 
at one partarition. 

t An authenticated case occurred in Lancashire of four at a birth. D 


— ^ — __ ,„ recorded by immmm 

aotoors. One of them was an Vnttsnee of eigtat children bora MM 
iylng'liL Of these oua mw uv v^ Ti«nViaft>^»A.^i^ ^k&:^^i%aii 
Jttfement wis written oCtt^YULTTiWn\l«it^^.\ix!«^v\N^^ 

or rmi woun. StT 

■ muiniud to our mbmm.* All (dam uuuw«i inei^ 
!■ thwefore ywkiM •vidoMO to uf tfaftt th« Uwt twl 
« of Uft OHMt Im 4ui^ eooUoUed tnd |[0VMn4id by tbo 
MAniniilnlioii of an intoUioHiC power, tctiiig u|Mm a 
Mo anl wali-idjoatoj plan, dv which the ouenUion of 
ftw ia conifKBd 10 Bnidiieo that ii|i«ci6c ctnect wloch 
M oyaUrio aod inUtidiMl laaulu of all Oia raMl, and pr«^ 
t ffoia cv^ ockar degrao or dire«:tiou of acUon that 
aecaMiifi dimranieoHaoquoiicaa to occur. 
irl»Hii7V«r an ineiiaaae of th« actiup or raault of any 

oatune wjU be beneficial to luankiiid, aiid tlie period 
when It !• iiiieiided that ttiey aliall have thia adveutage, 
m reairictuiii which before prevented tlie augmented 
m la ninusdt aiid nature w pemuiied to eiert Mr prop- 
lad DOMrerii to tliat Urger renult by wluch a furtlier ad* 
I will iM;«-rue Ui tlie huiuaji race. I conwder longevity 
ne of ttie iJivine bleitoiDga lo nuui which i« at nreaent 
Mng a permitted eftUrgeuient of thia kind. Human 
wa to lieve received a Aat, both for it* ureeter duration 
ubnty, ever vince ilie present cetitury liegau. in our 
Niutry It loui been |Msrceived that the leiigih of life in 
claaeev i« increaaiiig, and tlie eitreiiie periode of ita 
ty Miay Im; i-ipecleil lu pwlMke uf ihe geiMrnl prolongaF 
tju iht; iMiurel grouiKlk tlu* wutild be e retioiuil lum- 
ut tite iifi)iriivefiieiit u nit iiidi«:»tiufi to ua tiiMt wi aug- 

benefei'tiufi in tlieM: r*'M)M'«:tft \uut de^i.-eiided from the 
' on inafik ukJ 11 the lilit; ol ihu human world lian re- 
in u^-riitt:, II Ik by hiiii tlmt i\tf. iMriii-dii-iKMi liJM been 
id, a* It^ Mlufie lui« Umt ptiMref ; niid ell life »ub»l«ta 
hia Will eiid HiTurdiiig lo lii« pleii I do not meen to 

the bin^i-viiy lA menkind in t-iiMidnig in lie duration, 
to rnulliplyiiiiz in lU individual iifj^uatmy : mid thia 
o all ^* inurh Utt\tf. nitd proMj/c-ct of |/artiikiiitf of tlio 
go, fee Uj ei§i'iiUfi^i*t l|i<i«e wli<i vitliie it U> eiioeavour, 
M uee of eervK.eelile meeiM. to be tlieifMelve« llie uoa- 
of It For thii reexiii I will lukfr a lerger view of the 

^, !■ 17M, flwen i'mndlut. *if iMilMib, in lb* ouuniy of Miieil^ 
m Iuia4ra4 fefi4 iwMic>-Miv«e vmn «14 lU Iwd «& (kactra ea 
iLaeJM«i«MMir «erk AffiC— Baeuw, p.lV. li>iBe\MMeMa4 
jiif*y// M Atmnt le wfenrli ihM humIm iif fUk«M»wA vha 


fitttt ind reaaoiimgi whicb ocettr on this intezetto 
ft wu not BMMf to Mlectf ionneriy, a great nun 
■tancea of thoM vriio had reached a century or : 
they haTe become so numerous in the kst fifty yea 
we haTe seen, no fewer thsn ISO were existing coni 
of each other in England and Wales in 1821, and 
number of 608 were in America in 1880. So w 
they haTe become so many in our island in the thi 
between 1818 and 1831, that, durinff this interna! 
than 1900 individuals died who had reached a 
passed beyond it* 

When we compare these facts with the notices 
tionity has left us on this subject, there seems full 
belieTO that the longevity of human nature has be< 
frequent and diffusra in the present century than it 
to be in the G^reek and Roman times by the inqi 
of those days. The few facts of this sort knowi 
were alluded to in the preceding letter ; and Luci 
he enumerated in his treatise of the Macrobii or I 
apparently all the instances he had found or hea 
among these names numerous persons who were 
ninety, and a little more, he yet only mentions abo 
as having reached a hundred years or above. f ' 
cumstances lead me to infer that the longevity wh 
or exceeds a hundred years has not, as nir as we 
from true and authenticated accounts, at any tim 
frequent in the worid as it now is in the civilized 
Europe and America. But as it could not have thus 
without th6 permission and causation of its Divii 
we may assume that it is his purpose to diffuse t] 
more extensively to his human race, in the present 
world, than he has hitherto imparted it ; and that ] 

* Tbey were 687 males and 1263 females ; bat of tbesi 

died befinre tbeir one hundred and second year, and in tbe t 

ins years 57S more expired ; so that only 91 males and ITS 

963 of both, had survived their one hundred and fourth year 

t These were, the King of the Tartessians, who Anaci 

sixty-eighth ode, says lived to one hundred and fifty, thougl 

allows him only one hundred and twenty years ; the great 

kiradred ; a King of Arabia, one hundred and fiHeen, as men 

oMfemporarv ; a musician, of one hundred and five ; Dei 

ilMan, one nondred and four ; Gorgias tbe sophist, one h 

el^bt; Ccasibus the bistoT\an, one \iwa4T«& «.fAW(«aty-fiMr 

muM, also such a writer, one \iuiiATe& %n^ tan \ ^^vb^wbA. 

ihe 4tev«M JMgft^ ooa bandrtd.— lAx<^aa^«^AM.njtJiSu 

or THE WORLD. 229 

V ezperwiiLA a pralingation in nil ita •tagevi if, bv a 
e of the enlarged blaMin^, inankind will iiliow that 
1 receive am! enjoy it with gnUtude to the Giver, 
itual phiUnthrofiy, with personal piety and morality, 
3 intellectual improvement. For we can luurdly err 
puose tlieae to be conditions requivite on our part, u, 
tnem. increase of longevity mij^ht become very noz- 
{cnenl society. All may not choose tu adorn their 

increaM their happineas by thcHe virtue*, beeauae 
I not practise the aelf-govcmmcnt which tUcae quali- 
jfre ; but, tlicn, we muat remember tliat Icnjjftiu'ucd 
wava ail individual bleasin};, and each individual can 
oint act for iiinmelf and iudepciidvnlly of otliers, and 
>k it by hja individual inipruveineiit. Such conduct 
Ilia nurebt meana of obtaiiiiiiff it for himacif, without 
g whcthtT any oihcn undervalue it, or will uac no 
nee to obtain it. 

nleaa longfvity be a atatc of comfort to ita poaaeasor, 
ot be an advantagcoua gift tu him. Tlie important 
, if it be pslonding to a greater number, will aiwaya 
her It Im.' dfsirable aa well aa attainable. 

been a favourite theory with many, tliat the mind 
k'ith age. and conHeijiK'ntly muat become feebler aa 
Ivani.-e. umil it npirca with ita iKxly, like a wasted 
But thii ia an frroiifoua liy|>utliC8iH, grounded on a 
icw of AOiiif fai.'tN, which an* more justly attributable 
se than to uffOy and ia t'ontrudirtcd by nuineroua 
hich bhow. tliat ihouLfh a^e rnfccblea the body, it 
L mrcc'ssarily dolnliiHtf thr mind. There are even 
f ill whi<'h thf iiilcllirt hd!* inrrcafied uiHtcad of ho- 
med ms hl«' ha^ iM-t-ii |irwluii;;('d. Jx)rd Clarendon 
i a fiobiemai) ol whom tins wa^ rciiiarked ;* and 
inMlanrcM, uhirli I liavr noird as they occurred, 
le tliat fztrnnu* lon^rvity han 1m-cii repeatedly enjoyed 
bodily diHabitity. I^-t us refer to Hume of those wlio 
d long witliout eor|xireal debilitation. 

wmm fhr Rart of Manrhcaier, l.ard Privy Heal to <:Uarlc8 I. Of 
ndMi ■■>■, " Iff was a man ol f real imlaMry and aa^acity in 
wkwh he drhgliird in c&cMdingly, and |irca«rved so ffeal a 
iiunH, evrn lo Ins dt«ili, when be wan v«ry naar eighty years 
a ■onH- who lutd known him in liie youiinr years did believe 
,ve iBHrb iiHiclwr pans iy lus age ihsa Mbf«.*'~LiOfd i;iar. 

i.p *J 


Thus, OM peraon died at ono faandied and five, whhoot 
any incapaci «ting debility ;* another, though in the humUflit 
and poorest walk of life, was yet, at the aame age, in acdfe 
efficiency.! At one hundred and two, the same bodily ibfl- 
ity appeared in a French woman ;| and also, to a conad- 
erable degree in Wales, at the age of one hundred and az.! 
In another instance the memory had decayed, whOs At 
health and strength were continuing, at one hundred nd 
three. II Another, who died at one hundred and four, panned 
her walking business within four years of her demise ;f lol 
one individual at one hundred performed labour, which in* 
plied good muscular Activity.** 

Several other instances also exhibit the full use of tbe 
mental faculties in this nrotracted life. At one hundred uii 
twelve, no loss of mental power was sustained ;tt and at oM 
hundred and nine, an individual in Herefordshire was enjoy 

* '• In April, 18S0, died at Bouih Shields, Manr IfKle, aged oatfeH* 
drad and fiVe, ratalnUif her menua and bodily meulties to Hit kH^ 
GmL Blsf ., 1816. p. 443. 

t " In N«iT., 1884, died at Bangay, aged one hmidred and llvs, Um 
Chaulker, maichseller and Christinas carol-stnger. She eqjoyed osii* 
lent health until within two days of ber death ; and the day pnvtoai M 
It she lifted and carried half a bushel of coal borne from the sts^*^ 
Oent. Mag., 1835, p. 109. 

t " A female, aged one hundred and two, died recently at BtfUsy, k 
Riviere. She would, in all probability, have attained a moeh gisMr 
age, but fbr the accident of fUlins Into the fire, by whieb abe tasl hir 
life, since, after she had completed ber century, she had sofllcieiit sliia^ 
and activity to climb over a wall seven fbet aigb to recover a kiy ■• 
bad dropped."— Mom. Herald, 9d Dec., 1833. 

% ** T^re is at present residing at Pontymisser, in tbe parish tf lUr 
cben, Monmouthshire, Ann Samuel, of tbe sge of one bnndred sad rix 
She is able to walk with tolerable fhdllty.— Standard, Ifth ObL, 


**1n the Vale of Csrrisell. near Alston, are now living an sM mm 
bis wifb named Martin. Both of them are one hundred and ihni 
yeara. They have livrid together neariy eighty years In tbe nsrrM 
etata, and both enjoy good health, and can wafk about wkb eaie. M 
their memory is much impaired. They have mred a lai^ ftsiily of 
men and women."— Carlisle Journal, March, 1834. 

f ««Baih. Died lately at the Temple Gate Almsbonse, in ber one 
bandred and fourth year. Sarah Sileoz. When In her one bnadraddi 
year abe sold cakes about the streets."— Oent Msg, 1834, p. 451. 

** "At WiUoushby. in NotUnghamshire, Tboross Clarke disd M 
wesk toi the one hundredth year of his sge. In July last be lasnii 
twenty acres of thistles. He survived all those who bad bean livtag la 
bla jparisb when he wss so apprentice.**— Stand., 90th Nov., ISSSu 

tf ** Died at Cork, in his one hundred snd twelfth year, Mr. Bstait 
jym^ ifl Che AiU po s ssa ri oa ofaU bis llwttlties."— Msiropol., 1833, pb 31 


TIm peruplion of ihe benefiti of inoenlUiaa w 
W of Ihii liinil gnnud M tbo Iwt caiilun ; u ne- 
lamu la be in our ovni iM.jt.ti 

TiiiiMiij] iiii. iiii ill irm. iiiiii iiniiii mirt, TTiM 11 

I m rrniTtkn In ihi jirliti nrnnmiiltniMi. M ibi an \1 
iiwMlBvumjtua,iAmimmCnmnj. H*UnlHmM 
Mr nv* la Mr IBM'! hiillr, tuTinf lullMiiaH* tkl 
ff iW Qtm HUU, BOW atena iniiuh* M. Ha WM ■ uaM- 
■■< au. Hi*iiaiid*4 U'Ih httIc* mn tKmlKi. M 
J— OMrMtlf ^.llaJmfcgimtjylwttpiMfc— w«. 

M (>•■• nwt kon m)' w nww J n 
Mg* sT 4iy>. ud Iddi Uh, ud »i 

n t. Ih. m.n l>.U (ln.W(, wildm 

"™ ■"' "Jt'"' «- 1"-. *- 1. * 'i. »■ W. 


Some olher examples also indicate that lonflerity to thii 
extent may also be enjoyed without the loss of the mehtal 
faculties. Four instances of persons of different chancten 
and conditions of life, at the several ages of eigfatj-teren, 
ninety-six, one hundred, and one hundr^ and one, are now 
before me. In the first, we ha^e the mental powers 
ins as they wore, though accompanied by a dislike or a 
time for muse ular motion. * In the second, life was c< 
unexhausted in its full energies in all respects, and even * 
the two senses that so often decay in their organizationB,iiUa 
the mind is perfect in all its intellectualities — the sight and 
hearing — in complete freshness and utility.! On this point I 
may suggest, that it is a remarkable confirmation of the im- 
mortaUty of the soul that it has been frequently remarked, 
that, as one of these organs becomes inefficient, the mind )i 
more acutely sensitive and active in the other. 

The same perfect enjoyment of his vital faculties tecdOh 
paniod the individual who died as he completed his centuiy.l 
The same undecaying spirit and advantages appeared in the 

Bernard, in No^., 1836, commanicated Co tbe Freneta Aeadsmy of 8d* 
enecs tbat be found it bad taken effect in ibe leg wbeo olbar Uato 
and parts had been inoculated in vain. 

* *' Last week died J. Coverdale, at Hawsker, near Whitby, 8|ii 
eighty-seven. For the last fourteen years be had constantly Iain is bed, 
not fhun weakness or inflrmity, but by choice. He was ftmd of rosAs^ 
and amused himself with books and newspapers. He was tinqpiMif 
visited by his neighbours and by strangers. lie was of a ebeerflil, eoo* 
versible disposition, and pleased with company ."—Hull Advert., Jaly, 

t " Tunbridge, 2d Feb., 1839. There is now in this plaos a fsntlamiB 
in his ninety-sixth year, in tbe full enjoyment of his pbyirical aMOMOtil 
fhculties. He firequently walks to 'Heehurst in Sussex, a dlstanee of 
about 16 miles, without complaining of the least fhllgne. Heoftao tdM 
a walk to Southborough and back, a distance of six miles, befbn bmfc- 
fast. His hearing is remarkably good. A considexahle portioa of Ui 
time is devoted to reading, which he does without glssses."— Bfaik-line 
Express, 16th Feb., 1836. 

i *' Died, in his hundredth year, at Creech Orange, Dorset, ThosMN 
Abbot, fkrmer. This worthy old man was not confined above two d^s 
to his bed. He had his eyesight most excellent. His mental fheolUn 
were good, and he walked about tbe house without any aid till witUsIS 
hours of his death. He had resided on the same thrm nearly 70 jma. 
Daring the whole of that verv long period, one nndeviating lloe or eo^ 
duet seems to have actuated his mind, that of the striciest honoor asd 

usrightness. He has left five ehUdren, being respectively Blxty4iiay 
sixty-fbur, sixty-eight, seventy, and seventy^two."*— Dorset Oamtf 
auoa., March, im. 

or THI WOKLD. 9S8 

wu [Mwi^ baj^nd hi* dontiOD.* Tteta Uka 
Iba lectitfM ind Immbi of PniTidnice to u* on thb 
poiot. Tta<7 (ilently concui to uanil to u* Lb* itn- 
na of that living [mnciple which wb know ind id- 
• hununundentuiding. The imputiil thinku cui 
itempUte them without thii imprcniOD uiiingwilbin 
My are, at leasts the bc»t eridflnce which om^roalor 
11 in the phenomena of this hit, that the ■onl ia nn- 

bf bodily age or decay, and that death onlj aapaf- 
Mwntial Tilalitj fiom ita material frame when it 

■ctoale ita nenoiu Drganiialioiu. 

]a or mental decaj had been ths natonl oi ueea*- 

[Dpanimenl or coniequGDce of extended age, tba to- 

Ibcii buijr practical ispublica aad national conuMti- 

GidliaiDDB, wonld have largely eiperienced aDeh te- 
nt, inatead of lindiag feebleneu or debititir the eom- 

age, they had repeated Icatimoniei of liw cootiary 

1 luTe recorded theae in their wrilinga which have 
rn to ui. Plutarch waa of >uch a dinerent ^Hnion, 
Mnpoaed a trcatiu to >how that ihe aged were Dot 
int to manage public afTaita, but ought to goTun the 
'••lib 1 and that ttto atate or city would tlway* be 
■porous where they commanded, and, wban tmdei 
:tion, the younger exerted tiieir actiTitiaa. He mao- 
g inatancea of Uieir oDiciency.t 

Batiae of Lueian ia curioua on thia anbiact lor ila 
on of diatinguishod pvraona in antiquity who had 

il.lfa(.. I«U, p. 110. 

• nanlUna, rrom Polybliia of Maaaanlaa. wbs dM M alaanr. 
^.it t tu M UwCaritailBlma In a pi' nnt twila natlM 
M ta kla sU afa, asd wbao Um AibaMwM, N ••vMaa MiTi 
wto wata na «uai> w arm aad tUlow Urn, wbleh tH i liawJ 
■kad ilMin wbal iMy had la eoDivMn oT m lb* aaU, wMa k* 
t ba tb«lr MAar <■•»«■ u iba cam^m ai tbaaaaafrifMr- 
alee aun»M«, wbo, at tba tun< afs, wnn iM iwMla friia 
lai BODfsand aMlJo( Ihn lomuiU:; and Fai l Mt— Wf« 


lived from eighty to one hundred. As it may both anum nd 
instruct you to be made acquainted with them, I will dui 
them under a few hcadd. 

The furat may be the celebrated kings and genenb, sf 
whom he notices several.* 

The becoiid shall be Greek philosophers, who were at thfl 
head of their different schools, and were famous in their day.f 

The next will comprise historians, poets, and other wxi* 
ien.X These last two series show that the most intellectoii 
men of Greece were remarkably long lived, and lead us to ii- 
fer that there is naturally, and, where disease does not prevcit 
it, a more natural connexion between active mind and longer- 
ity than is ^nerally supposed. 

But as all these were under a hundred years, my next letter 
shall take a view of those above a hundred in the last two 
centuries, whose ages and condition Mr. Easton collected firom 
the notice of them in the periodical obituaries that have been 

* As— Nama, eigbty ; Servios Tallins, eighty ; Tarqnhi the Pmd 
disd in his exile at Cuma at ninety ; iliero, of Sicily, ninety-two ; Afft* 
tlioclefi, ninety-five ; the Sc\'thian Ateaa, at ninety, fell in battle aga^ 
Philip ; Teres, king of the Odrysseans, in Thrace, at ninety ; Antifonu 
died of wounds in battle at eighty-one ; another Antigonua at eigtary; 
LysimachiM fell in his eighty-fifth year; Antipater died at e^My; 
Ptolemy lAgus, in Egypt, at eighty-one ; the regal fiNinderof PeifanM^ 
eighty ; Mithridates, warring against Rome to nis laM hoar, at eifbty- 
four ; AtialUK, eighty-two ; the Cappadoeian king Arcarthas Ml in Mr 
tie at eighty-two ; Artaxerxes Mnemon of Persia, eighty-six ; or, as Dio 
said, ninety-four ; Artaxerxes Ochos, ninety-two ; Parthian Un^^ tf 
eighty-seren and ninety-six ; Artabazus made king at eighty-six ; Tarcm, 
ninety-two ; and a king of the Bosphorus, Tigorous in body at ninety.' 
Lueian, Macrob. 

t The philosophers whom Lneian notices are — Zeno, nlnety<«W; 
Claantbes, ninety-nine; Xenophanes, ninety-one; Zenocraioa, dgbiy- 
fbur ; Cameades, eigbty-flve ; Chrysippns, eighty-one ; Plato, dgM^ 
one; Critolans, eighty- two; Diogenes the Stoic, eighly-eigbt ; nmh 
Bios, eighty-four ; Aibenodorus, eighty-two ; Nestor, tutor to TlbolH^ 

t Xenophon, above ninety; Pherecydes, d^ty-flve; HellaiiMi^ 
eifhty-flve ; Tinueus, ninety-six ; Aristobalos, ninety— he befUi V 
write at eighty-flre; Polybius died flrom a fall ; HypeicraMs, ■ilMt^ 
two ; Anacreon, eighty-five ; Stesichorus, eighty-flre ; laocrales WISH 
bis celebrated Muegyric at ninety-six, and killed himself on heaiiaff if 
the defeat of his Athenian countrymen at Cheronea at one hondrai ; 
Erateethenee, eighty-two; ApoUodorus, eighty-two; Sophoeles WM 
elKdted at ninety-five, and a few years before had composed his OBdlfMi 
Cdoneus: Cratinos, the comic poet, ninety-seren— he wrote a 
CMoedy a little before his death ; Philemon, a oomie writer, nla 
BpkMnniMf a oomic writer, ninvftjf •scnw&.—lAdan, Maeroik 

OV Tax WORLO. 2t5 

■id who m milked is being eflicient in Aeir 
•enltiee et Uu* protneted age. Ail soch infltances 
diow that the inteUectuai principle within na is a 
■ctive reality, of a different natuie from its deeti- 


r, showing thai LongevUp hat bteM ami mtut be a 
'« mud ^fieUnt StaU.— Facts as to the Diet wUck Lomg- 
9e used — Comoro's Experience.— Observations on our oum 
tbtaining it. 


(ceding instances of longevity prove that both the 

body have been efficient in human nature to its 

«• in our terrestrial life; but as the effect, or 

le impression, of such evidence depends upon its 

; seems to me to be useful to adduce further 

in order, by their number, to estabUsh the convic- 

MT are not the casual things which we regard as 

ible accidents, which are not in the course of 

arise from settled causes ; but that they are the 

intended operations of the laws of nature which 

' our being on this earth. For the true <n>inioii 

aa to be, that as duration without end, until spe- 

asparHf and distinct nature of the mind, Loid Broagh am 
■e very incailinot and Torcible reasooinf , in his diseoerae 
ksolofy. I fully coincide with him in the followinf r»- 
Im •▼i<tonce fbr the existence of mind is to the fall as 
Itat upon which we helieve in the ezistenoe of matter. la- 
mn eenais and more irrefrsfable. The coMCJoasmss sf 
m pecpetQil sense that we are thinkinf , and that we are per* 
efsratlon quite indeueodeotly of all material obieets, proves 
sMMO oTa beiBf diflferent flrom oar bodies, with a dsgres ef 
hartban we can have fbr the existence of tboasbadisa tkaaa- 
ly other part of the material world." 
• applicaiion of the mental and moral phaoomenaas proof of 
I of the Deity an importam addition to oar nataral tbsology. 
Mwss of society indoee OS to weleooM all saeh comriholisaa 

Aa aafensets firan intflUifsac BMQ wlia tevaiahsB aqr >■>"* 


cUlly tnnihiUted, is the esMntkl property of the Uving tool 
within ut, so longevity is the nttunl property of the hody it 
is invested with tiere ; and earlier deUh is the product of 
diseasing and deranging causes, extrinsic to its material con- 
stitution, and therefore subject to the modifying and healing 
power of human skill and knowledge, under the permission S 
the all-governing Creator and Preserver. Unless we beliefs 
this truth, we shall take no pains to scquire the benefit ; but 
in proportion as we accustom ourselves to think that the 
lengthening of our life is greatly withtn our own power, md 
may be also made and wiU become a desirable enjoymoit as 
long as it can be continued, we shall so much more yalue oar 
present life, and be solicitous to find oift and practise ythtt 
will most prolong it. But to do this will be increasing the 
stream and sum of human happiness both to ourselves and 
others ; for no one can be happier without others benefitiqg 
from it ; and no one can secure and increase either his own 
felicity or his longevity in his present life, but by the piactiee 
of those moral means and virtues which are always wise nl 
advantageous, and which, like light and heat, cannot vad 
without diifuuiug tlicmuolves around, pervading and benefit- 
ing whatever they come in contact with. 

Extreme longevity is of itself a very curious subject, if it 
were regarded only as a theme of our intellectual contempb' 
tion and inquiry, as to the causes from which it originates in 
the favoured individual. It is a pity that intelligent men in 
their neighbourhood have not maide such persons, and thair 
preceding life and habits, more the object of their investigir 
ting attention ; for then science might have had some ehiei- 
dating facts on which it could have soundly reasoned. TV 
subject is also of great moment to us, from its connexi<m with 
many questions as to the nature and qualities of our Vtnag 
and thinking principle, and as to the relations with its en- 
poreal functions and organizations, and essential independsnct 
of them, even while it is affected by them. On all these tC' 
counts I will devote another letter to the consideration (tfoChv 
examples of great longevity, which various obituaries have en- 
abled others to collect, and will arrange them under such 
heads as will most satisfactorily illustrate the inference to 
which they will lead us. You will then have all the laws 
and principles of the plan and economy which have been sst- 
tied and carried into execution by our Creator as to oar eaitUf 

or THB IVORLO. 837 

I «lr«ir«T Ui tfiiJ(«f thfrrii wttt'yiuully ri/|jjiiiiii, it NtaUl 
ly to IfA IM hrii:f UN tunMlAti * 
■il-kiifywii t*unmrt» uv*v\ to nun hiitHlrnd, miH dn- 
ilh »utiimittm liiN own (•fliriAriry when tut wroiM 
tfff'fr'* It IN M \AttiiHurti iit rnitti hi« ir«f;r(fM»jorui of 
fi;«-liri(f«, fiVfrii iiitiMt |fhrfi*«Mri( iuN Mflf'imliiiUrlKiri.f 

M'«rk mul kllf'h <:f1illli(«rill nh'rW UN ituil hufflilfl ^«JNt- 

liii|ffiy NlMtn of IfUii/, iifi«t thkt ilN |m;lori^iitiori In 
iM-ry whi'-h ntt msifiy writirra r«*|fr<'«Mtfit il to hm. It 
l^lfMif filly t\t:^:n\H:i[ liy mnif with rriourfifiii Miiil dm- 
TiaffiHtioii, in orrit-r to rrcmttf tlml fliniikn ui il wkiirh 
If UN, NN N riilinf, to tliiiik inofi'. ui tf»r tnuiUf.itAutyi 

ly li«i[)n »«y fffM-niiiffiiiiff iIkma mT Mkt hiftNJnrf Md NlM»ir4i 
N ar* ill itM 'iifiiiury uf it niiicIo ffMtilb in iitt timuilmnmi'M 
IT jMiuNry. lt>7. 

rtUrrfcriiiiy, in l*<jn«!(«l. Kltramir. rtilirt «f Mr. MnHnn Oiillft 
t McirN'fr'litiNry Mgr iff imh |iunilr«-<l «(k1 nln^ yrun. iMf 
gif Nil*: c«v«i iMflb m iHicii Ut tUftm r.U\Ultttu, tWtnH WUuim urn 

, af Ol<1 iHrrliy, n«:«r lf«v«ffft«rt|w«Ni(, NfNit inin hundrwl nikI 
Uih rar«< Mhii rMNifiMl bor raculiiAN in iIm bMff 
, «i llaifWiiil W<iifr|lM««MM:, Iff Iwr liundr<iflUi yMif, MrN. IMly 
ifiing fell Ifi fiv:iiliiMi noiirly Ut ttm laaf. 
Iw: 4 Ai lliaifM, Wi liff nKiriy «i|^ili jraar, Mr«. AniM 
Mkirr On ilmi ifay fr*rmili prMWing brr ninuw, Mr*. Mary 
iMf hMH'lrMlih ywr. 

IIM uiiti iNilii^ '-'MiM f«:Mil anil a«rw wiilniui IIm aid nr aparta. 
i| all fariilit*:* I" itii laat , «(mI wiuM amuaa iMr 

h a narraikrti <rf ih*i fniM-ralili inruii'nia uf I ha 1"^ flra M 
I nina«y yaara affi A frw finmliia mmm, Mra Kidd, ft auilar, 
ikffi. aifMj iiinfiiy iwii , ami uUnut iwalva yaara a(f», Mr. L. 
ir lff«*«lii-f,*t»«l ai 'riiamft, af«-il nifhly all 
ia»laiffw, Maiy <;««(irli,«i irtin hurtilml and iwn. 
irfliall, in <'iifiitirrlaii4, llai-lia«-l Wilhlnaiin.arMl OMlivndffWl 
BMrli tit par f Ilia wlirn y<fiinf , artn auMiffrfMj haraclf by fru 
fiduatry, ami nrv<ii afi|flM-i| Un |iaiff>'hlal rHifif 
I tn»mtU •■'ffiiaiiia iHid'ca (rf four oilier ifi'livuluala bamfaaa 
MK- iiuii'lrfil . «ii«l fi|[hi*-«-n iiliifralHiWii<-n nifihly anil nltMrtir 
nciw atnciy IXtt ytmra irf «««-, ■fi4 And inyaall aa baailblnl, 
liry aa if I w«:r«- but lwt>niy flva >Mir« idd I raliab all I ant, 
y, and fion« (rf niy tttiim»-m fail niA. I bava hIIII a liv«|y HiHay, 
MMry, a aiMinil imlfinrtif, a airimg Iwfart. My vnM^ w MHira 
n rvar, ^t iliai f laii rliaiii fifflh my irfllr* av#ry ftmrning ffifira 
If fulfil ill my ><fiiili" ' ifinaio mi l.«ffi( iMu, j,. 101, I'M. 
i«i htiAw iiiiii ai «ii|iily, ifMiHinna fbiii Im nvuld ntlhffr rlda tir 
Mt *ftr> Mfiill, ami i iiififiiia«d a i-fMnatiy wbu-b i.«tfi« i^ Willi 
^^m 1 1MM aaya iliai li*i dint ftl l^adiM, calfniy aiwl wKhMH li»y 
I ft hundraii yi-ara uld. 


destmation. But, however well meant, thia mekncholTpaiuU 
ing is both a mistake and an untruth, and, being so, has oe- 
caaioned greater injury than benefit. It has driven fur mon 
into morose dissatisfaction with their Creator than it haseui- 
ted to prefer and pursue the celestial promises and prospsets,' 
It is the due appreciation of him here which will make ns mon 
desirous of being under his care and in his kinsdom heraaikK; 
and the more we feel the happiness of this life, and ngud it 
as derived and given to us by him for our enjoyment, tlw 
more assured we shall be that the same principle ai^ the Hne 
effect, with unbounded longevity, will shape and govern OB 
future condition still more advantageously. Ind^d, ezpeii* 
ence has proved that the same paths and conduct which irill 
cause us to be most happy here will be most operative to en- 
sure our felicity hereafter. Faith, trust, hope, retigutioii, 
adoration, obedience, benevolence, activity, moderatioii, nl 
self-government are the most effective means for making ef- 
exy season of this life most prolific of daily comfort to ns, ml 
will equally prepare us for the elysium that is offered to ns B 
the realms that lie beyond our earthly graves. Thus, ths vir- 
tues and conduct that will act most efficaciously on our fatma 
allotment will do most good to us, both in our body and in oar 
mind, in our present condition ; will most avert or extennito 
disease ; will most produce good spirits and good temper, and 
most promote our social sympathies and our intellectual im- 
provement. Let us, then, study to be happy, on these mind' 
pies, in this life, and we shall find them the sure wugs of 
conveyance to all that will be happier in the next ; and ktw 
learn, from the facts which the long-living present to ns, tfait 
long Ufe may be always a blessing to us ; and if it has boon 
so to others without any peculiar care, how much mon ecr- 
tainly may we make it such by those habits and qnalitiei 
whose divine effects will suit and irradiate every region of till 
universe 1 

The marriage of individuals is one of the strongest indiea- 
tions they can give us that they are in possession of the pow- 
ers of active life and comfort, and seveial persons in their coi- 
turial age have given this evidence of their efficiency.* 

* " In 1733 died, at one taandred and twelve, William Haseliiif . if 

Chelsea College, of which he was the oldest pensioner, meotieiiea la 

Let. XXni., p. SIO, note f- He married and buried two wives atlm ht 

wu one hundred ; and the third, who survived him, bs manisd al tf|i 

j||v of 000 hundred and ten. BNlkAaa>Aav"B>i>Mk^(Mathe OoUsfib'M 

or TRI WOftLD. 

d hnlth, ind 

■ad their live* wilhodt dioue. Then us muiy in- 


It many, of Tuimu iga from one hundred end five 

indrad and rortT, ere noticed Lo hive died in the poe- 

if all their fuulliei.t 

•d a emn a walk n«n tba Daka or BUlumed end air RfltHit 

• 4M DeuM CimwoB. er Knnlchlibar. In Buttand, aitd gnc 

ri «ad liarr VBUa, ai ami kuidnd and iinnj-altht. Mm 

hand al DinBIT-lwa.- Her daatk la TBCerded on a hmII toaid 
I dHirrh, flbTvpaMrs. 

1, Wllllan KilBi, or WidiHrflatd, mv WglnrkimpteB, dkd 
ediad and Bnaaa. Ha manM kia AiaRk and laK wIM al OBt 

n dkd.n ene knntad and flftaen, IIanr|r OraaTansr, gf leet, l> 

'■woniiD, dM In •(. MaryaraPa 
< WA phytic." — lb,, p. V. Ab- 

n«f-«i«i. dl«f ai onehBDdnJ 
, J^mn l.lltlejniin, ]ll IfMlvid, ai 
vcryJUHIJI. Htr 

dllkml aanii ef her bad 

tb., M. rii rn. WUUam 

la III- miiti. WIS ■■«■■<< and Iblnr-rllhl. "Ha 

MMIevbta^rDlMgnor lalh-makln(BfllH«hblBaliiHtba 

whlai!a« If «iA.'— lb.,U° In m^laliii tkc dkTu 
*MkB*iredafid twenlT-lra. Ha waapMmilafd In twdLtt- 
'AKUMlbKb hia It 1-^—........ ^.. -. ^j 

wdnd. rmn a H, hr 



The possesBion of eyesight, and the ability to lead without 
the aid of glasses, are also striking tests of the perfect orguh 
ization and of healthful functions continuing in the Icmg-liTing 
individuals. This desirable advantage has been frequently 
noticed. * 

The power of walking is a striking proof that the active 

rtwers of the body are continuing with the duration of lifti 
feel this fact very much from my own deficiency in this re- 
spect. I find that many could walk in the -various ages from 
one hundred and two to one hundred and thirty-three.t 

two.**— Easton, p. 146. Numerous other instances occur of the fliU [ 
■ion of their ftculties fh>in one hundred and Ibur to one hundred and i 
teen years. 

* 1755, Peter Bryan, one hundred and seventeen, of Tyrone camltJt 
" could read the smallest print without the assistance of a ffass."— Ihr 
p. 41. 1749, Mr. Hare, one hundred and seventeen, of Slows. "Bt 
had been in the service of Lord Ck)bham*s ftoiily upward of eighty yens. 
He enjoyed his sight and hearing till a few weeks before his death.*^ 
lb., 30. 1774, Margeiy Bonefaut, one hundred and fourteen, near Bam* 
staple, Devon, "could see to read to the last."— lb., I4A. I701;Bob«rt 
Ogilvie, one hundred and fifteen, a travelling tinker ; ** bom Olh Nov., 
1647. as appears by the register of Kippon ; was married seventy yeaia^ 
and had twelve sons and thirteen daughters. He had all his senses pe^ 
feet, and could see to work a short time before his death. His wlft 
lived to be one hundred and six years old.**— lb., 67. 17^, Mr. QenM. 
one hundred and twenty-five, of Louth county, Ireland, "could read 
very small print to the last."— lb., 166. 17S3, Margaret Melvil, one 
hundred and seventeen, of Ketle, Fifeshire. " HTir renewed several tsdk 
at one hundred years of age; never had an hour's illness, and could nt 
and hear well till the day before her death."— lb., 187. Several oCben ta 
the same effect have been noticed from one hundred and two ts •■• 
hundred and eleven. 

t 1769, Mr. Butler, one hundred and thirty-three, of the Goideo Vak^ 
near Kilkenny. *' He was related to the family of the Duke of Onnoai ; 
could walk well, and mount his horse with great agility to near the thm 
of his death."— lb., p. 113. 1767, John Hill, one hundred and thbtyi 
of I^eadhills, near Edinburgh. " He used great exercise on fbol, tm 
walked two mile^ to a christening a short time before his deaih."— Ik, 
07. 1756, Margery Brider, one hundred and thirteen, of Willy, Sbrap* 
shire. " She danced with the morris-dancers the year before her death.' 
— lb., 43. 1742, John Phillips, one hundred and seventeen, of Thora, 
near Leeds, Yorkshire. " He lived under eight crowned beads^and wat 
able to walk till within a few days of bis death. His teeth were food, 
and bis eyes and hearing tolerable. A.bout the age of twenty-eight, beinf 
eonstable of his parish, he, upon some disorders, conunitted two of OUnr 
Cromwell's soldiers to the town stocks; who, flir fnm resenting K, 
wished that every one of his men had but half his courage."— lb.. St. 
1750, Robert M'Nish,Esq.,of Greenlock,in Scotland, one hundred ana tei 
" He had, within a year of his decease, mounted his boras ud rodo a 
JbDJilJog."— lb., 83. Many others had this bodily efficiency. 

IDf U 


% £.' 

•• « ^^ 

cs; . — - 

■*. ..-»■ iH. 

I* .. :: 



criminated cause ; but such as I have met with I will bried]f 


A few instances indicate that longrevity has sometimes oe- 
curred, without any particular ca^ with respect to food tn^ 
habits.* But these rather belong to the class of exceptiint 
to general rules than to that of mc^els to be imhated ; m iV 
ages have found that bodily indulgence tend» to shorten hu- 
man life to the largest numbers. 

Temperance and exercise have been remarked as thehibJU 
of many who have reached the greater extensions of Vn- 
gevity.t Moderation and regularity are great preservatiTei, 
even without abstemiousness. i As to particular food, some 
lived much on milk:^ vegetable diet has been used bf 

* Thoa, In 17M, one died at one hundred and iwo^ in Berks, wboW 
been ** a very flree liver, but perfectly healthy to hiedeath.'*— EaMomp. It 
Anoiher, an Iriaboian, of Kerry, died at one hundred and eleven. wmH 
the afe of eifhty-finir bad married a young fifth wife, and bad brkr 
twenty children. ^ He was al wa}-* very bealthy ; no cold allteted mm; 
he eould not bear the warmth of a shirt at night, bat pat it andsr Ui 
pillow ; vet fl>r the last seventy years, when in company he drank pks- 
lifhlly of mm and brandy ; and if, in compliance with st^idtatioaL Is 
took claret or panch, be always drank an equal glass of rum and bnmdy.' 
—lb. In 1790 the Rev. Mr. Uavies died at Hereford aged one ha- 
dred and five. " The last thirty-five yearn he never used his fleet but lo 
go up or down stairs, and to step from room to room. His breakOai vsi 
hearty, of hot rolls and baiter ; his dinner was sabstantial, and ot^nr 
riety of dishes ; at his aaj^r he generally ate roast meat, and slwiji 
drank moderately of wine. He had neithergout, stone, nor coUe, ud 
lived beloved by all wbo knew him.**— lb., 237. 

t In 17ft5, Mr. Dobson, of Hatfield, farmer, one hundred and Ibiiir 
nine. By much exercise and temperate living he preserved his health, 
Ninety-one children and grandchildren attended his funeral.'^ lb., p^ 87. 
17(0, John Micbaelstone, one hundred and twenty-seven, ** grandson of 
Thomas Parr. He lived to this age by extreme temperance and siseh 
exercise." —lb., p. 7&. 1771, Mra. Boyce, of Guilford, one hundred tni 
•even. '* By temperance she scquired constant health, and retained W 
senses to the last.'*— lb., ISl. 

X In 1756, Ann Msynard, of Fmchley, one hundred and twelve. *' She 
lived with moderation, and took much exercise."— lb., 44. 1766, Jioot 
Anderson, of Newington, Middlesex, one hundred and two. *' Her lift 
was regular and moderate. She was remarkably active, and aUe to 
perform her work, spinning, to near the time of her death. Her ftcol* 
ties were rery strong to the last."— lb., 81. William Sharptey, one 
hundred and thirty-eight, mentioned in note t, p. 239, ** lived well anl 
regular, hut in nowiae abs^emionsly."- lb., 45- 

^ ** Margaret Saker, one hundred find thirty-seven, " for many yein 

subsisted mostly on milk."— lb., p. 31. 1782. Val. Cateby, of msttw. 

near Hull, one hundred and sixteen. He bad been a sailor 36 yesrs, and 

afterward a flirmrr as long. U\a d'«l for the lant twenty yean wa^ milk 

Bnd biscuit. His intellect was \veTfecv WW >nW\)l\t\ vn«q^kt«^ Vk&dnth. 

' or TBI WOBLO. S48 

* Other* oaed tea from the natiTe herbs of our coun- 
Some preferred diluting liquids, that wcro neither strong 
muUting.t Even sugar and water haa been sufficieiit 
ain lengtlienod Ufe for a sliort time.^ 

«. 180. ITM, Anna FVoste, of West Rals, In IJneolnshIra, om 
I uni alvTSfi. ** She was inarriMi to hsr Isnt hu«b«nd la bar 
bird yrsr. For msiiy yrani shr hsd lived on milk and laa diet." 
10. 17AS, Marf arel liiinter, of Newramla, ona hundred and four. 
•varajce «rsa inoacly water or nillk."— lb., t8. 
I. Joditb BanMar, of (k»waa, ona hundred and eight " 8ba lived 
■ruli aud applc«, with milk and wsicr, ilie laat elxty years of bar 
ha was aiiaitdrd to her Rrave by 80 of her d«Mirendantn.*'— lb., pi 
B6. Elixabrih Macpheraon. orraUhnena, one liundrvd and navan- 
*Mar dial was butlarmllk and xraeiia. I4be retained all bar 
Ull wiihtu three iminiba of bar daaih."— lb., bS. 178S, Anibony 
of tiulpaaroa, one hundred and fiiurtean. ** lie never bad any 
■. Ha retained hla aenaea, and bad all bin teeth and hair to the 
kla death. He ate nothinf bat bread made of Turkey wheat, and 
Illy abnialnad from wine and tobacro.^^Ib., IW. Alexander 
lb, ona hundred ajid twelve, fbr the laat ten yeara lived entlfsly 
Nablea.— lb. 1780, Joaeph Rktna, of (Jomba, Uerka, Isbsurar, oos 
d aiid three. ** He never aullkrvd s work's tUnaaa, and fbr the 
ty yasrs aubalated enUrely on bread, milk, and vefatsblss."— Ib.» 

8, John Hussey, of Sydsnbam, Kent, one hundred and alztaan, 
ly a hrmer, of I'rawfbrd. **llla breakfkal wsa balm tea aweal- 
ptUi bonev, and puddinf fbr dinner, above fifty yi-ara.^-^Ib., p. fO. 
loallaa Pnrca, of Olamorxan, one hundred and one. " Ilia orsans 
Ml so lillla Injured by the weight of yeara, that, within Uiraa 
of his desih, he dirertnl a villaf e rhoir, with aome virtstlona, fbr 
nday. He never uaeil apectarlea till wllliln fifteen months of Ms 
illen. snd posefaand a great flow of aptrlia, attended with ' 

•ml activity, tin* reault of bin aliaieiiiioiM manner of living. Herb 
ers hia breakfhHt : meal, plainly tlmiaed, hla dinner : and, Inatasd 
p|tf r, be refksabed bimaelf with amoking s |ilpe of tobacco. WUb a 
radueatlun, he bad a aimng natural geiilua,and wrote a poaai 
• Carnianta,' pmlirtlng. with great humour, the eveota of ths ad- 
rsuon of ib«i Buke of Newcaatle.**- lb.. lAl. 
86, diMl Mr. Siiiltli. of Dolver, Munigouieryabira, fhrmar, ona 
id and three. ** He wia never known to drink anything but ba^ 
k.**— lb., n. W3 17N7. HuMnnab flreonfleld, of Poiion, BedftKd- 
one hundred ami five, a maiden lady. •* She had fbr the Isst fbrty 
lived i-bictly ihi flour provmloiia, sud ber only drink waa wine and 
"—lb., P 914. 1700, Jaiiiea reteni. of Dundee, one hundred and 
, a travplling packman. " Although he often slept in the Aelda and 
I, be enjnyeil an u in iilerr opted atale of good hesllb, snd, until lbs 
par of hia life, retained bis memory. Ilis alrongaal baverafa was 
baer."<-lb. W». 

VI, Keherra Joaeph, of Malpaa.near Nawport, In MonnNratbablrs, 
mdred. wiikiw " Hlie retained all lier fbruUiea to the hour of bar 
I. Slid, nil wiihln three yeara previoua to li. rould walk withoet 

r' r a Biirk. Khe waa not kiibwn to liav« a At of illneaa n^m 
y aufnricut to roo0na bST Is bar bad tlU wtlUm a sniiIi^ «K ^SR 


The example and advice of the Cardinal de Salis may 
c\obi' this eniiiiioratioii of the various diet of the long liven,* 
with the addition of tliat of the celebrated Comaro, who 
found at sfventy-eight that a sparing diet was essential to his 
health and comfort. t By the persuasion of his friends he in- 
creased it only a sixth part, and it brought on disease with 
mortal tendency ;t but, resuming his abstemiousness, he 
was in a joyous and vivacious state at e^hty-three,^ and so 
contnmed until he completed a century. His food was varied 
and gratifying, II but his spirits and safety depended on its bang 

death. She lived a ver>- temperate life, though she had kept a litds 
public house for leveiity years. Her chief sustenance fbr the laM tw» 
years was brown sugar and cold water.**— Easton, p. 244. 

* He was ArchbiMhop of Seville, and lived to one hundred and tea 
He cnjoved to the last every faculty except strength and bearing. Vflm 
SMketl by his friends wliat regimen he observed, he oaed to tell O um 
*' By being old when I was young, I And myself yonng now that I lai 
old. I have led a sober and studious, but not a laxy or sedentary Ufk 
Mydier was sparing, though delicate: my Itquors, the best wines tf 
Xeras and La Mancha : but never at any time exceeded a pint, exeent la 
cold weather, when I allowed myself a third more. I rode or walhid 
every day, except in rainy weather, when I exercised for a con|deo( 
hours. As to the mind, I endeavoured to pretierve it in due temper bf t 
scrupulous obedience to the Divine commands, and by keeping a eat- 
science void of offence towards God and man." He was thelaat SQ^ 
viving son of the author of *' The Conquest of Mexico." — lb., 903-5. 

t *' If a man is willing to live long in the enjoyment of his (bod.kC 
him live sparingly.** IIis habit was to take twelve ouncesof fbod a oay, 
in bread, soups, yolks of eggs, and meat, and fourteen ounce* of wUied— 
Comaro on Old Age, p. 33. 

* He increased what he ate to fourteen ounces, and hia drink to riz- 
teen. '* llxis augmentation of diet was so prejudicial to me, that, brM 
as I had been, I began to be sad and out of humour. Everything of- 
fendod me ; and upon the least occasion I broke out into a uassioo. At 
twelve days' end I was taken with a Violent fit of the colic; thatim 
followed by a continual fever, which tonnented me for thirty-fife dayi 
together. For the first Hflevn days it put me into such an agony tlMl i 
was impossible for ine to take a quarter of an hour's sleep at a tiaia 
My friends several times believed me to be a dying man. Nothing thd 
me from this dancrer but resuming the regimen which I had so loofflt^ 
served.**— lb., p. 33. 

^ ** The life I lead is as happy a one as can be wished for in this worid. 
I am still so strong at fourscore and three as to mount a horse wlthoil 
any help. I can not only go down stairs without any concern, but Uki- 
wise descend a hill. I am always merry ; always pleased ; always la 
humour ; and maintaining a happy peace in my own mind, the serenity tf 
which appears at all times in my countenAnce.**— lb., 50. 

II " Wlmt I eat is as follows : bread, soup, new-laid ecgs, veal, kM, 
Oiiitlon, partridges, pullets, and pigeons. Of the seaflsh f choose goldi* 
0fo« [John Dories T] and oV lYw TVv«ttA\L\\!A ^Va.**— lb., p. 81. 

<it # fa «w «r fki Dffiw kits of life to p«t oar uidtYidMl 
«f it ii «v oira power, MbtMt thprajt to ' ' 

iktovB tocHtoE vyntncl oar sliy on toitiioocowHm 
lb Hm ctoo «• Mr dMWM to tak» of il, and to tbe Imbtea UmI 
fpofcvMnUofraiBieriifetoit He fata couMetod It noio 
«ipone^ niA ov eelfgofeimiiifit; and, by the fiml eon- 
■■■d fco (pwe^ faea pointod oat to ua on what thia ahooM Ko 
djplf awxrfawi Longevity ia more connected with aimnU 
*"'- ' 1 4iBt» and with that ad^reguktion which, in Um 

tof indnkence, and in the p o aaeaa i on of the 
, we are kaat diapoaed to practiae thiD wo 

of orhkatonmpoae; yet daiW full habita of fetd- 

kfcan nol ferooisbk to mnable life. But careful diet, fai o 
«Mfllf-i«gakted quantity, though one of the taliamana of lona 
llfe» « aol the onfy one. All other habita ahould be directea 
to ffaa aomo end ; and tiiia will require much aeleoting judg^ 
mdt iatA defeemdning readlution ; for the cuatoma of aoekty 
hiewiC^ktoB adopted and are in full practice without any refer- 
MMO-to it, and therefbre are in many pointa hicompatible with 
it But Ihey are needkaaly so aa to tho enjoyment of lifb, 
ift^ipor other poxpoaea they may anawer ; for thoae gratlfU 
«ttno wfaieh moat favour continuoua TitaliW will be found 
ll tbrir ooorae more pleaanrable than aucn aa inrade it. 
*^ ' faqnraa the fimctiona of life horta the apirita and tho 

. .^.*0b kapir, M — ltd, and nfolar \i(k ! bow wortby art tboo af oer 
aHpam ! Bow aMKb doat tbeu &tmm to be pwft n ad tolbra Iby •o»' 
aOTr^"~Oanaia^p.40. *'Afoodr^iMiiteiMfMtanrftirtbapm«af* 
aoriayi^aad fceomisia to two tUnga: flrat, la takhif oaie af ffia 
H|r»on4 Hi aad ly , oT tha qpantity, ao ai loaai aaddrlak aotbtag that 
OHthaaMaHohtaoraayiBovaUuuiwhitwaeaaiaallxdifatc. 0«r 
BrtMeaeaiglbctote dM fnido fo tbaao two thtafa.**— lb,, 71. 
"•It k tba wfD or ear Croaior Unt we aboold attain to a loog Wb. 

to ble oM age, bo win beftaod 

id br aeoaor aad aMjr ealey the 

pad a J ktoaf lie waiia. Bo tfeeo Mdotbo well to Mo neo^ja oa 

SSSoVrAaaSniiMiTkaaool/'-.Ib.yCh.t. * 


temper, brings on lassitude or pain, and fixes connoding dis- 
eases, as well as occasions the more rapidly-destnictive one% 
or promotes their fatality. Hence we are our own worst ene* 
mies in this point, and are every day rousing the evil ageneiti 
into action upon us, to accelerate tliat mortality which we 
complain of, yet will exert no due skill, and care, and •elf> 
coercion to avert. But if, from the desire of present grati&' 
cation, as it occurs, we will not take this trouble, nor itodf 
the subject as carefully as we attend to many far less iafot- 
tant things, we are the authors of those early abbreviatkas of 
our life which we so much lament and are saddened by. 

For the first portion of our existence, we are at the meicy 
very much of our parents and nurses. They must Icam moit 
correctly the laws and causes on which infant and yonogv 
life depend; and if they were to make this an imporUnt 
branch of their intellectual attention, and would adapt thdi 
own habits and mind to guard and cherish, with enli^t^iedl 
judgment, the vital principles of their newborn generation, 
the mortality of this period of life would be very considerably 
diminished. It is lessening already ; and the same moral feel- 
ing and parental improvements which have produced thii 
melioration are pledges that it will soon be much more ex* 
tended and more certainly assured. 

But when we have ourselves attained that power of obio^ 
vation and thought which grows rapidly within us as we psM 
from youth to manhood, the springs of health and life us 
then under our command as far as human judgment can effect 
them. We then become responsible for the prolongation of 
our existence in all those things within our power by which it 
may be shortened or enlarged. If we will not take the 
trouble to learn and mark what actions, indulgences, or habiti 
tend to abridge or promote it, but choose to walk throng 
life in a wilfiil ignorance on the subject, which we suffer oo^ 
selves to remain in, on any point that is important or deepW 
interestmg to us, we are the authors of that brevity of UM 
which we have brought upon ourselves. The Creator hai 
enabled us to trace his laws concerning it, if we will apfJy 
the same care and impartiality in discovering them as thou- 
sands are exercising in their daily professions and in the 
various departments of natural ^ience. It is the Divine {din 
to leave our longevity here in our own power to the same 
extent in which he \m given \]a loom and license to improve 

T— T-yf ; ■*• 


IZK n. ZDBl. I* J :ri-r?ws -^ 

JaDpvrxup *-'Dii7:jh.u>:i — 
a? fc aecDijC ;: ir.r-.*-. j« .«- -s -:• ^ 

•*! .*w' 

r ar 

^- »' 


Dumlicr of tlie long-living iiuiividiMls, and in their pn^KRtum 
to the H'st of their contemporaries. 

It has been enjoyed by so many in full and continued health, 
with ao many Inxliiy aa well as mental gratifications — with so 
much active industry and usefulness — with the senses so un- 
impaired —with walking power and with undiminished intel- 
lect, that it nnist be deemed a desirable good — a benefit to be 
souuht for ami lahied — a blessing to be gratefully rccciTsd. 
Durability of body m no necessary consequence of it. AO tha 
stages of life after manhood are attended with a diminutioaof 
manly strength, as well as extreme old age, and A*ith seTeral 
bodily intinuities ; but infirmity is not unhappincss, nor even 
discomfort, as I personally know, and as thousands of old men 
will declare.* 

Dotage, loss of memory, imbecility, or defect of mental 
powers, is no necessary or natural companion of longevity. 
Neither of these aris<?s from any decay in the muid. That 
remains in its internal self what it was when advancing into 
the senility of iis earthly years ; and all the altered phenom* 
ena which it may in any exhibit arise from bodily causes and 
changes — from organical or functional diseases — from ossifi- 
cations, aneurisms, congestions of blood — watery effusions, 
lesions of parts or vessels — indurations, or other alterations of 
substance injurious to the nerves — inflammation or paralysis of 
some of their ramifications — ganglious or fibrous reticulations, 
or other causes by whici^ ihc communication of the mind with 
the external world, its power over its sensorial organs, or itt 
use of those of speech, or the connexion between these and 
its thoughts, is prevented or intemipted. In these cases the 
mind of the individual becomes confined to itself, and if li 
much withdrawn from the perception of others as a prisoner, 
fastened in a dungeon becomes lost to society, and is no long- 
er visible by It. Its concern with this world is then termina* 
ted. It has only to await its passage into the next ; and to 

* Another instance of efficient longrevity has jast occurred. ** Oa f7di 
January, 1837, died at Keimington the oldest inhabitant of Kent, at tbs 
ace of one hundred and eight. 8he was born there on S9tti ti^pcamber, 
1728 ; her parents were labouring people. In 1750 she married. Her 
Acuities were unimpaired to the last. 8be oould aarrale events wUA 
happened as flur back as 1747 with surprising accuracy ; and ber eyeaigbl 
was 80 good that it never required the aid ol spectacles. Duriu all M 
Ufe she abstained flron spirituous liquors. iDdulaiiif only in tea.^XflB^ 
m Herald, 1897. 


that, deakh miut be its conductor, and has been appointed to 

These Tiews induce me to believe that ^at are called or 
found to be the miseries or dotage of old age arise always from 
material eanses, extrinsic to our principle of life, and not es- 
sentially or necessarily connected with longevity ; but are ac- 
cidents occnning to it from external things. As such they are 
avartiUe or remedial by human skill and means, so far as it is 
the will of Providence as to the individual that he should or 
riiOQld not be subjected to them. The Divine will either 
laa'vea us to ourselves, or, if we seek its direction and govern- 
ment, will regulate for us what is most momentoiis to us, ac- 
emdinff to its own wisdom and purposes. But, reasoning on 
BatanTand human causation only, my inference from all that 
I have read, or seen, or felt, cannot but be, that the grievan- - 
eea of old age spring oftenest and principally from previous or 
oentiniied wrong habits in ourselves, which have disordered 
some of the functions, which affect the vascularities, or which 
hkfB injured or o^iressed the nervous or brainous system of 
onr firame.* 

If tlus be Uie fact, then, so far as it is operating, the evil 
operation may be checked or lessened when our knowledge 
nd diecemment have discovered and can apf ^.y the available 
eanectiTes ; and tiie benefit which they may impart, our in- 
and sustained self-government may for some time 

* A drcaoMCaaoe appears in our periodieid papers while these pages 
■a arqiariiif tor the press, which illustrates the actioa of bodily causes 
aa ttM mind, and the beneOt arising flnm the removal of the depressing 
■Msr. M. Nobil lately read a paper to the Medical Society at Ghent on 
tts adbeca of the loss of a great part of the substance of the brain. A 

^5, of a gloomy and saturnine disposition, and of a limited degree of 
Itgenee, Ihncying that a c^rl to whom he was attached was deceiving 
Mb, med a pistw ^th two balls at his own head. They passed out at 
dM same oriflee, and with them a portion of the brain sufllcient to fill 
Iws ■ M demtely-sited teacups. He became immediately insensible ; but 
h twenty-Amr hours recovered his consciousness, but with loss of sight, 
■sell iay, when the wound was dressed, portions of the brain came away 
«hk dM dressings ; bm by the twenty-eighth day the injured part was 
lied. AAer the healing a surprising change took place in the charaA- 
' of cbe ymith. Instead of being, as befbre, gloomy and taciturn, he 
I Uva^r, intelligent, and talkative ; and suggested a variety of im- 
snts m matters which seemed previously beyond his comprehen- 
Bb dkl not reeover his sight, but liis other senses remained intact, 
Ji tte lossof eerebral substance amounted probably to the whole of 
the fift antertor lobe of the brain. He survived the injury two years^— 
Ntw Montblj Maf., 1837, p. 144. 

ooiiilMf of ibc bn^nng indindiwli, W>d 
w ikt rM> «<' tbeii nmtFnipi 

with M nan; baditj ■* <*«U «■ > 

pai h Mtin imdiutn und i 

inip<ili«d— nilfa mlkii^ p 

lact. thu it muM be deesu 

Wught £» ud nlaed — • Ues*iBg IP be g 

DlMbilitT ofbod. is 

«tgt* of Lie thai at 

bodili infin&iUes ; but infinmlv u 

, JDaUge, Idas of n 

NeiUwt of tlwM « 

tbe Hiuiii^ of i:i euthlv fMn i and •■ tb« ^ 

En or;fuucai or 

toUCKW of pun 

•nbaUiKe miiDious lo ihe 

soma of then saii£f ■[ 

or <k)ki ctu*e> br vbi 

ibe uURul wotid, lU pomi otn 

im of ihoic of 

ill (tuui^ci, ii pr^'e 

mind Dt ihe uHiividu . . 

much vilhdnwn faam the petcepliMi of «■ 

baUnrd In ■ dungeon beconiis kin lo ■oclMr«4 

•r Tiaihia b; ti, lis toactta nilh ttiii •redd l| 

led. tl has ool; Is 


or TNS WOKLO* 2S1 

IriiMprjr «f III* w^^ i<« ^n, tht$ thfum ffttf* 

rn l^ w* «^ ««« if^^riml iMvftf^-nM unttuttuUif HtA 

4p«^ y* U^, tm tftitt will 4t9^ilUt ; t>iia i)i0ty ntn 
t u^nf tttur*. u^^i, itUiMMt tt tttA, nuiiM *itiiv»frmi\y, 

mU^y w*« «f«w r«M| «// t|i«n/ tntdhXy hiM it^mn^. Uttij 

t^i^rt Ut^l ^Ift^UMt %0tf \i»i %tA <l// Wfrtt \tk »m%^ 

f*« * t/ttitnuuif-iAmttt^ Imi M<* fl^rft^, )f« nil ^m u^ 

«^/i' r^ »ry| 'iMffirftf v<^fi t^/ hfM ntiA uH m f^m" 
fte, f«.« Tf»,kt^.m, tn rr*«/iff^«« u, «|| wl^/ f«ii/J wf««t iuut 

l«i«^.;/«« ^*fif%t .n ipIi iIm- H«/ f«-4 Wr<tfr(|f« M*tm 
ma • tf/.«- |$g( wff^.'i l4«r f|i«^ l//*<'4 hi« ytifjMf^^n utA 
M^ 'f^/ w**** **m%^*^M %tif^^T%\t\y vftth *9*sr »»m 
f Mirf in$u^rt**tity litn iuX'trm kttif^ftn, i}m fttHUi 

•Jb#- •!#<■ •««l«: 'n «/f«/ «'f«*<^ir'«' «4 iMM/y *« It Wfll Im 
t>A fMV.U ; V/ •/i/yj/' (r«^ <^«'«» »/4/l yi4rw«, Hfi/t t// im> 

fwntf*u*y *A '^»' ttMt'if*- : f«^. it Uitn 'y/«l4 fi'^ lA itt»>- 

UiU^^tt. i*. «•« 'ii'l^ t« f^/ *^V7i (r<Ar/i Hi* ytu^.t^ 

w* w«^«'. Jfi '/"'f 'j«';*l «'«''', t:uuiitii[ ktA *AUrtAtttf^ 

4 Wtj./ ft «'/*>!/) MtMk*: U'tUtHtt UHi*$t^ f/U^ft<ffi;f I// t\% 

K 'I i«t« »»4 w»« *A*0nn9*A §1 «'/*j/Y*A («/f . *ri4 i»f««( 
I •« •/# •r.*' •jf*'*'7 •f*^ •iffiuy *A tr** H//Jy f^fjt //fi 

tfj. «) m* jt^m in A *»/tiUrtti^ *o 'i* *r«^ f ;b/ • *k*j|i* $$uytu 
m <««» i.**-i/«> \fi**','^'^J 'A *f^y i*Ai*.^:mI tun A ; *mI 

'I'hcsc considerations present to us one vast aan 
lengthened life, to which cvexv one may make it c 
and which attaches to it a value so inestimable as 
object for our earnest desire : tliis is, that the longe 
the more improvements we may acquire in our pin 
of being, and the more advanced we then shall be in 
grcstiion and melioration of our nature to which thi 
Cliristiuu teachers so emphatically invite us. 

Age and longevity are peculiarly favourable to thea 
and have been designed to be so. The stimulaticmi 
passions and ap[>etites which in younger life create 
between inclination and duty, have then ceased a 
feeble, and are more easily gov(>med. Our impul 
jects, hopes, and activities have subsided into sober 
and ex{>erieuced judgment. The world around xu 
much of that enchantment which so much fascina 
first novelties, and in the delusive expectations wbi 
cites. What we have ardently wishcid v.c have by 
attained, or have relinquished as eitl^: unattainable 
sirable. The mind is therefore less aj^tated and ( 
80 much of its term of existence here lias been pa 
our common sense becomes our counsellor to 1< 
steadily on our next stage of being, and to be doing 
will most tend to make that safe and comfortable to 

But when these feelings and thoughts really pre 


!• it out of tht gmtott bleMugi we can receive. 
«Me of the '^TjenU** intimates that the greater 
Bonts we acquire and uae in this life, the grander will 
■wdiction conferred in the next.* 


■to Oc Sf«te tftke Mmd mt tk* Timt qfour BmrtUjf IVef*.— 
tkt Indtca/wnu tktu gtven of the Immartmtttv qfitw yalure. 
iraf ivr Incident* fntm Uu i)^tmg Moments ofmanp Peraons 
' ItMa duttn^ukei. 

DC At Son, 
derinff our vital and intellectual self the spirit which 

I thinKS in all that we are ronsciouB of, which acta in 
ire do, and which constitutm our individualixcd per- 

to be an immortal pniicinli' of being — wc may ez- 

only tltat longeTity Hhoulu not im|wir or diminish it, 

death should also be unable to destroy it. Death 

only a mrdium to a new scene of life, as birth visi- 

II will be congruous with the eternal durability of our 
that, both in the roinmenrcment of its entrance into 
It drama, and at itM rxit in the lant seme of its ap- 
>, it flliouid give Hoino tokens of its imperishable e»- 
jid indicate that it w its4'lf independent of the ap- 
ig mortality of its muted but temporary body, 
certain what im tnie on this interesting point, I hare 
d the state of individual minds as their last moments 
had, as It has been described, to see what information 
I drawn from it that would illustrate Oie inquiry ; and 
ibnut to your consideration aome of the most remark- 

wtU bs gratiOed by a paasas e ia Sir llomphrey Davy'ki Iccier 
Us ssrly bonw fhends. '• We can iraee back our einlMMe 
' a puiat. Fonnsr (ime prewnis us wiib i rains of thoufbca 
duniniatamf lo nothing. But our ideas of Aiiumy are psras^ 
aading. Oar deairee and our tio|m. rven when moililled by 
, assai 10 grasp at imnnasiiy. Tbis alone would be nofltelMU 
ha reo m » -^ivkmbm of oer natarc ; and itaal (hia liiUe aanJi ia 
Ik Avai whirb w» start lowarda a narteuna tbai Va ^iMiiAa4 
•M9^. '*-^A'. IXaiTli MhhM or Id! BradM, ^. \ , >. Vii^ 

264 THE flCftSD HISTOEr 

•bto of thoM which biTe been ddineated to w with nAcW 

Mt fint point of inveitigition has been to know white 
the dying individual has a percmtion or a feeling that he ii 
departing from ut ; and from what I haye read and heud, it 
appeari to me that, in general, bowerer near death if, be baa 
no aenaation or belief that it is ao ; but that, even when ha 
tbinka be is in that state, it is an inference of bis jndflMOl^ 
and not a feeling in bis intellectual nature. This resut cor- 
responds with the soul's essential immortality, and ia ateiti- 
mony to it. Being an undying principle of life, it nerer fodi 
itself to be actually extinguishing ; but, on the contmy, wbn 
all ita friends bsTe given up every hope of its surviving kngo^ 
the dying peraon does not think he will die, but has the upa 
of recovery till all visible sensibility and life have ceaaed. I 
have seen this on deathbeds which I have attended, and I be- 
lieve it ia a common fact in those whose disease is coDsmB^ 
tion, that they are sanguine of their restoration to the laat 

Mr. Gibbon exhibited this undying feeling of his mind it 
the time that the agency of death was upon him ; and the d^ 
before it closed his earthly life, he expreased his bdief thrt 
he should enjoy it many years more.* 

Mr. Pitt expired on the 23d of January, 1806, in bis fivty- 
seventh year, on the anniversary of the dsy on which, twenfef*' 
five yeara before, he had become a member of the BtitiA 
Parliament. He went to Bath for relief when hia fatal iOneai 
came upon him, and returning to Putney HiU, wrote to thi 
Marquis of Welleal^ a letter eiqpressing his belief that hi 
wss recoveriag.t He received his noble friend with the an- 

* Lord Bh$tUM Ml him on tbe aflsriMon a€ the 14th Janeaiy, 
and menUons that, ao the next day, " at one o*clork, he reeetved a vM 
of an boar (hmi Bladaine de Bylf ie ; and at three, his flriend Mr. Cn«- 
flird called, and atayed with him till five o'clock. They talked, as aiari, 
on variooB subjeeis : and twenty hours before his death, Mr. CHbkM 
hamiened to fUl into a oonvemtlon with him on the probable danalaa 
of It A. He said that he tbougbt hhnteir a food lift lor ten, iwelTa,flr| 
perhapa. twenty years. Ahont aix he ate the wing of a cktdMO, aa4 
drank three glasaee of f^Iadeira." He died eoon after noon oo the fUkn^ 

Lord Sheflleld adds—" The valet de ehambre observed that Mr. Gib- 
bon did not, nt any time, ehow the least sign of alarm or apprebcnelea 
of death ; and it dnee not appear that he ever thought himself m dsogw.* 
-4»6h0nVi Miacsll. Woika, vol \., v- 4tt-A. 
f Tb§ mai^nis has aitaclM& tUa uikxa loY^ ^JMt^^\soMNMfimv 

wms am:* He died m e fo 

WOBJA. 255 

ked BD Isebnir of e dveuuiiy death, al- 
coDvmced the marquit met it 
fem day* afier tiu» iener and tfar 
il m tfb %iinia from 'wul thai Mr. Pitt feh a* an 
_ would fed. UMHi^ tu» apini wac about u> be 
aepeiBted ham. iss faodr. He nad that ■eimtiOD of niaiitv 
iraieli iBmnlBd Mr. Pope when he infened from it hie own 

pUBtHMmMmm Mm Cji B HUU Ce.^ 

Ottver Ciuwui L, to hia laieat momenta, had the aame 
•tiODff ee—tinn of life, and would not believe that be waa 
nearnia depaitare, and ezpreaaed wannly hw conviction of 
fab aafetr to fab medical attendania. penuading himaelf that 
he bad uao a Divine aanction for his confidence. X 

Tbe Dnkfl of Toik, onr present aorereifu'a brother, in hia 
BMirtal ilhuraa. when all aaw that he waa dring. waa eo little 
tmmeuHm of being in that state from hia internal inqveaaiona, 

irifr. nit, phmtei la tbe ''Qnarterlr Benrw." No. 114. ** Pwaej Hill, 
tanday, Jamary IMi, ISOe.^Mjr dear Weiiwley— On mj- arrivsl kwe 
bar aif^ I neaived, with iaexpraMiblc jAeman. your motfi fhrndiy and 
l>ftfcMHHi letter. If I waa not ecronf ly edvind to keep out oT liWid e a 
liU 1 bavc a e quiiwl a little more etren^b. 1 would liave eome np ii 

dtaMlT, Aar dio parpoee of a*oing yon et tbe flni poeniblr momenL As 
kla, f am afnld I moai tniet to your aoodneee to give me tbe eitiafco- 
tloa af eMiag yoa beee tbe firai bour you can apare for ibai purpoae. I 
aai i w ai i af raiber alowly fmm a aeriee of atomacb oomplaiiitB. M- 
lowed hgr aevefe auaeks of fout ; but I believe 1 am maw m m mmf ff 

* ne nnrqiiia aara, ■* I waa received by biro with hia naoal klodi 
moA food-haiBOur. Hia apirita appeared to be aa bi|rti ai; 1 bad over i 
IhoH; end hia naderatandinf quite aa vigoroua and clear. But, nai- 
wUbataadfag Mr. PUfa kindneaa and ebeerfWneaa, lame thai tke kmmi 
mt4taihwaaM^ yfmt. Jkcm.^'-ib., 491. 

t ** la Hqr, 1744, Mr. Ptae evidently grew worae and more inflrm. 
Obo diqr be aaid to iSpenee, lam ao certain of the aoul'a bemg imrooiiBl, 
that latm to feel it within m«, aa it were, by intuition.**— Dr. Wbanea, 
qtMilire"lafif Houra," p. 923. 

X ■* After BiaUng bia will, tbe next morning early, Cromwell aaked a 
yamg phjadnn who bad aat up with him why be looked ao aad. 
When anawar waa made that a^i it became any one who had the weighty 
aara af Ua lUh and health upon him. * Ye pbyniciana,' aaid the pratactar, 
• tUnk I ahall die. I tali you I aball not die tbia time ; 1 am aura of It. 
Oaaoc tUak f am mad ; I apeak the worda of truth, upao aurer grouada 
dMa jear CWao or Hippocratea (tamiah you with. Giad Almighty him- 
arif brai given that anawer, not to my prayera alone, but to tbe pravara 
af Oeaa who entertain a airicter commerce and greater intareat with him. 
fle ea ebawrftiily, baaiabing all aadneaa, and deal with me aa you would 
with a aerving roan.'"— Bir H. HalfbnTa " Deatha of Eminent PerMma," 
bl 14^ torn Dr. Batee*a Elenehna. He died aoon after, ou Id Septambari 
UN^ dM anivenanr of Ida victory at Dnabar. aged flfty-nlna 


that, although apprized of the medical opinioD, yet ha thi 
that he was getting better.* 

In some cases the sense and i^^iearance of life become 
iHooger than usual as its union with the body is sevi 
This was the case with Bishop Hildesley, and I belieTi 
not uncommon. t Even many deranged persons recofsi 
complete sanity as death advances upon them-— a straqg 
cation that such maladies are diseases of the functioof i 
frame, and not of the intellectual spirit, and a testimo 
the distinctness and several natures of the soul and bod; 

That the mind retains and displays its full powers whi 
agency of death is decidedly operating to separate it fa 
body, just as a living and thinking spirit would do thi 
different from it, and only temporarily connected with i 
have abundant instances. I will only notice a few that h 
to occur to me. Mr. Burke^s only son died before his fi 
but in his dying hour manifested himself to be comdii 
his intellectual sensibilities and energies, t Mr. Fox aiai 

* He died 5th Jauoary, 1827. His laid illness came upon Min 
preceding sarnmer. At the end of December his legs resumed 
pearance of mortificaiion, and he was infomned oTthe fatal proa|MC 
eonflessed to Sir H. Taylor that he had not expected such an tasi 
am not afraid of dying ; I trust I have done my duty ; I have eadm 
to do so ; I know that my ftulis have been many, but God is m 
I bow with submission to his will. I have at least noc to repraa 
self with not having done all I could to avert this crisis, but I owi 
come upoq me by surprise. I knew that my case had not eeasi 
flree flrom danger ; I have been always told so, but I did noc sun 
mediate danger." On the 98th, after uking the sacrament with ta 
cess Sophia, Sir Herbert says, ** He asked me whether his pby 
thought much worse of him, for be rtaUyfdt better. ^ It was aoi 
day beibre hid death that he had the conviction c€ his approaok 
parture, when he sAid in a steady, firm tone of voice, *' I am nowi 
—Mr H. Taylor's Account. 

t He died in 177S, aged seventy-fbur. ** It is remarkable," ■ 
Moore, "that fbr a fortnight before the bi»hop died^ he was appan 
better health and spirits than he had been fbr some montlis nseai 
CUssold, p. 536. '^ 

t "In Jane he was returned to parliaioent for Malton, and an 
Irish secretary to Earl FitzwiUiam ; but consumption came rapid! 
him, and he died on the 2d August. On the morning of his dei 
lamentations of his father and mother reached him where he la 
rose fVom his bed, and desired his servants to support him towa 
room where they were sitting in tears. He endeavoured to entei 
conversation with his father ; but grief keeping Mr. Burke silei 
son said, * 1 am under no terror ; I feel myself better^ and in « 
and yet my heart fluttera, I know t\oi wYk^. vtv^ \aLk to me, sii 
of nAigion ; talk of moraUty ■, toUiit \t '9<vi^ "x^} oC VciA^&nwxwtf 

iil WWM Mi rM> IM -mill ••(•,' I «al«MrrikM 

)l »M M |rf i wi iwi< )|li.»(w«>»Minyli<W M ^y ^JS 
w *«tt •mTh* XTtMaTMwMnr. I« Ma lif 

p qsa ag^ ■" ■; ■"' ~~~.'- 


tenntion that death was coming upon him ;* nor tiw ^MOffiK 
of Bishop Lowth, whose spirit fled unexpectedly in a toeid 
party, t All sudden deaths accruing in the full enjoymait of 
mind seem to confirm the idea that the soul is uncoDsdooi 
of the impending change, because its own nature is uiuf' 
fected by it ; for although such events occur like an iostui- 
taneous blow, yet they seem not to be, except in the toddan 
rupture of a vessel, a suddenly produced effect. They n>- 
pear to be but the last step in a progression of moAmc 
causes, whose operations ought to appear in correspondii^ 
changes of the soul, if tliat was but the result of its bo^y 
composition. In this case I should eiqpect the mind to t€S^ 

sool and body, which nothing but long sickness could five. Be Ulai' 
trated ttiin by describing Ibe effocts which the inflrmities of his body 
had upon liis faculties; yet they never did so oppress or overpower thM 
but that bis soul was always master or itself, and slwsys resigsed li 
the pleasure of its Maker. As death approached nearer, 1m seenled s«M 
less sensible of pain, and more cheerful imder his tomnenca, which s» 
tinued till he expired his last breath.** — Dr. Johnson's Aeeoant of hill. 

* ** On Sunday evening, 14th January, 1753, he was with his tarifji 
listening to a sermon of Dr. Sherlock's, which his lady was resdhig* 
him. He then lay on his couch, and seemed to be asleep, till his dssgk* 
ter, presenting him with a cup of tea, first perceived that he was iai* 
slble. Some affection of the heart had seized him, and he ezj^red while 
his wife was reading to bim St. PauPs chapter on the resarreell«a,« 
which he made some comment."— Biog. Brit. Of him Bishop Anertsiy 
said, ** that he did not think so much understanding, so much lmowM|ih 
so much innocence, and so much humility had been the portloosf MJ 
bat angels until he saw Mr. Berkeley." 

t *' His second daughter, Frances, died as she was presfdlnf st Ifei 
teatable. She was going to place a cup of coffee on the salver. *1tti 
this,* said she, ' to the Bishop of Brisiol.' Immediately the cvp and hv 
hand fell together upon the salver, and she instantly expired.'*-<M- 
iners*8 Biog. The bishop lost his eldest daughter at thirteen, and pISBii 
upon her mausoleum an interesting epitaph. Hit own Latia ISBHt 
Isoder tlian Mr. Duncombe's translation. 

" Cara ! vale ! ingenio prsstans, pietate, pudore ; 

Et, plusquam nats nomine cara, vale ! 

Cara Maria ! vale ! at v«ile( fblicius flsvam, 

Quando, iierum, fecam, slm modo dignos, ero. 

' Cara ! red!,' Iseta turn dicam voce, ' patemos, 

EJa, age in amplexus ; Cara Marl ! redi !' ^ 

" Dearer than daughter ! paralleled by few 
In genius, goodness, modesty— adieu ! 
Adieu, Maria ! till that day more ble8S*d, 
When, if deserving, I with thee shall rest 
' Come,* then thy sire will cry, in joyAil strain, 
'Ob .' eoiae to my naieniaV «nna%t«^fv^" 

or TBI WORLD. 269 

md •drum to dstth which the body nnder- 

pn, as'dM thnrmometor indicatM •vary incroment or alten- 

M of Um tompenture. Nor can I reconcile with euch an 

the phenomenon of Dr. Maclainu boinff able, a« 

■8*ncT advanced upon him, ao ateadilv to aur- 

My il end the proepect that extended beyond it, and ao iiitel- 
I^miIt to compere and reaaoii upon theiii.* Thia was quite 
MMu to a aoul that waa only paaainf^ frotii one acenu of 
bilM to another, but would be unnatural, and, in my appre- 
hnaion, impoaaible, to a aoul that waa on tlie i)oint of pehiih- 
bf far ever with the ceaaation of the pulmonary roapiratiun of 
ila connected frame. 

Hence, when I And the individual in his mortal lK)ur actiiif^ 
wilk hie uaual taate and peculiar nowora, aa Haydn, unjuying 
Ui mueical harmoniee ;t or like Biahop Purteoua, diaplaying 

•■•dM at elgliiy-t^'ei hi Nuvambar, 1804. Ila had bam, Ibr flAy 
MNe, dM ntalaiarer Iba Knfllata Church at tha llaiaa. la hia laal 
■Maa ha mM, ** I Ibal Ihat I aw fotnf very gradually ; I shall not long 
hi fteie : I have alwara had a rellgiouM turn of mind, whirh has kept nie 
ftm hftd taMia. Whan very young I was Tond of attending plaeos of 
Mrirtp, and af feUif to nueriUa, baiag impraasad with the aolemnUy 

*| Iwva ee naln, and thoogh very weak, and dally bmoinlng more and 
■■• ee, yac tno fltaalttea or my mind are In a beiier siaia than thry 
two manilM age. I am now eoniempiaie clearly the grand scene 
di I eat flotfig. It apiiears lu my mind very ma|niflrent and very 
: all la bright, ihoegn I oay It with humble eonlleence and reliance 
I IMvlne mercy, through the mediation of my bleened Redeemer, 

I have alwaya loved too much to n«r that he should now (brsahe 

■Ml I lHlah almooc eanUnually of the aubllme objects in the new scene 
AH la balbre na, af ihe aocletv that I shall Join in that untried sute. 
Mi I fbil the aubjed very awfVil ; but It la a pleasing awe, arrompanied 
^Mk tlw hlgtiaal reverence and truat in a haavenly Father.*— Mr. Simp- 
maPu AcoDUni. rilssold. p. 4M. 

t Haydn dtad In May, I WW, about sevcntf'seven. When Napulron 
Meekod Vienna on 11th May, the French Hred I5UU cannon shot withm 
a fcw yaida of bla houae upon tha AuNrlan capital. Four bombs full 
dhaa la his haoaa. He waa carried le hla bed with a eonvulaive shlver- 
hH. On ttth May hla airangth dtadeMMd sensibly ; yet he caused him- 
aalr le bo carrtad to hla plaiMilbna.wid aang thrlie, aa loud as ha was 
Ma,*Ood p rsse r vs the Rmperar.* Whlla at tha piano he fbll Into a 
aMa of inseiiaibimy, and at laal aiptrad."— Uanbet'a Account, dtad by 

" h Is lataraailNg to know, lhat ha aald of hia greaiaM musical eomposl- 
im, • When I was employed upon the •• Creation," I fbit myself ao pen- 
1 with rellgioua fbeling. tlial betire 1 aat down to the planoibrta. I 
to Oed wMli aamaataaaa itai to would aeahto ■M%av>«^^^ 



hit mental Mnsibilities a few houn before he expired ;* or 
like Lord Mansfield, regarding the transfer of his ezistenee m 
but a journey to another station of it ;t or like Lady GI0DOP> 
chy, feeling death not only to be an easy change, but caoaqf 
pleasure to her as it approached^— all such facts are congm- 
ous with the nature and thoughts of an immortal prineipley but 
would be inconsistent with any other, and could not acenw to 
it. That age should feel like youth, as in Dr. Reid, who wis 
so distinguished as a metaphysician, suits a soul that, bdng 
eternal, can have no ase and no decay ; but is the retene of 
what should occur to tLe more temporary material life of a de* 
caying body.^ 

Another very impressive indication of the independent Mp 
ture of the soul, and of its uneztinguishability by the op&» 
tions of mortal death, arises to ps from the mrvaried preserfi^ 
tion in every one of the individual character of his living pe^ 
sonality to the last moment of his disappearance, aiM \m 
manifestation of it in his ideas and expressions, as lon^ u hi 
can move his vocal organs to utter anything. This is wfait 

* On llih May, 1806, the prelate, then seventy-seven,*' was atUsaM 
deMre removed to Fulham ; and, for a short time, the change of airoi 
sceite appeared to cheer and exhilarate him. As he sat the next mra* 
iof in his library, near the window, the brightness of a fine spring iKJ 
called up a transient i>low into his countenance, nnd he several tiws 
exclaimed, ' Oh ! that glorious sun.' Afterward, while aitlingat dinaw^ 
be was seized with some slight convulsions, which were happily of sksrt 
duration ; and be ihen fell, as it seemed, into a gentle aleqi. nam llM 
time he never spoke, aud scarcely could be said to nnove. WItbsil a 
pang or a sigh, by a transition so easy as only to be known by a snasan 
of bis hand on the knee of his servant, who was sitting near sin. Ill 
spirit fled to the realms of peace.**— Dr. Hodgson. 

t He died in 17tf3, in his eighiy-ninih year. Being rec o v s isd ^ ■ii> 
leal attentions flroin a state of insensibility, he said to Dr. Turtao, ** Wlf 
did you endeavour to bring me back, when I was so far gone os BJ 
journey."— Holiday's " Life of l/ml Mansfield." 

t She died in 1786, at forty-three. She freauently mentioned ber pn* 
suasion that her death was near, and aha uniformly exprsssed ber sstii> 
fhciiun and joy at the prospect. Her eosveraation was neveftbeless as 
easy, pleasant, and cheerful as ever ; almost her last words were, •* If 
this be dying, it is the easiest thing tmagiiMhle."— Clissold's Laat Hoois, 

$ Dr. Reid died at eighty-seven, on 7th October, 1708. Dngald Stewart 
say* of bim, " His ardour for knowledge remained unextinguished to tbs 
last, and, when cherished by the society of the young and of tbe ioqnisk* 
tive, seemed even to increase with his years. What ia still more rs- 
markabJe, he retained, in extreme old age, all the sympathetic i 
aod all tbe moral aensibiUty of ^ouUv. \u avvu«GA. suMuidQeas and 
//riiy or iNNiy, be resembled a maa o( slbjvs 


BsUa Uhi mUflW fHMiiMi irtvwig in dtuth, Mid at wliirh hn 

momm iiwuneMi wktiU:\mA (turn rralititw* Wluit Um iii- 
mI mind to mmI Ium Immtii in In* jmriiiruUr fhntutlut, himI 
Ig, Mid hsbiUi, hm m wlum Im «ta|iiffiiH, Uut nvitry oiin 
ooNi divitraltiiiv 111 liiM iwirvi simI iiimiIhI pnraufiailty ( hiuI 
Mil M« iImmh whif )i lib alwuya i'fiiilifiiiiii|| Mini iwa Mt> 
d Mid ri«Uiiiiid, Umy Hlwayii iM'nMti|iiifiy ii^^alwaya, in 
I •• 111 iifit. KmtH Iivh* wilh lliift Mill uiciilily, «vliuiii 
■ Mid diiititiKUi«lii« Ium Irinn all uiltrr*, mimI wiiirli niti- 
«i lii« iiidividiuil iuiimI ; ainl mrli iIm'n willi il, iiiiilimin- 

Mid tiiiar|Mriiliiitf Wk iliii Willi It •■ viri< lall a«lnr|i 
A. Wii »ImI1 at fint rimi wilii il (fimi tlm ^ravn, aM w<i 

MPilh il (foiM Miir ni|{lil tvimttf. Il lunii not, liki* iinii 
■irMiiiM at atrcMika, into iitlifift, IimI hi any Kititfiml ijiii« 
ly It v\imuuM hiH, liku tin* rlmini'li-on, liutii win I'liUnir 
Hily to aiHitiiiT, iifir, lilrn iIh* kiit<'iiiiiM'0|i«i, »|ii/In (funi 
Ofm Ui uilii*rii on nvitry «Kiiaiifiii An mmmi «» yoiiili ad* 
m Intii inaiiliood, yon Mir a onr-iiuliviiliiHlrliHrai'li'r^iail- 

UmttMii anil liiuiK it« frahirMi, mimI Mradily rniaiiiinu 
; iiiiUrKifiK, Imt mil lo«ni|{ llinii, wlmlnvi-r nninln'r ui' 
11 Hiay aiijH'ar in llm Iivihk Uniy IIimm-k, iI w« Iinvi 
hoilMiiMl iiillliona oi rofiii'iniHiriiry h-lluw rritntiirM on our 
, tlmrr arit •» iiiiiny ol iIimki <li»iiiirt, and ininiliar, mid 
iIAmI nulividuiililK'* iKil llir iiirin vimtilti iiimnoHiina ttl 
MlMit, uu tliit f'ldoiiri-ii rwyii on llin •|ifiiniin, nuivMiH mul 
ng into ••■I'll iillifr ■« w*i I urn llm julciii, tmi nIiIi1ui|{ imr- 
lilly within iia, Nli-r|iiiiK, wakliii;, inlkiiitf, walking, ami 
r 111 t» Wliitllirr wr mr iii llll■ln^«4l oi in ainiiM-inriil, 
itii« or aliroafl, n'liiiiiK nt Iimvi-IIihk, mi »ljt|i«, arnin-a, 
f vliliigft«i nr f'ltii-ii, Mtill ihm m-II nli-niily, iliia ronliniiinia 

* *'lMifiu« ' ill wiMilUii ' 'iwfiutd ■ Mini pnmA* *" 
W*f« ilifi iMl wiMAm iliai |MiMf N«ri-lMa nfiiilia. 
**Hu Ma nliarnilHg rliinl* tiNl HruMirl* larn 
Wrap my tuM llmlia anil alivila my UMmm flw«. 

ihm flMif IHrt. NM, IW fytCllinil. lIliHIfll UIM'a tfM4f 

Atti, Ni4iy. |iv« my aImmi ■ iiiilii n iT" 

** I |lv« aiirf I daviaa,** al4 KurlMi Mlil, 
And algli'il, " my Uhiki aiMl inirinMiU tii MM." 
•* Virfir ifMiNPy, Mf f "Mir nuKiay, «ir, wlial. all ' 
Why, ir I niNM," ilMH «»«|i«, " I gi«a tu PmnI " 

** IIM NiaiiM . air I'Imi inaimr ' lii*lil '" li» rrk4, 

•• Not UiM I lauiMiC |Mi Willi Hwl"- «m4 *«4. 


menUl peculiarity, this individual penonalitj, is in tad irift 
every one of us, indestructible and indelible even by oondL 
Napoleon, wherever he went and whatever he did, was atfl 
Napoleon, and no one else, and no other was NapolaoD bit 
himself; the same with Loid Nelson, Mr. Pitt, Mr. Fox, and 
every other character of the day.* 

The notes of the deaths of three men are before me, whidi 
confirm these observations by showing the distinct indindosl- 
ness of character and mind fully su^isthiff, bat iiiauifa s tiiy 
itself as various as their personal spirit had become, ton ill 
habits and employment during their respective lives. Thtm 
were Mirabeau, the first great leader of the French RanAih 
tion, Cardinal Mazarin, and Thomas Paine. 

In MiRABBAU we see the mistaken opinions into whidi kt 
had settled his mind, and his ruling passion — the love of being 
distinguished from others acting strongly Ujpon him to thcbiti 
or, at least, presenting to us a pecuuair intellect, displayiBg 
itself Quite different from its dying body. In 1791 oe WH 
suddenly seized with his mortal attack, in the highest tide tf 
his political glory. 

" His la«t effbrt, when his speech Ailed him, was to write oe UsfalUi 
' Death is but a sleep/ and a request fbr some opium to extingnirt Mk 
bis life and pains together. He added, ' Take away from my aiglit iB 
those fliiieral-loolting things. Why should a man bt; sarroanded try Ifei 
grave before his time? Give me flowers; let me have essences; a^ 
range my dress ; let me hear music ; let me close my eyes in hamMBT^ 
But this passed away with the return of pain ; and be once morseagmr 
required opium to end the struggle. The physician, to quiet his nls^ 
gave him some water in a cup, telling him that it was opitun. Hesffd> 
lowed it, dropped back upon his pillow, and was dead.*'t 

Cardinal Mazarin exhibited, in the last scenes of bis tuM- 
tious and successful life, a personality of mind as ^pprapriats 

* In all that Lord Nelson said after he had received hia 
the battle of Tnifalgar, we see his peculiar mind in all Its Ibellnfa, 
acter, and ideas, in action to the last. His practical Judimwot, ~ 

edge, and decision w^re as manifest In his latest word as In all Us riass 
and orders fbr the battle. When the hostile ships bad struck tiieir m0, 
and the ocean was agitating into tempestuous waves, bis dying order Mr 
advice fbr the fleet, expressed to his captain, was, ** Anchor, Haidj, 
anchor !** This single term displayed the flill action and intellectuaUiy 
of bis superior mind at the moment of his departure. I understood al 
the time fh)m nautical men, that it was so right, that. If what bo reo8» 
mended Jiad been done, more of the prixes would have been secarad ud 

t Blackwood*B Magazine, 1834, p. dS. How like. In one point, PDfini 

or THi woiLD. 268 

r, and mikiiiff ui individual ipirit quite unlike 
It of • mere generaTorganiKition of the rommon ma- 
rticlee of a human body. We have the following ac- 
him fron hia contemporary, the Count de Brienne : — 

il Maiaria wae taken III on h\a ratuni flrom tb* conrliwlon of 
of Iho PyrcnwOf wbirh rrownni hlo flory u a diptomaiM and 
Amvad ai iha liouvra in a dyinc aiatc, be ordered a $nnA 
ka pMpafad la Iba Ga«ene dni Kuia, wtib all the epleiidour 
IM. draparyi and gUdjng roeld baatow. Tba dacoraliona of iba 
■k Srvt. 

MMl 4a BrlaaiM aaya. ** Upon the alarm of lira I ran to the 
la of Iba rardlnal. and found bim in the arma of ibo captain uf 
•, pala and traniMing, with death in hie louka. ▲ eofieuiialioo 
I, and ibc phyaleian, Granaud, aaid, * 1 muei not datier you, 
«ur ; luadicina cannot cura you.' * How long have I to live, 
Two moiilba. at tba moat."* After iliia Hricniw adda. "()iia 
a In bka gailenr of palnliiic, M;ulpiurf,aiid lapealry, I beard bini 
and ronrealeo myaclf. fit: eiiiervd with a languid aiep, and 
AnHuanily, aa be caiiie lo diffrreni piriurae, be mouroftilly 
■MM leave tbia, and tbia, and ilila, and ail Ibcae, which tiava 
• mtitk. I am goiii| when I ahail no longitr aite Ibein.' I 
; Mp atfblnf ." ronnnuea Brienne. " ' Who in lliere, who la 
bM. be. Hi a dulaAil tone. I rauie forward, and beheld him in 
|own. iiifhirap, and alippera, willi death in bia rouniriianca. 
naeaiaur, wiih a letter fur ^ou.' * t'lnne lutrr, my friend- 1 am 
ik^lbat beautiful ('orreffio. ihal Vrnua of Tiiian, thni inriNU- 
Otiufti of Annibal t^rrarrio !— ah ' I niuet leave all iheaa. 
adeved pifturee ! which I loved ao much, for which I paid ao 
A day or iwii briitre hia draih he had himeeir ahavad and 
bki mualarbaa rurted. hia ctierk and lipa covered with vemiil- 
wbila paini laid on with etiual ahuitdanc4f. Thua made up. and 
bio aadan chair, left open in nroiit, h« made the tour of bia 

e Uat momenta of TiumAn I^aink wn have aKaiii an- 
Mjtel piTaoiiahty, aa iiiihkf ihr othrra aa two diaaiiiii- 
|8 can well In.', rihihitiiiff ita iiiti'llrrtiial aelf and ita 
;uliajity to tiie )aat, aiul tlicrrfon* aiirh aa a a4)ul, irtde- 
: of ita liodv, would (m*, but not wiiat an arrangement 
BOn matt4*r only roiild hav«> exhihitt'd. lif haa hren 
■d to ua aa )u* lived aiid died at New-yurk. on hia laat 
ion to Aiiierica, hy (iraiit 'J'horlMini, who viaited him 
the original rharai'ler from whom Mr. (ialt r4Mn|ioa«'d 
reatmg narrative of '* I^awne 'I'lxld " We have two 
a of hint iN-fore hia dying aeene ; (jrant Thorburn thua 
M hia bodiiy a|ipearance — 

M da Brianna'a Mamotra la«dilaa, cited la iba BrtlUb mi Vain&^ 


•* Ha WM tiM iiMMt dlwiMtlDff biiiiMHi being yon eoidd 
stracis. Throuffh the effec t of latemperaiice, bis oonntentnee 
ed beyond deocnption." 

He hns been delineated by othen to the eame pm 
from the same cause — a peraevering and excesuT 
apirituoui liquors. Mr. Tboibum went to him in hii 
and in the convenation said to him — 

" * Hera ftm ilt« in an oboean, onoomlbrtable dwdling* pen 
■naff and ■caBlBed witb brandy. Yoo, wbo weta the on 
WMbhigUNi, Jajf, and Hamiluni, are now deaened by evwy 
nd even iMMaUo DeiiU cro« the etieeta to avoid yo« 
■werad, itet ne eand noc a atnw fbr the opinions of the « 
pUad, ' i enry not ymr fbelbiga,* and so we parted." 

In a further conversation, Mr. Thorbum describe 
his own course of a regulated and industrious life, 
man of humble condition— 

** * I went to eboreb, and pat two cents into the plate. Ifd 
was lively, I beard him. If be were sleenr, I slept too. At 
rested my body, and roae on Monday morniag relhertied Ibi 
while otbera spent their moner, and on the Monday rose wh 
aebe, anaMe to work. Now,' I said, ' yoa see it was by I 
Lord's day that I came to be a seedsman.' I added, * That w 
ligion might do fi»r ua in the next world, it was the most pro 
cem a man coald fbUow in this.' He lotriced earnestly in n 
ssid he believed I was right."* 

Mr. Thorbum describes his last moments, from tl 
ation of the medical gentleman who attended him-^ 

'* It is not true that he recanted bis ft«e-tbinklng prineii 
deathbed. HIh phyaician, a man of good atanding and respec 
fbrmed me, that in the same hoar that Mr. Pains died ns 

" Mr. Paine'a complaint was ezcraciating, and ever, as iha 
ratomed, he would exclaim, ' Lord ! help I Lord ! lielp ! 1 
help !* He had then a (bw minutea' raaplte from the pains, 
stood by his bed ; saya he, ' Mr. Paine ! you have publlsksd li 
and we all linow year sentiments on that aabject. I ask jei 
msn who will be in eternity befbre one hour, Am I to nnde 
ss really calling on the Lord Jeaua fbr help V He tkougkt/h 
minute, and then replied, ' I donH witk to believe on that omk 

** Theae were hia last words, for in twenty minutes th 

* Grant Thorbum's " Forty Tears' Residence in America." 
ume describee hia gradual advance, by ateady conduct an 
fVom an immigrant without means to a respectable competent 

t Onn t Thorb^ , ib. I cannot but regret that the phyaician 
/Cite faestloo so roughly toYiVm^ Viva. mKMvvt wk caSkR^aiiAKfld t 
OUae •fcafno of hiuwa pt^ anAsias^nnsklkai wSA-'ra^mMi 

or Till WORLD. 866 

MM UAmiM of mn indhrviniil lAfmiHy of {'mnff miud, 
in itiirif, with intrllrrtnal tauten and fft^linj^fi tirlrmg- 
a«lf, ftml like nothmK whirh m*rrti rifrnrouH ]iii\p of 
I fibra, mmilv in til, rf^nkl dinplaf , afifieam in tmmn- 
nren ; in t^M rn\m antiripalion of hi a own dfrath, and 
ng UntiMffht for arifrthAr'a rvmfort, which u^f^tfHrrd in 
Am the |i«/«t ;" in the iiidiil|^nr.e and eiprfiinion of « 
taete in two oliftturer |KTraona ;t in t}ie efff^rt on a 
nd, in extreme iruiferin({, of a mnaicd atmri — a finelj 
ml Uf^f.ucy.l 

tm to «q Inrrnea ef lb«i Nrtlir f^tinpi Whfnll wem li^flnnlnf 
hhi Mm ir<!t ihi> rapljr, wrm (, m ii wrrf|. f^tnn hirn. ml her 
lr««<l of MwTiriff lh«ri a pdMitivn diMlMhrr •! ilwi'l wiaH lo 

IffTW mu^h a Wmn aham^, • ft^ar f»f human iamii, a^tfiafm 
htir fn«M rrU\en\ mnnH'ntM, w« havn an ln«iann» in Tbi«ll*- 
» wa« Ktpruihl in our own Ikinr* Utr high ir^mmm. 
ha wav'iri Dm arafPilit. hi* it«irifarMiiir w«« Dial of a man who 
'c4 to m^l tjftldly i)ir hir h«i hud iff^^rvM. Jin oharri^Kfl |o 
•criffiinala, thai tba frand i\nfmttim wh^ihar or wif Iha aoel 
irfaJ wodlil ewm im hoIvmI lor him. No iiiiireMion of hopn 
m . no hrraihinf of r«prfitan'-«! ; w *park or f rar» a)i|j*arMl : 

ntflii lifter r>ia M-ninif «: and pr^rdinf hi« *!xrrui)on, idAi^ 
4 tkml Ik' f»mn mpptunffd In vmirk kim wnn ««/r#p, Imi waa 
at ^tmm r«p»aiml7 lo fall npon hi* knHra. and waa iNiard 
railing 'ipfm f .hrial hi* M«Tiogr to havr nvntrj upon him, and 
him hia Niiia." Tli« IhtrUtt, vol. il , \t M4. 
mid nwnm ahow a ihtiihing aoul. difTrrKni from Itia hodjr, than 
kliidaof nindwi ih^i fMnii^ii and ih« brarailo 1 
rabb* dii^ Hih Fiibniarjr, IHM, in hi* a^vfnty. eighth yaar. 
anijr 'ifHi work ill. f fn ih« ni|lit IWorr Im dird lir naid lo a 
Iff who had livird long with him. ■ Now, In lh« nKKiung wh«n 
, m ymi to had, and lit Mhora do what mual lir don» ; hnl 
iMvllif ally you iMMda m*.'^ Arn. Hiog for |hn, p n. 
IrwHi. M hIa "Diary," rn'mwina. thai " fi«-wihw«iir'ii |a«l 
i^ * lUiea ma n^ a hfik, that I may ar^ agalti that aw^i prnf> ,' 

me ha iMd iitantMl " TIm «idMor <»f tli» " OhilriiMn'o May- 
a la Ihia " f.aal aummfr, llii Mtiiw f alM on a g^iiiJrmafi in 
flwrlw^ of l^mdrm. In wh'io^ garden wrrK •titn^ \mrtf. and 
fat . l m *'ti< of ririfip trrM. Tlir fiwrif.r waa lh«n in a d^rp 
4 aaldfmi tm^ tntfti hia h^d Ilia gardriirr mcntionfid, thai on 
on of Ilia pr^fflding Hnnday, h» had d«iair«^ to he dr^a^ftd, and 
I rkatr fi*ar Iha window, ilial ha iiiighi aii and m« hia tK-anii- 
irla. whirh grow naar Ih* lio*i**. and whkh *i« fmiktr had 

fjfiil. Mag , JtM, p 90 Unti ara filial fm-linga and r^oH^n- 
■B imrlirrlual a^fiaihility to a natural h^auiy, Inriplirahla 
ippoaiiig a firroraial aftd roniimml ifitnd 
Cain f)wrn'a voyage to thr nmni ut M'fUlh Af^ira. whrn \n 
ley, h' manilona, "f'a|ilain l^f^hm^rt;. of iha llo)al Navy, 

Ike otja^rvatory In a low fa*ar. aiid dufftnfl \)m hMJIA wva «a 
VM nm 0Mpmeuki to aurviva tiU Iba Biorn\iit. H* Wmma *•- 


This univmal phenomenon of a continued indiTidaalisinfl 
identity of mind ap{>earing in every one, peculiar to himself, 
be^iiiniiitr with hiH earhest consciousness, enlarging in its 
idt'as and fi>ehn(rH the longer he lives, and constituting, from 
tinK* to time, and at all times, his moral and intellectual nt^ 
turt:, charartrr, thoufrht, feelings, hopes, wishes, judgment, 
knovvli'd^c, will, resolution, and habits, which distinguishes 
every one of us from each other, is not accounted for by, or 
reroiuMlrahle with, the supposition that we are but bodily par- 
ticles ; that there \» no continuing principle of life and intel- 
luieiiri' witliin our material compound of these particles. 
They anr in direct contradiction to it ; they disprove such an 
hyi>utheHis every day and year that each individual lives. If 
we were nothing but the body, our minds and personal char- 
artcrs would be as similar to each other as our flesh, our 
blood, uiir bones, our systems of respiration, digestion, secre- 
tion, uiid circulation, our nervous and cerebral substance, vis- 
ibly and confeH8edly arc. Intellectual uniformity or identity 
would be the individual phenomenon of human nature eveiy- 
where, and not intellectual diversity and distinct personality. 

Nor could thiti mental individualization continue so stea£^ 
through life, as it does in every one, if it were not that of i 
one and the same abiding and continuous living principle; 
for all the particles of its bodily substance are every momoit 
passing from it, and new ones are as constantly accruing. 
Our need of food every day arises from this continual separ»- 
tion and transpiration of the bodily matter of our frames. 
Wo see this fact by the shrinking, and extenuation, and 
loss of substance in those who are famished, and cannot get 
the food which supplies the bodily want. Such a continuil 
mutation of the body is inconsistent with the abiding emigT 
and sameness of the mind. I feel myself, in my sixty-nbuD 
year, to be what I was in my ninth, with the addition of whit 

lirious. Every means were tried to calm him in vain. The aame im- 
patient, painail resilcssncNs prevailed. Captain Owen, Icnowing (Irani 
experience tliai singing floothes extreme pain, commenced tliat pathetic 
ballad, ' Here a sheer hulk lies poor Tom Bowling.* The first note pnh 
dured a cessntion of his phrensy. From raving madness be sank into 
almoRt total insensibility, which continued until Captain Owen came to 
the words, < His soul is gone aloft ;' when a long guuural sound an- 
nounced that hi» spirit was fled.*"— Owen's Voy., vol. I., p. 129. Here 
was mind excited by the tones to subdue the vancular action of the 
ftmctiou that was deranging it, and then releasing itself ftom its bodily 

or TBI WORLD* 267 

:m icquired. 1 Ttmtm\ter my idett und fvelingi 
fU u itiUMi of otlienn wlio were kI UmI time tbouC 
I iKiC wlwl lltey were tlietj. but I un now wluU 1 
he nentiil aiid irMipil fetturee which I ctii recollect 
•t tlwl emriy af(e. I can trace, iu diatinct recoUec- 
Jiie perMoiMl iiMJividiialily of aelf-ifiisnlity, tlie aaiiie 
rhara/rK'r, continuing aa new incidenta and ideaa 
duiK t<f It new nieana, and niateriala, and iuiprove- 
tml alumriK ita eaairnlial aarueniiaa. Yet, at every 
aa aiill only niyaeif, and not wh«t otiiera were, nor 
vluil J waa, nor rould we be confounded with each 
irankforifiird tnto i'af:h other ; and yet the carbon, 
1, the axole, the calcanioua earth, llie hydrogen, 
; other niat4;rial i:lenii!nta of which my frame waa 
were prMMmtly tl»e aame aa the aame aulMtancea 
Tlie Atflt'tf.uftin of ifai:h |M7raon*aclianu;ter and |>«r- 
ercfore, he wlMJly lit hia vital and thinkmf{ princi- 
u:i\ninu'/t |M-Fi-eivu% reaa<iriinK. and continuing 
I, eii«(niK \h:(otv hia l*oiiy waa made, acti^ in form- 
id in irivi'»tin{f itaclf with th«! orj^anizationa which 
»iiil<-fl ifi havi* lit It* human lio<ly. Jt waa made to 
iman life within aiich a frame, anil to kfe IraiM- 
fath from tlui wlum IIm' will of ita Maker inlenda 
'.ion aiMl <'mi|;ratioii of it to take fflace. Kvery 
' fiml an <-ipi:niiM'iit in himai-lf on (hi« atihjirrl, if 
olle«-t what hr wm and luia ronlinui'd to lie, and 
• Urfii one anil the mum lieiiig ttirough all hia 

•eta aecm lo warrant mid to((roiinfl i1ii'H4* remarka. 
mbal wati takfti by hin (aih<T Hamilirar to the altar 
I, ainl thi-rr iiM'l<', al th<r a^c of nine, to awear 
litjr a^faiimt l\w i(oiiiani«, the apiril of tlte body, ei- 
I w-Uuu, t:arri«'d it on, iindi mi mailed and unaltered, 
nf hia lift! 'i'hiH f-onlfl lie done only liy the aame 
nuing |M:rinaneiiiIy withm hia clumping material 

, riHanng ilii« tnflurnii«l rvmit in thm King AiHiorliua, Idd 
Vn ilia ratlii'r w«a nifrriiic •vriffno lo Ju|Miiif. ja«l balbra 
iiiifi H|i«ifi, lir, lirifig ilirn iHii iiiiM yr^rm tdt, Mimd naar 
i«f. Whrfi ihii liiwitiifi* nttdnHtKt niaa w«f« mi4mI, lla> 
f rfHniii4fiiM ili« rr«c lo tritn, i*«ll«i4 fai«N Ny lo htm. ca- 
tk*^ htm tf lit* wfmid aiirn4 turn lo \Im mw^ . i a iaaa V i> >H _ 
tMtm, aod /a^Maimi llui Im IMIJM fi «iWk«h»< 


All the sublime feelings, hopes, and aspirations which hnt 
accompanied so many enlightened and pious Christians to 
their last sigh, indicate, with an impressive certainty, their 
interior feeling of the undying nature of the departing roirit, 
and exactly suit a being whose life the mortal death will not 
extinguish, and appear to be incompatible with any other 
character of it. I uo not see how we can have stronger de- 
monstrations of this its unperishing quality, than all thowcir- 
cumstancos — each varying, yet all leading to the sams con- 
clusion—even considering tnem only as so many natonl snd 
experimental phenomena on this point, as a mere peychdogical 

An immortal soul would thus feel, think, and act, as its linb 
with its bodily compound were separating ; but not a namden 
thing, which was nothing else but its material particles and 
aerial fluids. The facts suit what we believe to be the tiuth, 
but are not suited to the erroneous supposition. Dr. Beattie*! 
death is an illustration of this remark ;* Mr. Halyburton's foeI> 
ings, at that time, seemed to him a proof of his immortali^.f 

The extreme pain which some suffer in this separation oif 
soul and body which death effectuates, leads us to the same 
conclusion, because it proves that an intellectual personally 
retains its acute and full sensitivity to the last moment It 
feels often, with terrible agony, in the very gripe of death. 

natural to children, his fhther led him to the altar, and eofflmandsd lila 
to touch the victims, and to swear that he woold never be in flrisaiilrif 
with the Romans."— Polybins** Hist., 1. 3, eh. 1. 

* In June, 1776, this eminent phyifician was sdsed with a parslytic 
stroke, which proved fktal. The night he expired, eon versing wtlfe Iki 
lad his servant who was attending him, he said to him, ** Teng wm, 
you have heard, no doubt, how great are the terrors of deallL Tkii 
nifiht will probably afford you some experience : may you leara aodasy 
you proAt by the example, that a conscientious endeavoar to psrlbra Mi 
duty through lifb will ever close s Christian's eyes wilk eomfefft Sii 
tranquillity !**— Chalmers's Biography. 

t The Rev. Th. Halyburton died in 171S, sbout thirty-eigbt As tfei 
event was advancing, he said to a clergyman near him, ** I think, fersib«» 
my case is a pretty (hir demonstration of the immortality of lbs sssL 
If ever I was distinct in my judgment snd memory in my lift), it wsi 
since be laid his hands upon me. My bones are rising through my skis. 
I am now a witness for the reality of religion. This body is going sway 
to corruption, and yet my intellectuals are so lively, that I cannot au[ 
there is the least alteration, the least decay of my Judgment or roemory.* 
He repeated, that the vigour of his mind, and the lively aetinn of ui 
ypirit aAer God and Divine thinn, when his body wss so Tow sad 
painedf were a demonstraUon u» \iiiii tit vYa serai's lnunortalit7.~lls* 
aatn ofPmCeator HamiLum, EdUu, Y1\&. 

or TMS WORLD* V09 

Mr. Canninf diod in agonjei of thii tort. Af the d««tructiv« 
■iuuiaiKm iocnMiMrauDon him, hi* skrieki w«re liiftrd evun 
m Iht rtnrt, •■ I wm inforined iit Uie lime. 'Jliis nf^Jii ror- 
!• with the uiidyiiiir nature of t^ie miuI ; thit, as tuch, 

■Ml feel p«in when liie rauMs of ymm act upon it, «« much m 
ttf dying IB in it* vijjoroua hour, but not tliat which \utn no 
tnalMicc IB a p(?n«niality ; no aelf-identity, no rontniu<'d Im;- 
l^g, but ft m<;re aucrfnaion of t}ie rovuita of a nialfnal arranf^c- 
■MOt Thua, both the pleaaurf; and thi: paui which are frit, 
M dnth ifl iwrting t}ie union between our aoul aiMi ita ror- 
porral niit'haiiiani, atlnat ita immortality aa forcibly aa tin; ac- 
Uvitie*, firehnj^a, t^ioughta, axKl aitpirationa at that tcrniiiialion 
«f our earthly aaaociation. 

That tlie arjjaration and df'|»arturp of t}ic aoul arr involvird 
io DiyatMr whif.'h we cannot clncidutc, ariM-N from ita invitti- 
bdily. What we cannot ««•«; or fi-cl, w<* cannot d<'M'rihc. 
The dtfcoinnoailion of the IkmIv in thi* only certain evidi'iice 
to ua thai tiie nrinciple of life iwa left it, and thia la dcciMivD 
to prove that tlie aoul haa left it ; iM'canafj it in a ri'inarkahle 
iacC, t^iat, aa lon^ aa lifit ia in tint Inxly, ita diMKilution cannot 
lake phM:e. 'J'he vital encrffy rcHiMta all tin; df:comj>ONinK 
iCrrto of tlie iwtural aitcnctrn which mirround iim, an luity aa 
it ii within our fram** ; but, from tin: moment of ita dc|iiirtiii«; 
fPMD It. tlie diaaiilviiiK caunfa, wltOM* action tin: iiriix'iiilc of 
Ua had auapeiidfd whiU* wiihm thir iMxly, bf:|{in immcmalcly 
Io operate deatructivdy iifjon it 

Al what lime tlie animatiui; afMrit qutta ita niatfrial orj^ani- 
nliOB wo liave no cfrtam knowledge. 'J'lie laat Kaa|iiij|{ of 
ihi breathy or tlif* ultimalf; Mi^h, M-cma like the M'fiaration 
whofO they take |ilaci' ; hut in many thcM* arc imfH'rci-ptihlf;. 
TwocjreiliiiataitrrH iimIucc meU> ihink (hat the total reanut ion 
of all functional ad ion aixl iiiM>nailiility, which are uaiiMJly 
doemed Mid uanally are tliit actual death, may not alao he the 
•uianrtpation of (he N|/ifi( Oim- la (he uneiiH-ctiti reauM'iia^ 
tton of Hf)m<f in their collina, alter every mark of a ceitwin 
damiae, which proie«l tliat iIh* aoul waa Uu^t-Tiun within, not- 
wiUiatandinn iIm* apfMrent di-alh* The oiImt fad in tin- rcN- 
loration t/i life, a vi ly rare iiwidenl, yei which liaa iM-cahjoiially 

• I rainrnilfrr my Taih^r kliimmg ni^ in tlip airiv-l a man to nkiirmi 
tkim tmA li a !*{••' (ird ||r hmf h vioirni aiiilimafM- toufh ali«-r tiinrf-i-ovi-ry, 
Whtrk wmm mkmking hitn Mrlirn f aaw liiiii, aiid «a» awiiW^ \« 
' iaitf Mtf aiMi M iua cf^Hfi ler aum Aava ha ^«i| anei% w^e*^*"*. 


occurred, of a criminal who had been hanged for the apoomiai 
time, and who seemed to be a lifeleai corpse.* In botn theM 
kinds of cases the soul loses wholly for a time its conscious- 
ness, and all its power over its bodily senses, and yet has iM, 
therefore, left its bodily tenement. The precise moment of 
the spirit's leaving its body is therefore as little known M the 
exact time of its uniting with it. Birth and death axe tliko 
mysterious and inscrutable. Pain from earthly canse ^ftui 
to cease entirely when the latter has completed its igncy; 
but we have reason to believe that pain is felt by the Mamg 
being oven before its human nativity, f 

I will add a short statement of three more deaths of distin- 
guished persons, which concur with those before mentioDed 
to show such a possession and action of their intelleetml 
principle of life as mark it to be a personal being different 
from its body, or at least as thinking and acting precisely ai 
if it were so. 

Gbnbral WASiiiifOTO!>f.— " Tie died 14th Deeanber, 17W,is kliriit|^ 
eighth jmr. On the day before, while aUendinK to aome hspiiiiiSMiili 
oo hia eaiate, hia neck and hair became wet flrmn a slifht rria. At 
night, an inflammatory affection of his windpipe came on, sueeeedai bf 
Aver and a laborioua reapiration. He waa Med in the night, asd la Iki 
morning three pbyniciana attended him ; but before midnight, aad ti 
about thirty-five boura IVom the time that be waa iu hia u»ual haslth^ hi 
expired, without a atruggle, and in the perfoct uae of hia reaaon. 

" After the attack bad come on, he thought it would be ftial. Bi 
submitted to the preacriptiona of hia phyaiciana; but after a trial ef their 
remedies, he expreaaed a wish that he might be permitted to die wiiheot 
Airther interruption ^ after hia power of deglutition waa gone, he vn* 
dreaaed himself and went to bed. to die tflero. To hia Mend and phyii- 
cian, Ur. Creik, he aaid. ' I am dving, and have been dying for aooM 
time ; but I am not aflraid in die.' Hia biographer, Ramsay, adds, thai 
he aubmiited to the laaue * with the dignity of a man, the calmoeaa of i 

* Mr. Green, in hia *' Diary,' baa noted an indlvidaalla IbellngB is 
whom thia kind of death waa beginning :— ** 18M, AuguaC 3d. Walked 
with Feain round the Gave. Feain aaid a friend of hia had Inquired of a 
peraon who had been turned off, and cut down on a reprieve, what hk 
aenaations had been. He answered, ' That the preparations ware draaA* 
All beyond all expreaaion. On being dropped, he found himaelf midat 
fields and rivera of blood, which gradually acquired a greeniah tinge, aid 
imagined that, if he could reach a certain apot in the aame, he abmild be 
easy. Heatrugeled forcibly to attain ibia, and ^t no more.* "— GeaL 
Mag., 1834, p. 475. 

t Thia inference la made fVom the uncommon circumstance related ia 
1700 by Dr. Derham, from hia own examination, to the Royal Society, 
Mad printed in its ** TranaacUona." " The child cried alrooac every day 

/br Mix weeks before delWerr, and ao VouA \teai M«m^ \%%iMidlB tfes 

aext roMn.*— FhlL Tfsns , n», ^«^. tuw\-^>. «^ 

OP THK womu). 271 


Dr. Pau, Mi Manfc, ISO, ^ftd •r*«nC7'ti<bt * tk wm m ^ Imi 
nrane tad pladd ; calmly, even dMcrftally nmgnnd. E«wi in Imi Inc 
koon it Mmnd m be etill We driifte. « ir had tam m Im pruw ui^ 
10 n^fi ikfMgh the wfeole ce oip— i eT ite racmMi cnafaAO. eeiftneuic 
wicbjo fcfai fchweif itaMflMe and wiabca, tli humeA iwnufi . eiut .nf«r' 
«iliii|f hiweelf !■ every eveat, in every part of rbe iver^it, wiu'A wvn a 
ftrawabla aa|Mei lowaidi buman impmv«menc and haiMn aafvaMaR. 
Bama nliiale diaetiaaa reapeeti»f bia foneral."— fa.. M4. 

fiULkRE, ao diatinniabed far bia anauMBuai Md MumM, 
dM ItUi Dec emb er , 1777, ^cd aixiy-n'.rw. * Eq: a fir* da?* VtA^re Vji 
deatb be eoiployed ttiOMelf in bin fav^Mince ^Mnparum ef mtcmdiiar a^i 
worfca. fa tbeaddatafUagicacaaflfennfa h« potrbelaiabinf bae«lia 
Wa pbyaialefy. la taia laai maaicnta ha fnplaytA hummt ta taa/u.aa 
Oa decay af Ua onanai Be Me but potiw fma uriM tn lbm. i.ii b* «eM 
«D hta phyaician, vnib gieal iraw^nilhry. • 3f r nn«n< r»i« %rwrj m» MafMr 
taata r and immadtaiely expired. *^M«aL eT Haiicr, CbalaMfafa iHaf, 

Mr. MalUHM la aa iaeiaaee eT deacb advaaeiof on rbe bndy widM« 
Cha liitellectiial nacore baTiaf fbe l«aac eanaooqancea or fwfmf ibat 
a«eb a calaaf repbe waa appnaebinf . H la mind bad a* fnmtptwm of ibe 
Mortal etaanfe wUeb Ua boddy flaaetkoaa «ere an^enfetaf, rev aii^red 
aatbairftlalacliaawaapfeiianDf. Tbeaccoantof u«a». Mr. Va:ibaa 
diad at Baib oa the Mb December, l^M. '* He ba4 jtmi «nf«re4 bM 
aaveattecb year, bat waa ia the fell enjoyment ef a;t bM feeafrNw. aad 
Ua death waa totaliy anexpeeterf by bia fruMida, He uA taadea abaac 
three weeka ago, on a vMt lo bia btber-in-iaw, at Kerb, .n good epinu, 
•ad appafcntly In atronf bcaltb. ar.bc«par ng a fb^erfo! f hrvnutam wab 
Ua children and ether membera of b-.« fbmily inviued t* mMt hiai, Bai 
he waa taken Ul eoea after bia arrival with a diaordcr of ibe bean, wbidi 
IB afew daya harried him la the frave.'*^Attiaa^ Idtb Jaa^ IfM. 


MmmHmi km ftwa cnmttd on the PrmdpU thmt 8Mbnatenee akmdi U 
mweniui to tkem.—inMtarue» aluneinf that tkU imu not on indu- 
jMiuaMf Cofidi£<oa of Human existence. — Bv<, kming been made the 
jLtaa ^it, we may be certain alwaya of a et(0kieiU aufft§. 

Mr DKAB Sydnbt, 
Having endeavoured to lay before yoa the principal facts 
■nd laws which concern our population, and the burth, life, 
and death through which it passes, as elucidating dte Divine 
plans and purposes which have hitherto been pursued and 
dJBctofd in them, ^Rre wUl now proceed to cooaider the 


system which has been devised and ettabiubBd far the vn^ 
siaTBNCB of those who thus come into being in our warid. 

Oar bodiea have been ao composed in t£»r substance and 
to constructed in their frame as to reqjuire this subsistence, 
as an indispensable condition of their ezistencv, in the manner 
in which mankind have ever lived. They mig^ have been 
otherwise made, but they have not. The mriginal deaign of 
their Creator was, that food should be as necessary to theni 
as air and warmth. He chose to subject tfaem to this neeen- 
ty, and so arranged their frame as purposely to compd them 
to seek and use the things external to them, vruch they 
would find on the earth, in order to exist upon it. 

But these external things could not originate from mankind, 
because they cannot create them. He who made them could 
alone cause this prevision to coexist with them, according to 
his primeval plan of creation. He therefore imposed npcm 
himself the necessity of accompanyinff the earthly life of his 
human race with a continual and sufficient suj^ly of the ex- 
terior aliment, which he thus made voluntarily and designed^ 
indispensable to them when he create mankind. He there- 
fore spontaneously, of his own firee choice, undertook to 
create also the subsistence for them which they would, from 
his selected mode of framing them, peipetually require. 

But he did not choose to create at once the millions of 
human beings whom he designed to constitute his earthly 
population. He did not bid tribes and nations spring up from 
the earth, as he commanded all the vegetables to arise from 
it. He preferred to adopt the plan of making onlv two human 
beings in his first paradise, and of preserving only six young 
parents after his diluvian revolution, with the law of such a 
gradual series and multiplication of offspring from them, in 
successive generations, as would place upon the globe, from 
age to age, such quantities of the numan race as he meant to 
inhabit it. He therefore formed his scheme of mankind on 
the express plan that they should be always multiplying in 
continual reproductions ; that every one should require a 
competent supply of daily food in order to keep alive; and 
that, as this must originate also from him, he would provide 
it adequately for them as long as he should choooe that they 
should continue living beings on this earth. 

This is the simple and correct auxi& o( \!bfc c^ua^. His sys- 
iBm afcie&tioa made the due pioVisiaa oi w^MaatoDA!^ Vino^ 


imI Mluni bi whirh Ha flUlkmiNj bin huimri iMfitin, 
iml p«rt of hi« tflun of hiiifiiiti tMiingv, mid nf tkair fifii 
M MiriMrtuftliv tfiiiluplying tM-ingii. Ily Much « |i1m 

wl Uw III Mich « i:r(fiilirin, thm mifftriitiil Utttd uluiuld 
riiMs Ui tht^ |Ki|fiiliiiiiiiiii thnt wi/uld miiit, Mid fur thtt 
ih«»uM iiirrKiiMf M llMijr did, kiul Im iilwiiyii in a con- 
st wi, mid tiAvnr Hi ft fAminuiiv.Utry otm. 
I» ffi MiKictiUlUfii 111 tlwiMi idnM ; itwy urn Um n«lu- 
iMUiiiM of our miuMm on mich a. nulijnrl. ( }ur i 'riiitor 
iiMkft u« Ml tluit w«i mriiiol nxiai without our (ooil. 
'jMi ttwl \m did not iiImi intrnil un tii havo it would 
d ; Init •« Wfl 8r«i not thir i^rniilorN of it, wm rould 
nly fnmi him. Il« niu»t, thitn, rr«tiiti- th«i |iruvliiion« 
Mrh Imi tuiv frftinnd un to iifci^d, or Im would ditfiwl hi* 
|fCMi-, mid iirnvfiit ilint huinmi riii'f from ariiiiiiK whom 
d to |N;r|f«iiiiiiA. No d«iliif:iioii of m'.tMtt.t^ tlicr«foriif 
I \m t Itfuror tlimi tli«f rirrlmnty tlinl ilm NulMiNtAncii of 

}«u IfM-n, i«, fend alwiiyii will Int, mnrfully •iiptirln^ 
lid «'omifri<'nily iirovtdwl, in tl»r coiirMt mid Nyatnia 
d naliir«r, in dim firo|Hirlioii to llw iiu»ilH*ni in which 
living oil lliK mrtli. 

t|ii« pUiiily In^forr you ii« mi frri'viatiMn InftirMiiift. 
iiuld Iw fimd «« ilif MtMndnrd |friiM iplii of your nilna 
niirh uiimlitkf.u Multji^< t II n wImi f:rttiil«'d u« to Ilm, 
ulti|ilv, Niid to nr<-d roiiUnual foiNl, miiat hnvii mimIii 
iMi of thft oim ii« tt-ruiu in il« o|H-rHlion nn th«i ayii' 
itifi otlifr KiliTiiiii fialiirn luia thcniforn lf«*!n ao 
mI, aa wrll •« our franif^, that thti auljatatiriicii almll 
•urtMlly and aa conalatitiy aiip|ilii:il hy tlio lawa and 
of nature which ri'lalf to iia, aa liy thoaa wliifih coiif 
bfidy It iM iM-r|HitiiHliy ri^|iiir<'d No oth*ir rofMiiuaioo 
1 nan li«i flrawn liy iUumi wlm )n-Utt*ti that w« am 
li« draiKiinl ntH\ dfliliiratti rriiation <if an intidiigmit 

ImH wilfully maliKiiaiit : for It la iin|iOMllilti lo au|t- 
. mirh a ('rnator woulil havn madit hla human rar« on 
I|«Ia I hat t\w lawa of ihrir iiitiltljfliriiiliNi aiMl of thiur 
M'«i aliall \m liiratilii and riMitrMlirlifry lo rmv.U frtlwr ; 
aliall iiH ifnmtt willi a ffi-oniftrli-al ra|iidity, hut that 
|m1 fo'Hl wImII Imi auifiiiii-d only Ify an arithnii^tical 
M, tt-rlmin Ut Immlnli and dtialfiiy i\tiMiak ^\m ^«(I«« VMp 
muJttffly mid ttUmudirti lo OftUA b» mmwimmAm* V 


tkms. All theories, therefore, which place the Uwi of oar 
population and of our nutriment in tlua warfare with eadk 
other, are palpably at variance with the sound deduction of 
our reason, if we have been made by a good and wise Creator. 
They seem to be only suitable to those who disbelieve in a 
creation by an intellectual being. I was going to add the 
ephithet benevolent, but I think I need not, for, as such an 
opposition of laws as the geometrical in population and the 
arithmetical in food would make the continuance of die hu- 
man race for a few centuries in^KMsible, no creator, who bad 
even intellect without goodness, apd meant to have a ccmtiih 
ued series of mankind, would have devised or acted on a sji- 
tem that was certain to defeat his purpose. Hence, at tlio 
very outset of our inquiry, the very veason of the case assures 
us that the laws of our population and of our food have nenr 
been incompatible with each other, but must have been, fipoi 
the beginning, planned, and put in action, and kqpt in actiOBi 
in a congruous, adjusted, and always accordant mamMi. 
What is required by the one system must have been appoint- 
ed to be supplied by the other, as long as human nature ii 
intended to be the inhabitant of its present earth. If any ooe 
call this enthusiasm, I think the fanaticism must rest withhiiii 
and not with those who make these natural and reasonable 
inferences ; they seem to be the correct conclusions from tiio 
authenticated premises. 

Such being, in my apprehension, the rationale of the sob- 
ject, how stand its experienced facts 1 We find inmiediatelf 
before us the deciding certainty that mankind have been li^ 
ing, and peopling, and increasing for above forty centnriee 
since the deluge, and have always found subsistence for all 
their multiplying numbers in every generation ; and, althood^ 
they have enlarged from six procreators into a thousand mil- 
lions that are now coexisting, yet these thousand millions find 
and obtain as much food as they require, just as naturally and is 
certainly as the sons of Noah did for their small number, llu* 
fact, therefore, fully corresponds with the principles that hare 
been mentioned, and corroborates and elucidates their tntlk 
There can be no enthusiasm in believing a visible certainty. 

But when, from our present day, we look back into histoiyi 
and inquire if there has been a sinffle generation in the Itt 
th&t must have been succee^vn^ eaiSi oSik&i since the renewal 
of mankind which periahs^ tKna >^ t^AMsoib^ \n^>iai^ 

or THJB WOUA. S7& 

toUlIf nafafMIe far tiie xmrnben wbo ivqnimd it. wr camxit 

&id one m wm idnk KneB. At no one }ieriod of pant tunm 

ham moA ■ wmah neand. be thai any pcnmiion wa* fan- 

isbed fina ^exr fcod not egnallinp tbr ntio of thnir nopiila- 

tiOD. Urn te geDBodtrical ratio ha« ne^cr rralizrd ita fa\-poUi- 

Mi% nor ever ncmD itadf to be nxpcrior id its oprration u^ 

ikat ai Iks wiliHiilihg power and means. On the roniran*. in 

efoj age, ibe Icwi of popnlation and of food have broii in 

conMsafc kuBDonj. ^^luoerer numhrr came, thoy alwax-n 

Itiaed d» food tbey required. The law« of naturr have never 

nmltiplMd tbe one without equally increasing the other. 

Tliis naa been the mvniably expehencrd fact, let the thot^ry 

'%e what it wmw. 

Oar bodOj nbric baa been derised and constructed both on 

tbe mj^tem of tbe necessity and of the supply. We might havo 

lieen fanned of unsepanting matter, h'ke gold or marl>lo. Tho 

-particles of oor bo^ mieht hare been as adhesive to eacb 

other, and as pennanently fixed, as those in the columns of 

tile Farthenoo, which haye lasted so many centuries, or thoso 

of the Yenas de Medicia, which damp and time have not dia- 

unHed. Oor Maker haa otherwise planned our being. He 

baa framed our coiporeal form on the scheme that, ilunigii it 

ffflw i iti wboDy of minute particles, and these at all times c<.v 

ben so finnly as to be solid enough to accomplish all tho 

Qperations in which our limbs are employed ; and for those to- 

Ict aa sabstantial masses, with great muscular force ; yet thn 

mne particles shall be also separable from their coliesion, and 

ItMt continual streams of them shall be daily separating and 

]iB8Bing away from us, through the many exhalent voHselH 

within us, and through transpiring pores, w)iich ahouiui on tlm 

mxAce of oor akin in a surprising exuberance. What he lian 

ttrna made to be always moving off, require, by his law and 

HdU, to be as frequently supplied by fresh accessions of nm- 

terial substances taking their place, and carrying on tlie sya- 

lem of our beinff. Our daily food is the source from wliicli 

the xeplacing and repairing particles accnio to tho pnrlH which 

want thraoi ; and a due portion of our vascular organization is 

erer active to carry them to their proper stRtions. Without 

tfaia continual supply from our arterial and chyliferous synterns, 

the body would soon waste into an atomy, and tho prinripln 

of life would depart from it. We need, also, tho continual 

dowvlopneirt and dilRuion of those aerial fltudswb^^ tom 


the caknric and the electrical : and these are duengaged 
djgeetne aa well as in oiir respiratory proceas. Fr 
theee and other causes which physiology will enlain ti 
onr daily natriment is indispensable to us. >^ e havi 
thus, wUh a deliberate and determined purpose, so » 
framed as to require it. It is not left to our will to taL 
forego — we must have it We may, indeed, live a in 
without it, in a pining, inactive, or torpid state ; but 1 
when we are in circumstances that check or prevrat tl 
halinff or transpiratoiy process. Thus a woman, i 
naked, lay buried for six days under the snow, and j 
being taken out, recovered.* A more extraordinary in 
happened only sixteen months ago, of a man entombed 
Calling earth of the coal-works where he was workBi{ 
yet continuing alive for twenty-three days without an) 
But, although he lived to be dug out in all his conscioi 
and recollections, yet his functions had been so much i 
by such a long absence of food from his system, notwith 
ing his enclosure, that the kindest care could not preve 
dying on the third day after his extrication.t 

* FUL Transact., 171S, vol. 28, p. 305. So a esse of unnaton 
eihibiied, in one part of it, life continuinf witbout Ibod. A li 
about twenty-flve, of a robust, flesby habit of body, ftll arieep i 
May, 1094, and continued asleep for a month, when he awohs ai 
and went about his ordinary avocations. lie fell asleep again' li 
and continued asleep fi>r seventeen weeks, during the laM nx e/ 
he ate nothing. He fell into a third fit of this somncriency In 1 
Phil. Trans., 1705. vol. 94. p. 817. 

tOn the Ml October, 1839, part of the roof of the coal works si 
Ayrshire, fell in, snd before John Brown, about stxiy years ofafi 
fee out, the felling ruins stopped hto passage, and be was ooofim 
until the Slot of that month, when be was restored to the llsfe 
Inviag pasned twenty-three days without a morsel of food. T 
•ubaianceo he took in this time were some tobar«o he had widi hi 
some strong chalybeate water which he found there. His mind rs 
quite composed, and he counted his time by the no^se the msa i 
their stated periods of work. 

** For the first snd second week he nnoved sbout In his glooa 
which was an area of thirty yards, seeking for some arenne off 
but afterward he became so weak as to be unable to reach his < 
the dissgreeabie water. The feeling of hunger left him abovt Ihs 

" When found, he was lying on his breast on the ground, nci 

tinet ; his extremities cold ; his voice reduced slmost to a whiap 

bit emaciation very great. He wetonA like a living akekttK 

bniber Jabourers at Aral eam.VouiJl'y mstaMtmA \^ ^wn^Mi 

m IMo biittn, Uiei fsve )kkm sMaa titt^iaDA^sa. tsv&isL 

JL "^s uiiut Hitf. ]im jif inr 
datta^ Mi m k* caBciniic; «x«aiL u' mr ikuir;, m mnb- 

Cdy M OTT villi ymgrgrifr j> vni uir uuciin iaoiK V^ 
f Amribn^ be cotHBi tbmi mr imn-janif ant auUiy irji^ 

kCiuoiiC '.1 iai'.:i vjMT. mi jm »> 
vaSL "am miiuit Miwiur.Hn 

m dnr mr <.«icw » aiwa i» mnuB 

Inmaa iicn. uuc ixiuiit. mil t-wn 

fc maun. hk.. viuiinc mujHf 

1* itt . aw JH iiBt ««:««:]. iL 

Mm* juMLdriur uuHmp*ik r< a. A 

VPQiCuc* an dSw: ^ I mmiwr las 

fUk cni in the Ihi eoAvv iiK»iM «& c^aaout tc 
te lived te fiirfgf me* -anrxioin «acBBv * 

AnotlKr imnee W • Iwibm utms' rrsig iw 

peetonl oc cu u eo oa, vsi, aunc: Zjojii, v. v^rrtc. sl » Hjx»- 
Imd e bgfibinl . Hcic we iue i:k: «n«c t ao6«n>:«i'T •rrre 

b^ aene confamirtor tiseK c^it^^^e z :ibe r.:cn«? 

]Lz VH sue fine 

mfcr Kid cr:«! {. •»£ Ij» torfDe e.caa 

M91M «f La rt eff^^^ttncw. tM ht 

UJceia^A after La Sibcfaboo.'— Ajt 

Ml 10 ikC VdfVa ftlKirtf . CSkd fTiRfCd hi thtlT ' 

WL **• iMBff WOMB ;a ■uMtlMW Mok 10 her bod, 

aai iht •» of iMT cje^id*. Bcr |i«s ilien becaiBe 

■B MBlCBUiee. In ihsa suie che had eoDUnved 

ite aeeMuit was drawn Dp. Her yarenu often 

iBio kcr nwBili ; flnc by ftirciaf optn 

Ifefoocb the hole left bj two of her teeih «vhich 

loawillowanjoriL At firat ahe draak 

' gave k Dp entirely. 9be did not 

Iwafi hi bed. bat after aoaie jeara got up, and eaipioyed her- 

WBDi.*— FM. Traaa., 1777, vol. 07, p. 1. TboBiaoD^i 

pi MS. 

rriaiad 10 the Royal Sorietjr. 
hi laktac cara of catUe in the Hif hlamik 
im. haak« BivtaMid UBMir hy 
Vol. niw-^A 


■ubjeet, beciuse they teach ns that there was no 
ceasity for making daily nutriment eaaential to ov I 
exiatence, but that, by aome alteration in our function] 
ciea, not perceptible by human acience, our preaMt 
form and actiona might have taken place witoout la^ 
any aubaiatence for their continuance. It followa, fam 
circumatances, that our need of continual food haa baai 
cially and puipoaely attached to our human life by tha '. 
for purposes distinct from our mere existence on aan^; 
being made ao artificially indispensable to ua, withoi 
actual necessity of its being so, it also followa that hi 
wise made it a special part of hia vjrstem aa to ma 
that their successive populations should alwaya have ho 
earth on v^ich he stationed them, and from the vegi 
and animals which he also created to be the materiala • 
nutrition, whatever quantity of them the wanta he i 
within us would require. Thus again the concluaioD 
itself upon us, that our population and our aubaiatea 
made by his established tawa to be alwaya proportion 
each other. 

He has acted still more specially on this point than i 
by giving us food. He has taken the same care of i 
numerous orders of his animal kingdom ; and birda, aor 
quadrupeds, fish, insects, and every other living creaton 
always what they need. He might have done no mo 
us than he has done for them. He might have ccHudn 
to the same kind of aliment, and left us to eat graaa Ul 
cattle, or what forests furnish, and dig up what roota we 
find. We see by the monkey tribes that living forma 
approaching to the human figure might be so sustained 
their liveliness and activity. But the j^enomena which 
times occur prove even more than this. An inatanc 
been mentioned to have occurred in Germany where i 
tnal human being, happening to grow up in a wild state 
habitually and tlm>ve in size by making graaa hia food.' 

tains, he drank exoeMively fhnn a spriny of cold water, ftll ail 
the spot, and awaked next day in a fbver. He recovered, bat 
relish (br Ibod, and, fbr biohtbkn tbaim afterward, he took ai 
noariahment than pare water, with now and then, daring acertatr 
of the year, a draught oTclarifled whey. Daring the whirie of lb 
Mb eantinued in kt$ rmptoyinnU, and enjoyed health and a ceili 

tho oracrmfth."— Phil. Ttana,, VI4a, -tA. «i,^. v&. T" 

* 7%is jAeDomaiKm appaazaA Va % wtt4 Vn^'M^^i^ ' 


■It fcr m mtcIiIt popuUtUm of eren hiimaii b«inKii, no morn 
Ml dw glut Which our ctttlo futti'ii upon wm MMintially 
t^/Mtm. But, iMtMd of thus levelling our nco to Ui4!iu, Im 
M %tkmu tha timiMa to devlM ind pnNlurn tho corn i/UntH 

■ Mr UM, that wfj mighi have hrtuui and flour, ind all tho 
Miaiiaa of gratifying tnin|{fi nompfNMMl from tiiv.ui, for our Tf^^- 
iw naintanance. H« haa doiio thin; and afti-r thia u\H'.v.iti\ 
iHMnatration of particular kindrMfHii U> un, nhull we allow oiir- 
•lv«a to BiippORfl It (NiaaiMo tliat ho. ran havn inHdi^ our \Ht\ni' 
tfiM and our BulMiatonca to Uo inconifNitihlf- with i-arhothitr ; 
haft ha can have franiMl ua to niultiiily with a crrtainty tlmt, 
r wa did ao, tharn would bo no nuliaiNlinurd to aupply ua mh 
m mcraaaad ? All t)iiia«i facta ronrur to aaauni ua tliat tho 
W9 lawa ara in parpatual harmony with isarh othi^r, and ni-vcr 
■f a baen, and were not inailn or draif^rifd to Im; in conatant 
Mftradiction to each ottirr. Tlif! f(ift of rorn to ua inaii'ad of 
pWB la a leatimony of hia philanthropy whirh alwiuld i^uard ua 
Minat all euch diatruatful miaconatrurliona of hia iiroiuimy 
J iMman life- 'VWtj are urimaaonahUi in all wIki Indifivn in a 
ilanned aiMl intelliKimt craation. 

Thua we have complete evidence iNifoni ua tliat hi; mif(ht 

■ Aa Uaallnanl ibaa daacrllMa : I ahall gWa ti In tha wnrda of tha pro- 
HbI la fovaraiiMrtii : "On iba ISili Marrh, 1749, twu flalMtrmrn of Ka 
■far iNia4 In iIm llamaf nwiraM a bring wlima aiipraranrii wan that 
t a ariM animal, bvi who bom an aiart rnoDmblaiirff i» ilin human 
Inii aaaapl llMC kio llmba warn lonmr, iba fliif uro ami iom douhl* tha 
Mri iMiglb, and bla ahla analjr anil knufly. Ilin ImhmI waa imtfmMy 
mmii avaa amall and ounk ; iHNikMl iiumi aiNl mouth linmofliiraiHjr 
WfB. In waa mu p ftamn A to hm aiNiiii lan jrfiara «f agw ; aid wlirii limi 
riMa ti wmatrnp o aaAlf to indurf him la not onytktng hut groMa, hay, i/r 
Iraw. aor would ho allow biiiMiririo bo rlinhod. AHrr baing roiilliif^l 
hrtbaeC a jraar, bo MNiarnird lo wrar rUiilMio, Mnd lo iwl mjokml vlri- 

ead i M i fti rmwl In nv^ry tmtmrx lo ifofiKMllr. hablta, and wm ba|>- 
IpM II waa ftHiiid inipuoaiMo ui loach bim lo arilrulaio a ainglo 
■. If al any Unia bo waa abia lo aluda tho vigilanro of bla guania, 
k lavarlaMy juinpod inhi tho moat aurrfiiiiHling Ibo raollr of Kapuvar, m 
Mik ha waa kapi. and dlvod and a warn alNiui lit it ao If It woo bio naiivfi 
IhmM. fa flonaaqaonni of hia a|i(iarflnt adoiilton of Iho mannnro of 
Mi, Ma gaardlaiia mlamd ibnir vigilanro, and bo diaappoarH. It lo 
ad llMl ho Jumpnd into lli« rivrr Raab, a aliorl diotaiiro from Iho 
end awam in bio old rroldonm in tho llanoag inoraoo ; Tot b« woo 
fiio Umo aftorwani b* a party of flobprin^ii among lb* modo and 
•n ilio ahnni of tbo KonigoMi, « omoll loko in Ibat mnroao. but mi 
WMlviiifl Ibom bo divod to tho liouom and diMpp«arod. Attmr a lapofl 
Hmmrn yoera bo waa again Msin by anotbtir iMriTi and a oorund vwvr 
{MMowod." mgmd hoi Augimi, J7M.-- Hkataliaa \a UMWMH,^«aL 


have made a world of such human beings as we an whfafltft 
food being essential to us, or without com being that foodi 
and might have nurtured ui by the grass with ^pniich he hu 
ck>thed the earth, on which we might have fattened like our 
cattle, though our numbers should become a thousand tioMS 
what they are ; but he has taught and trained ns to eeak asd 
uie a richer nutriment, and has amply supplied all our Bolli- 
plyinff populations with this ever since they began to litsnpoi 
our nol>c. 

What has been we may as justly conclude will continos to 
be, on this subject as on any other of which we deem on^ 
selves most certain. As the subMstence of manldnd hu 
hitherto always equalled the wants of their population, not^ 
withstanding their vast multiplications, always proffressivily 
increased as they enlarged, and with a coinciding ratio, and m 
the same necessity for it continues, our true inference, from the 
principle of an intelligent creation, will be, that the same een- 
currence will still occur, and that both will multiply togflChv 
if either does. We have the same ri^t to rest confiosady 
on this conclusion, as we have to expect to-morrow*s dayK|^ 
or the next year's spring and summer ; for though we have 
ascertained the laws and actions of the moving forces of our 
globe, and of the planetary world by which our days and se^ 
sons return, yet we have not the smallest ground for the b^ 
lief or certainty that these agencies and their results will con- 
tinue for a single hour. We have nothing but their constant 
operation up to this moment on which we can found our hope 
or assurance that they will roll us round ourselves and our 
solar governor. We have exactly the same fonndation iior 
the confidence that the earth will always produce the food 
which its inhabitants require. Our ascertained knowledge of 
the laws of the planetary movements only informs -us of thav 
past and present agency, as the subsistence of the human noo 
hitherto gives the evidence that the laws which produco it 
have thus far always effectually operated. The proroect as to 
the future is the same in both cases. We have no doubt that 
the spring season and its renewed vegetation, and the sum- 
mer temperature and its fruits, will recur as long as mapX'"d 
exist. For the same reasons, and on the same natural ground 
we ought to question as httle their deriving sufficient food 
/horn the earth as long as ihey liiiiaW 1101^ vt. The mainten- 
ance has never yet been de&cienl, yafiX «&^(^ c^ss^siSuKc^iBfisw 


mbU of ths Mith hftTe never ceued. Yet, for aiiglit we 
r, they iniiv etop this very night, and daylight never re- 
to us. Thii event is juHt an likely aa that food will fail 
We are quite as ignorant what the moving forr.u in our 
■yatem ia, as we are of what thi? vegetative agency may 
It : but we know in both iiwtancca tliat tlu'y are, aiui tlial thity 
krt only as thry have been creatiMl and ordainiKl to do by tlicfir 
Jraat Author, llolh have been ap|Miinti'd to bo what thoy 
JO, cxpreaely tliat our world, and ouriMilvni, iiikI our HyNti;in 
i living iwture, and our course of human life may be whut 
och respectively is. As long, then, us tlirir Maker iiieaiis 
hot they and we should continue, Iwth will be and will act 
inward in their farther process as tliiry hsvi; hitherto done, 
md no longer. It will be his s|MMrial will that alone rsii, and 
hot only will arreat or cliangn tlie sgi^riry or tin; reNults of 
Ahor. But as he has causi'd InUh to Imi fN}iially iiidiN(>f'nNH- 
4a to ua, he will no more auifcr th<} one to slop than he will 
MOtftr the other. 

We have, in truth, a more founded rertsinty that suflirient 
■baialcnce will be funiisluKi to us by the ciiltivstion of our 
Mth, and by tlie natural means snd sgeiirieH which hsve been 
M^aiiicd to produce it, than we |iOMseHs for the runt inn it y of 
Mr aolar ay stem ; for we liave received the eipreits proniiM) 
boai the Abuighty as to our food, but none as lo the uiicenN- 
9g duration of our diuriisl rotation and annual circuit. Im- 
nadialoly after tlie deluge, this proiihetic pn>miH4f was given 
O Noah, which lias ever siiM'o l>een literally fulfilled every day 
md overy year of the four thousand one hundred anil eighty- 
IffO years which have since elajised — 

''Wmilb thk kakth kkmainktii, habvkst; and cold and 
MM ; and aununer and wmter ; and day and night, sham, not 

Here ia aacn^d assurance which has verifiH Us Divine au- 
honty, and ttie steadfast vif racily of tlie i*romiH«'r, alM>ve 4(MM) 
JMM in the ronatant re|>etition of ita accoinpiisbinent ihnni^^b 
Jl that aeriea of time. We may i\wn satisfy ourselven, 
the suthority of lleveUtioii as well as from our natural 
, that the annual supplies uf the earth will never 1m; in- 
for ita population ; for tlie promise waa made to 



Nod), in conjunction with the comnuDd (or an exoneiiDt 
multiplication of the human race.* 

Having thus contemplated what appear to be the tne pmh 
ciploa of thought on this important subject, let us now direct 
our attention to the facts which our living experience piesenti 
to us as immediately connected with it. We shall find than 
to be in that due correspondence with our preceding c 
ing wbich, if this be just, may be expected from thoLf 

* And God bleated Noah and bis sons ; and said nnto ibaia, ■■ ftidl- 
M and multiply, and replenish tbe earth. Bring fbrtta abQndaaOy la tfei 
earth, and multiply therein.— Gen , e. ix., t. 1, 7. 

The progreae of Ireland, both in Its popalatkNi and pfodacUsaailBa 
striking liMiaiiee how theee multiply together, and with no laflitloittf Is 
the agricultural ratio. In 17^, an act of Parliammt was prqpsred If 
comfiel Anneni to apply flye acme out of a hundred to tUIafs wid eoHi 
** When we lee an act of Parliament ibua called for lo conpd the ti> 
lageofa twentieth part of the soil thenio eiiliiTation,W6arBliisliMiB 
inferring that the lend at that time under tiilaj|8 did noc eocceea a MMk 

Crt or tiMi cultivable soil 
ids of Ireland amount 
tbe produce of the country 

the population baA only quadrupled."— Aihensam,' 1818, pi 001' Bm 
production haa vastly outrun a rap<dly-raultiplying pimelation, insMiar 
being exhausted and overwheliried by it ; mr tlxHigii Ir^ad bai ■ 
exuberance of numbers as to their civil smploymenl snd due snaagi* 
meni, ehe has the intrans of nourishing a very large increase of them. 

t I cannot close this letter without adding, that attboogh I dWir m 
greatly fh)m Mr. Malthus a« to bis theory oTUie comparuivelawsafosr 
population and tubeiatenee, yet it Is with tbe most sineera rsapaet fkrbis 
talents, inielligent mind, and perBonsl character. It ia impossibls M 
read what those who were intimately acquainted with him haveeipnsMd 
upon his moral qualities and feelings, without tbsi esteem and ng^ 
wbich such descriptions ezcke, snd which sach a man dssarvss. TM 
be meant to benefit and not to iivjure aoeiety, and believed that bs VM 
doinjg 80, 1 am Ailly satisfied, as I am that he p osse ss ed a bigUy-siriMI- 
eneomind. One passage has been quoted fhwn bis wrttligB, w M«I 
think so floe and so jiut In its nuda prindpla, that I cannot bultnasflftl 
It fbr your consideration. 

" It is an idea that will be found consistent equally with the aHHSl 
pbenomens around us, with tbe various events of human llfb, aed iMk 
ths successive revelations of God to man, to aapposs that ths wsaui 


Many vessels will necessarily come out of this great fhmace with wisag 
shapes. These will be broken and thrown asiM as useless, whOs ihOM 
vessels whose forms are fXill of truth, grace, and lovclinsss wW ks 
wafted into happier situations, nearer the presence of lbs MigMV 
Maker."— Edin. Rev., No. 130, p. MO. May ttua be hia alloCmsat ! 

u tnat ume unoer tiuajra am noc eocceea a nan 
)il of tbe kingdom. We eailiMte that lbs aislli 
It at present to st least 0,000,060 aena: aad M 
itry baa increaaad Aim thirty lo fbity Md, vlii 



mcr ^ MmHkimdt ntOimlksUMdiug tkt viuwriM/ ityaimUtm' 

PBAB 8oN. 

. BOW cooMdcff lilt fiiru M to (be g«iMffal •ubtiiCciica 

«ai4 ncc which our liviiiy wmM in i^rMeutJiijg to ui ; 

HMfluiufigi to which tiktry Itrml ua, aiid which ihey 


m Mc«rtainfad Uu()m to which I will cull you/ AttMi- 

iv« beeti hvifig M t bunuii nure ou our globe for tl- 
dNMMwiifd veani, aud oii \\m |«reiMNit auruce of it for 
N ihir^ of tin* k-iigth of liiiu; ; «o that our Euro- 
ifUf of tha globe haa be«*ii caUed the OU World, 
ny younger dmya, waa n'unuptfiited by agricultural 
i eiiiiiMffice aa woni-out itoil, iiiui'h eilutuatnl by coii- 
Nfcing, aikd not tu b« coiu|>iur«Ml with tha frrvli aiMl un- 
gnouud of the new roiiiiiieiit. Vet, although while 
i waa iiU|4MM9d to lie yi'«r|y liecoiaing thua debil- 
r age in ite piuduriivc |>uwfra, the ataten of Europe 
ikiplMd luto a liirgfr i'uiiteui|KM-aiM'ou» populatioo 
pUiiet hee ever hi'ld belorc , aiid therefore ralluig for 
i\ we fi\A that tlMf depri^'ieted aoila ^ our own coun 
of our iMfigiibour*. iftotwiiiiniaJidjug tlieir eiiicebliug 
, are yieidiiii^ to ua and all, in our anuual harvea(«| 
Mir augiuA-uting nuinb«*ra r«^uire. Nor iit thia only 
now ; but, on lookiiig ba<-kward into our hiatory, wo 
in e\«'ry f^rrvioua period ilie ratio oi production haa 
en infrnor (o the ratiu of our muUipUcatiou ; but, on 
wy, ha« rontinually been tlie fully equal power. At 
•cut, lu wliat liave been deented (he declining yoora 
orU. ita powera of produce have been aupcnor to ita 
if popular niuhiplw-atiofi. f >ur fuod eiceeda, w ila 
quautity. \\w present d«*inand for it. We havo mora 
D we outimum, and mora la cotuiuf u^ ^2hna wS^ V% 
kf lAe fianay gauMWlipB Ouwtaivi^W 


of Bome— of several political economisU, who uphold the 
Malthusian hypothcais — to have our com laws abolished, 
founded ? On the vegetable produce of the earth being u 
inadequate to the supply of the living numbers as the opposi- 
tion of the contrasted geometrical and arithmetical laws must 
have long since made it ? No ; they require the repeal of the 
rcstrictiTc regulations which keep foreign com from our 
shores ; on their perceiving and knowing that there is man 
com on the earth— now in hand, and certain to be produced 
— than its inhabitants will need. The demand of free impo^ 
tation arises from the ascertained certainty that the Contineot 
aiKl other regions have grown more than their populatione 
consume, and that this could be brought thence to our coasts 
at such inf(rrior prices as to be cheaper than the harvest of 
our own agriculture. As long as our merchants find articles 
uf food abroad offered to them for sale, so long we may be 
sure that the ratio of vegetable produce is superior to that of 
population, instead of being at all below it. With this &ct 
broadly before us, it is impossible that this ratio can be, or 
can ever have been, below the peopling one, much less so ID- 
calculably as the geometrical law supposesL 

Coinciding with thisi fact of the mercantile solicitations for 
liberty of free importation are also the circumstances which I 
will mention, from the periodical jounrals of the day, as the 
best practical authorities. The foreign dealers in 1833 con- 
plained of the diminution of their trade, and of the value oi 
cum, and of its fall in price, because there was no demand for it 
elsewhere to take off the superfluous produce which had been 
accumulating among them.* The countries of Europe had 
on hand so much more than their populations wanted, that 
bad weather was even deemed advantageous, from the hope 
that, by injuring the shooting vegetation and preventing a 
good harvest, it would raise the prices of the stocks on sab.t 

* Thas, in 1833, 1 read fl-om the foreign joum^ these 
** KonigMberg, December 8. The corn-irade remains in a very dulL la- 
active state. Tbe demand continaing very limited, has rendered sU 
suits of com almost nominal in value.** "Hamburg, December SL 
The fiilling off in the demand Tor export has caused oar stocks to hh 
creane. Except local consumption, we have little demand Ibr wheaft>* 
" Stettin, December 20. The accounts of the corn-trade we receive ftam 
France and England are very discouraging, and hold fbrth little cbanes 
4^ much demand for foreign >wheai,\ini;\\«\\e«tt.ii«xv«v(^i\%.» 
/ Tluu the leiier Dram BocdBaua«b«e.V>«uiM^>^iy^e»%^^>«SL 

or THR WUBU>. 

•f a^ that Urn wH B 11134 <*w u.iMlnbl*. and Lbs cam 

•> IhalD J«»tlw -. bal vUnB luUvni hiiruif oiwi^^ uf Ihml 
paa nJiN, >1 faanl m «iall « nln •■ lu unk in lU munaju 
■■ «k l 7W«Acl of out wiu-Uwi, whicli pMvmiad Pn» 
^ feas •■Bltag lia •upnduUt lu out nuullct, i* nwiiHnlad 
to MMI •• en«B| IM bind U I«U tii |inc«, auil m diHUvrilil 
k« ^^^wni (r*da uf l*uW>d (ai im lupuihuiiduiui I 8a 


K IVMli*n tapM < 

><r- «*• M'l >Hi>"u4' ™. ' lit MP SSittA 
' ikM ilw •Ki'4 timmtt (iiadt Hilda 


r- ■!>■", "«* Miff*, ISM TIh low 4«k>t>. W lU BMkN II*V* 

HMv. IIKa1lkHu4lD4tllika>*H*i*>4a(tlWt*' 
■ •mm u ff nmrint unil i<nMi.l.nt IB »Ml>»»* »* 


far was popnUtioii in Europe from overranning its fubsutenee 
in 1634. that a ^rreat part of Poland was not in cultivatioD, 
and of the land in actual husbandry, tbouffh only a third put 
was raised from it which that portion could produce, yet efcn 
this was more than its own consumption required ; so Ihit 
their wheat was given to the cattle, because it haid giDm 
more than its people consumed.* 

The same state of things between population and podncs 
existed also in America in 1834, both in the Unitea States 
and in our Canadas, though each was so surprisingly mohir 
plying in numbers from immigration, as one of our preceding 
letters showed. Here also the demand was so much lesitbaa 
nature's supply, that the price of it sank too low to meet the 
rate of wages, and to return a profit on the capital employed.! 

This over-produce — its exuberance beyond the consumptim 
of the population, was not in any one country or in the moit 
fertile regions, but equally so in the less favoured ones ; for 
we liiid Sweden, though so far in the north, and so near gelid 
T^pland, and so full of heaths, lakes, and mountains in henel( 
yet had so much more wheat than she wanted as to be urging 
her govornincnt in 1833 for leave to export it4 

From the produce most generally exceeding the demand of 
the population for it, all countries in some years, and mMt 
countries at all times, are enabled and desirous to export their 
superabundance, even though some of their provinces receiTe 

* Sir James Orabam, in bis speech in tlie House of Conmoos so 6tt 
March, 1834, referrinf lo the agricultural condition of Poland, ineniiaatA 
that, " tnm the Htatement of Messrs. Armand and Vering, iwo siflil 
reapeciable merchants in Dantttc, it appeared that a great part of ifei 
land in Poland was in pasture for want of encoorai^Braent in eullivsAC 
grain. The soil of Poland was lying waste. The cattle wers fedfli 
wheat, and three times more could be produced flrom the Iwid Ihts ta 
4 cnltivstion, if there was a maritet for its conaumpiloa.**— Pablte pasa^ 
7th March, 1834. 

t A Scotch traveller states, " A large capital lovasted In Iknniag ta 
America does not pay a remunerating profit. It is allowed by all iht 
fhrmera, both in the Mates and Canada, wbom I spdie to on -the soUset, 
tbat farms do not yield a (Ur profit for the amount of capital embansd. 
Tliis is owing partly to the low value of produce ; partly to the high 
price of wages ; and panly to the system of banering they carry on, 
which makes it very difficult to realize the casU."— Jouroal of an Euor- 
aion to the United States and Canada in 1A34. 

t '*Stocl{holm, 5th Nov., 1833. Government intends to allow tbe sir 
portatioii of wheal wviVitMU. «nN ^wv^i \Mi\S\. \^ «ad of June, 1814, with 
the view of prevenUng iVie voivVvtvxttLwv* oS >^'^«rs'\»<«iMjia u,«biBh 
tile article has been seWmt.'*— YuV»Vie ^vw*. 

nf TUB WOlltD. W1 

8 fUM HnpMUAUfh 'Vh\% (*«• Ifttfi ihf. «-«•«« tri <#iir own 

mmnntfy F«HMni«trf, nft Oia r«!tffi(i(i#/fi \u \i\hh^ tuH»\f»\ n 

\0ilm0j Ori *W|^»rtMl)«/fi MrMrfi Wti4!iit WM« Ml 4H« • ^uAtUt lit 
iMlmv, ftriH ff*r Afljr Av«! ytMtn y,ttt/tUtnl '^itn mu «-s^i'/rtirif/ # oiKt 
Wjr * In (li«i ri'^ft fifty fivi jr^nr* th^ If^/unty ■«•« •e'ml«■^^l^^ 
4nr«iftflni#«!H aral k/miHtirn*!* ttiUt-.tit-A \ut\iiit\.n\.Utu -amc a». 
Iffl»»« ftlt/rWMl iimI •> '/ttii-r« (lr/fhlfl|l^f| ;* Ifut jil^way* mn'fiiiil 
lAf Ui • v^y trrKill fiiift of f/tir •/luiil /-oriviiifipfiont «i \'tf*t 
•Hkt r^iilrifhii(«ri/lin(f '/nr iiiirf/fi*iri|/ tut f ***• i,\ pf/f/iiUhoii, -/yt^ 

f^fiil*Y« (/ffidtif-f-* wi rriifli, from n ««fil iiol <li«fMi(/-ji«Ki-/| 
faff tta ffMf Mml fiTftlllly, lh4( felrh/f<i(/h < tufnUA with ifih;iliitrtri»»: 
HMT* «l*ti*r|y fhiiri t9t^M\im any ofhf-r t*fiu*iy, y*t. it i-/{,ort«i 
irtrry y«!*r ««n«^ ttitr'I of M« t»«rv<«i ' 'I h'-- prMlii'#-, »n > t,ut 
yuiA with Oi#i |i«i(f«il«lirm, <rv»:ri r|«/iitfk« Umt afoonnl of o>ir« ^ 

* " Pmm I4VT fill I7ftl, fMf *ffi'ir(« «if wtimi utrmtA*^ mtt \iu\^rtin Uy 

§ltf iva pmn. mhltii rMka M •nnual aver«K« ««f 497 /r,| i|u»rM r« ** 
t'A0h0mt% HH fk* f Wfik law* 

f ** l» |7Vr •■i^vriaf NM «»«« fifftNM<<t«-^. aivl tn I7A'« Ih': ti«»«i(il7 hu ii i»»« 

miIIimm4. aiirf tm^ttim\M% |i«rfnii<'4 In 1774, wlfn tft\t»mi tttm 

*t I4« . • MrfiMy 4^ ^ Mr*a (ivifi i<« i(« »f |i««M« afi^ Uu\0tt*%t\tni ««• 

m4 In 1791 fM bwifiiy waa »<(«iiinM»4 whrii aiMlcr iA»,nnA 

MMfflaf MM alMr«a4 Hll lh«i |ffl^« M^^atip* 4«« " f»» 

•» — »*# ■ <»# i»<HIO aiiaaally " hi 'liiiawfHii4 iM«f >•• f«i«rf« Minii « 
WiNty aoMai M i pun §4 whai imi r^f^arfii |i«rfHiiaii<in nHt»nnt*m m'.h-»ittg 
■Vk |<i»>iw> a <|(iart«r , Mii lii iliai ii»i#-ryiil 1** ha^l to ««i|*(«lir 'fir «r*fii«L« 
M AMMflf^ M Ml* f«fMl, aMl lit* thf <.'i(ilili»li(. lO Hfrilifi, aiMl •IM'WIm rts 

il — a W Wr. aM aiaN w»«aM«i«!i7 '*\0tttrA 

A In W>|iiiaiWih». IMft, an aM* aMcl* in a r«af**fiaM« |«rMi«f)f.iii afaif-a. 
*R aaNM ai Miffili mIwiMImI Ihal iIhi «|tiafi(i(r 'if wli^ai m KuclaiiO m.^ 
Mf 4ayaife44il'ia« MM|ifal iaiIm ««i(iiiiirff|ifi'«fi, a fn" «»f nhtumumm *tu\0it 
•mum, Tfea ag'irallMfal yaaf haa liaan i|i»m t*««ha iMifr llii« ««:aM«fi 
IftaA IMI, UhH ft0 IM aiAfha «if wlutal Ifi hand af larrar Ihan -i tM> 
«f fhfl h«r«*ai 'it mM MiH^^i laM. wh^har ff'ifn '.•ft»f 
I, «f fM »«Mia<imf^wiN f«f iwffa fn«al '»f uAnumm ttt i^\^.t ■•f>««ii 
■ »■ ■■ ilV Ma a^j. II la Mf^ fi«rw I* tia «|iMiati«aia4 liial i M» naiiWf h W|iitta, 
•M IMflMMy, 4Mnag ((•• laai ibraa yaara. im Ifi4ing ih>a lt«r«**i piVi! 
M««»fl#aai»vft »Ma (>aM<«ff " Maw M«rfi Ma( . Na^ , latO. p in 

I Hi IM'lilfr. al*«r ilma 4i<a»»ihiiif IM !*< rtiraii farmar. " Ifi- i>« -r^r 
iMto fca f UK! Iha a«ijf»ymaiif aT Mi«»l*»aia t»tntt»iH, ahafatna friim a|/>ri'a 
MM lii | <w»a « iMiVar atraa4a Nia MaaMa ^ta hta ranf p«fri#li»allr. a>«') haa 
lM«g liayfiM hia rtf»ai>aaf y iliaMira»iVkaiifa.'* a44a. " 'f h>a la 

4aiM «|MII a aMi wlii#*i fia«fi«ai|y ka iba ravaraa mT ruh ai*4. in 1m*% a 
KM aail ITaf a«M«h la iii« «ffa»i #•# iMiaii jr af*4 f#afaiigr- **«« auinfitvu 
■ •«• alMMf Ara aMifa 1*i «if M KNCl.ali ai tra. wal im« Ihii A ii) tti* r«'* 
^^iMt/mski im »MmmUf Pt^%mdi " Haibtilfa'a U«f^m i^t xWl KV* 
00 t ttffm a//'.aA4«/a 


Fimee it alfo, in some degree, en expintiiig cooBliy, 
though its conmimption of bre»d it euppoeed to l^ gieaur d 
oun. Though it occaeioDiUy imports, as harvests floctni 
yet itt exports in 1834 far exceeded its imports.* 

I will only instance two more countries as those win 
from the indolence of the people in the one, and the compi 
tive rudeness and steril soil of much of its empire in the ott 
we should least expect any superabimdance. I mean 1^ 
and Russia. 

In both these countries the fforemment acts like the Eg 
tian ruler in the time of Joseph. Th^ collect from the e 
tivaiors a portion of ereiy harvest, ana store it in magau 
as a provision against the deficiency of any ensuing year fr 
unpropitious seasons. This is done so very largwy in Spi 
that there are above 6000 of these public depositorie8.t 
Russia, a similar policy is pursued, to the disadvantage 
commercial industry, t Indeed, it is obviously a measure 
a half-civilized country only, that has but little intercoune 
free traffic with other nations ; as the su]^ly which denn 
always brings in is far more efficient and more generally i 
vantageous than any magazined precautions. But be ( 
meaaure wise or injudicious, it could not be adopted unli 
the country, in its general harvest, produced more than 

soDls to every twenty acres, and in Irdand thirty acres to ten pwss 
Tbne tbe eoil of Flandera, fkr inforior to our own, can anatain tn 
tlie amount or hnman extatence.**— Radeliflb's Report. 

* The Ifonitenr, In Bfareh, 18S9, slated the comparison is flgwa 
1834, and added, '* Tbe quantity of Hour exported is eix or seven III 
greater than what to imported ; and the com grown on ibe FmaA i 
and atrid abroad amounts to more than twelve timea the qaantiiy taM 
dnced into France for consomplion." In 18SS there was a eonsiaai 
Imponation oTtbreign wheat, ''but hi 18S4 there was scarcely aa]r i 
portation of It.** 

t "In fbreign countries, raagaaineslbrgndn are erected by gofvcnmi 
In diflbrent parte of the kingdom, to provide fbr a scarcity. Is Sp 
there ore apward of 9000 of these depoaltoriea. Bvery oeenpker of fa 
to compelled to bring in a certain quantity of com, pmponioiiare ts I 
eiie of his Arm. In tbe following year he takes bock the eum and 
plocea e larg^ amount of the new growth. Thus he continues sansa 
to increase the stock by these contriboUone, unUl a certain nmawaa 
groin to depoeited. Then each party receives back the whole of I 
com he has Aimivhed, returning in lieu of it an equal quantity of m 
com."— Mark-lane Exprees, 20tb April, 1835. 

) ** In RuaMa, (tain to purchased by tbe crown, and stored ; sod 
prioss sdvance, (torn any w\ut« Vu >}Qft \Jt«Aa»b^VM wsiela to i1lB|iossi 
nach under the matVei aMm \ xXvm «•»»>»% ^ >nM\. 
tr«de, sud the ruin ot VndVNV&naU."^— V>>. 

or TNB WOftLft* 880 

fm wlwl N Ofuit 4f«ll«wUd and w«r«. 
be l«lMm fmn ib« fun wkirh m rM«i irtti«m 'ITm 

if cwr farmer* h«t« tmmt %\mn \hfy ynmt ui f.nn mJI, ^Ukj 
"^ IM tlir crtrrr^M III UriM «f Uiflr own , wiynnmn ibc Sp«ri- 

f««»rnm«:fii\f\ i\m mnr\^u% Ui Iji- yauun^UK luut 


y w nifn »< 'f'hl* tfffurtMi in IWI4 m twfi nf ^\tl^n, wl« n iin- 
y art rt i ft i i fmtn cKlirr r<»«ininr« Ih-< •»»!• n<.< t.^^ufj m th«r ftifring 
•f IJm itrtt ymr, ntiA wa* iMti ull'mi-d into i«<i of hc-r i^$it9 * 
9m tkm tmr»muif i« n*r.rt\ifji Ut Uir voliiniiiry r«r»l»«*rfr»« aMJ 
avwHiM taf l«lw«ir of lfi« H|i«ni«h f««-«/ffl«-f - « |i«-rii|i«niy whi« h 
hM kuKfmm brrMfivry in th«rfn airwr Ui«! ailvrf hftrfc«t of 
fltvUb Amtftt:* •'nriwti «nd fn{(ro««r<l Oinr ima(;in«(ion. 
lUim»t in IW9 anfl in aorn*; |/fcf Htnff y*/*, ih»/ h^H « 

4tfaM .fl * . y, liOCirMt to li«! tinriftniffM ':|M:W^i«rri:, of on*: ftflh 
!• mt f^ y ,t >fi«l «^ni Uii« Wfe* l/ii( i»in(>f»riir)r ; «ri<l tin* irid/>- 
l«ll l^fl^. with fell Ui^ir want of akilt atui inrfuvtry, mmI r»'/(. 
•<lM t>i i< | ir»^ all Uif iaa«t«r, and (|t!«triirf|f/n, arid fntTr*iff(i'/na 
94 SmifiiMm%\ ttjfUf.uni* warUrt' a(/«intt t^M-ir nK|r|K^fd''M », 
M« Mn* l#«-ginninj; to ^»a*(: a «ni4ll •ur^ilna to t-xMiri, •imI 
M|^ iM*« • far gnmUt an|frriilitintlanr» if th^y woulnr-ulntaio 
of Uiriff <iuttiv*lfl« gro'jiKl 'f llrr fif-igMjoiir, f'orttig*!. 

* " A« Nnywrfanan «C IW»)n wli^i baa Imww mmrMl hi flMia, aM 
tta aiMiaaiaii af wbaal i* ^tmifi^A in itM |M*ia W ( •4«» an/ SUJvm, 
Yfef prwiit|iai arMNiiy baa »ii*f«4 In l.«ial«ma an4 AUu^fm 'l\m 

ita^tl**! tb« 9fi*f 4imM •*« on ar^nnnl nC th*i» ffrM* 'f ba 
MM "vafN M«* a* nnn*<i*ir«bl« my^m9mm m M^b ll^aM ^(rt* 
rft-laim Ki|pr»aa. 4fb May. I*w 

* "TViVtb fb» ami ^^|Niik t«*«r«w4ifitly firfitia nradariM innkanjr 
lHaaaa. iIimmi a;w»rta n * o M«ly, iba rit-li»«t •ii4 rwMi ftii#i«ni« frdnii, i<t 
Ma laM af >«rn baa l«*n. »*lati«*ly, twy 4i«|>r«|nfiiMi«i«. •witi( u» 
tta I|mIm/«4 W«f« «/ mgfHUltvr* mtut ntUt** t»d>M»H».* t^ Ik* ptttpit, it 
l«bC>«ally aa«4 fbai frw #N«ntri»a la iba «»«#)4 ««v«4 n^itn i* asmr«, 
tbi !•«• I« iMnairj than M|«in " I'l 

S ^ lb fbU. wa b«i4 ibal lb* «|Mafiiii7 af '4ira rntmn, ti4 tmrnty fc.M, 
MMOMai MMflf II (^l^fbTf iinvrto-m, tabitb. afi*f 4Ml«Mmg iIm m*4. 
Ml aibitff. bj mar* iban t/^ i|«nfffrr*. «r laa ifaaMviy t«^«iM«« b>r 
aiMaMiiilM*. 'I baa tb«r« «aa «m annaai ^HIcfvuKj nf ana AHb «f ib*r 
4p«inn4 .IT* •«*«* wtmif ttt Kar(«|N waa »i|M«a4 b» iba aba*'* M av 
iMVb 4ia|#ftaa frNUM (■n»ii>« " !••. 

^ ** INl af >ai« y»«»a ih* mbalNfMifa b««» nlMmi timm ib^it anvin«- 
■«•• 4f ^ m m^mi. it,0 mtmnmi ^*^.^m i« nanMlaA aft %\2MiW4ivtM* 
«"•, >*»"•/. '« mw»rm^m |»«f«, « aiif>'«n In at|Mf« i4 VM» **» IWH 

• "... ;. I - 1$ ^ 


«iiU impoits. bccftuae ber peuantiy will not cant or >fiQ>n 
liie common ikiil and mdusiiy of beneficial huliuidiT. iW 
It plestT of iJkzA, an«i would be a h t ind a nre of pro^nee, b« 
her own peopte will not laiae U as long as xbrnr can Dracim i 
elsew here. Sbe needs, therefore, culuvaion from oCter eon 
tnes to uli her uaelets Land and to excite her into a letffB 
vidin2 imiUkiion.* 

Russia IS one of those countries in which amcohin a 
not a lavoured object of attention : and her aernle pcamili] 
are dccUrcd not :o aim ai producing more than iber vaaft 
a:id thus expose ihemseWes to suffering when prrnliantiaa d 
any season lessen the amount of their crops ;t nor wfll Av 
cultivate potatoes.; Yet Russia still finds cnoogfa coat 
though unsolicited, to export both from her northern uiutiuL a 
on the Baltic and from her southern districu on the Bhd 
Sea.^ Hence, although Russia has, from colonization m 
conquest, so much multiplied her population, as we have W 
ticed before, yet she has fully wiihm herself the mcui d 
subsisting them, if she will put them into use ; and diii iki 
always does unless when accidents of the weather occai 
in some portion of her vast dominions, a partial acardtj. 

qaaxtera. Tbera are atill 1,000,000 aeiw of land whkh night be i 
prDiloctive."— Mark-lane E&preas, 4ib SUt, ]8»9l 

* " Portoga], to !(row her own wheal, would reqinire the evWvtflMS 
50,000 arres. in additioa to the wheat land now eoliivaied. Tbs Htm 
fueoe STtein of culiivaiioa is the worst io Europe. All llM ut6n 
lannen have as much land as tkqf can coliiTaie : ihe augoM 
muM be made by Ibmgiiera. Men can be hired at harveet Itar a i 
or eirhieen pence a day. wiUMNit fiiod."— lb., 11th May, Ifias. 

* In Rossis, " the most fertile provinces ere those in which afriealM 
is moot neglected, becaose the laodholden are iodoced, by the j 
rage fbr specolating in oianafiMtnres, to devote their fields to i 
duee than that of com, which ibey limit to their own imme 
■nmpcion ; ao that, if a harvest (kil, they are without any piovisim li 
their hams.'*— Soabian Merenry, Jan., 1(94. 

; ■* The cnltivuion Af potatoes is also Deflected In the grealsr iHlrf 
Roissia, becaose the folLowers of the Gn6k Church have a dcdlii » 
purnsnce to them as food." — lb. 

9 *' Extensive exports of wheat and rye were annually sent froa 1» 
■ia to the lower Baluc ports, and theoee to England, ll<Alaad, V 
and the Mediterranean. A large portion of the imports into the 
terranean eonsista of hard wheata, fbr the mannflwture of 
which are drawn from the Ruaaian porta oo the Black 
Fanners' Jounta], S7ih Nov., 1S33. 

'• The Russian Crimea has hitherto been a large irower and 
oTeora."— lb., ISih Dee.. 1833. 

11 See belbre, Letter VU., note ||, p. 56, and 1| p. 57. 

or TNC WORLD. 891 

If mon wtufartonly ihow* that tha whfjie earth u 
, St thi« bt« fi«TKi4 of it« rhrrjrKilofry, and with it« b*- 
l«xalM |^«|^il»tKyn, ffT'jfliirinff on ii« |^rral turf arc 
■yrv than it« tt9-tnu\u\At»A wmAi»m n«i^, than our 
cffMnrrv «• 'if what tak«-« pU/rf; wht-n, from lh«! varu- 
th« «r«^alhrr, a failure «if lU imimI hanr«»t or of a mjf- 
ify ^iaf>p*^< in any ro«jntr>. I>o«ra ttiat population 

panah h#"*auM: it« fofM, fr^m that tcmfi^frary aviint, 
yi««: «ll of it t^t^iniKual I'lf/fiij * No. i'lrntjr «ii«ta 
«, ari«i in hrtrtiiM ivtm Wtf. «ijp«raU/tjndrng lo that 
r th«r ntfiin0ruf. l« dfrftrifrnt 

thr Mo<ith<-rn iiroTinrirv of KiiMia, whirh uaiially rv- 
ih frrrrn th» fflavrk S^a U» T'irkf.y »iii\ th<; ,Mf.-diter* 
«lfifm«. w«!ris fotiri4, from tii<7 iiriii«iial Hrotj|;ht of tti«; 
in ll'n. r.ot u^yifM t^iat r|<iari*it7 of t^f#-ir artwlMiof 
ir«t mhch (h«;ir irihahitartt^ in lU*" f.nmnuiK y^rar wouU 
VV'hat orcijrr'sH ' '111*! pM/pI«? wi-r*? rK*t j»:fi to di«, in 
fviriTMl kj^khly, of faniini? frrirn t^ir ti^ipfirary dirf/ri- 

th«ir natural <u{«fily 'Ilifir i(vivf;mm«nil, awar« that 
irt« r/f Kurr«f««: )ia«l what t)i<Ty want'^, opi'rifid thrir 
ff«r«i{fri roni, arid irivit«r/l inifyfirtationn * Hy nurh a 
n wt! karri trut Kii»<i«, in ordinary y«-ar«, vt d^'ficnda 
' trmti vMffirifn* (growth a* Ui prohibit tri<r iritrodiMrtion 
rtATi'.': iiito it — a pr'Kif ifi4t ui-T JCrrtTral productir/n 
«ff r.ormurnpii'jri, ti*ii-Mi*tittUittUttif tfT v««t and vanad 
Ki I5ijt wh.l** ^if'r viutrH'rn di«iri''U tnu* »iiff«rr«d, 
iairni proTinr<« had 'rof/« to their wi»h«-«,t and af^ 
rir« Iran iri«:ir ri<«-dii r<«,iiir<d, tfiat ih«; |{f/y«;niin«;n'. 
•Vffi l^tirrn a Ut^f {«ortion of irixir riar>-r:«t, u» convry anfJ 

trp Vnh J*n . l*iM "TVr r>/n«til «<r RnMta lM« fmt fnb- 
fclk»w:iir ri'/ti'* ' 7 h» ii«rT*«l hw hf fviSMl in arv^ral «f llM 
Ma iri iri* •'.•j«h f^r Kti««<«. an ftrdinarii-* «r tiM Hitni«i«r«, 
I J(i 7 I't'i hm%A»'*»*A III* ffM! ifnfnns'ion «f nom. Iry lb* 
at ff«'i H»« iMhii'i* arnl ih^ H*« «r Avtff. aiidafi ih«r land 
^ ibp wwi<tiw»«t of ih# »fri{rr». af all th* (^itMa «f Ita c«afaa»- 

I «ka«*. il«<Mt |«f Hvfii . l^tS H M 'ifiVrMllKat. rmm tiMt 

«an«l «ka«*. i1«<m1 |*f |i»ni . |f 
lal Jan . |*<U. atJ k f4n 'if ffram 

Jan . |i<U. atJ h ii«1« 'if f ram wkI |Miw. M fy#, p«««. b«rfc 

la, lf«r1»T. Ill I 111. l<»«rta. llMir, aiwl gr*mim, f^«r1-aarl«y. Ar , 
diMtfMl 4uf) rrM* III aM |#ifi« r«f Ih* fiaMir, ib^ Wbii#H«a, wi4 
ra»itt#ra ftt«ar«la Pr«a«ia ' H»lfiari faf^ta, Jan . I^'M. 
IttMia. rr^Mt '«f ih' n'/rfii*ni f«v»rrirri*riiii, «h*T« ihafa waa 
> «r ra n. aa4 a K»<»7 fwM harvaai Ihr ii««»twii*a\«*^ftM»- 
rA« Jit/ric pm^titf— iMva toi on afcmwAaal aam***— *«• 
ln«r/Mi, Jftft fab . |«34. 


•ell, at tbe prime coit of ii, to Uib ocImt porta of tbe 
that wcxc in want of it.* The jaerelianta of Eoiopo 
Immgbt to Ruaaia what aha vaqoiied from their i 
•tocka, which were diyed of bf the anthoiitieo io te 
aame raanner.t In thia aame year alao, thou^ ihay ■•• 
ported com. they had §rrowii and espoitcd an nnwanal q-»— ^ 
of hcmpaced, which might hare been uaed ibr food.} Tha 
Ruaaun peaaanLry uae a much coaiaer diet than cMuanaadaib- 
aiat on.^ 

The same tost of natare*a feitdity and cznbcnM hoal| 

of produce, exceeding the demanda of tha new 
population in thia fancied old age of the European aail, haa 
been atill more atron^y pmaentM to na in tbe laat joar, IM^ 
by America. The Lnitcd Statea, being chiefly agriaahan^ 
and replete with rich Tegetable earth in aD ita vigonr^ aidM 
of ncwiitatea and populatiooa emulooaly emplejtld in fanabai^ 
IT for the purpoae <m aale and tiaffic, and which thodij hata 
been a kind of granary-aaylum to the leat of the world ; lim 
induatrious coontry experienced, fram nndTomafale veaAi^ 
auch a diminution of tUeir ordinary harveata laat year, 1Mb 
that, instead of contributing, aa uraal, laively to tne food flf 
other countries, it haa been obliged to cdl upon £arapa H 
help it from her auperabundance ; nor did aha call in vaia. 
Every part of Eorope had enough and to q)are, and thtnSam 
gladly heard the new and unexpected demand ; happy tokniV 

* *" In all tbeae idoib Avoiind dfaiikts, tbe jw min MctaH 

larfe qnantiUcs of eorn, and putfcnlariy rye, ec mnififeie aneea; ml 
while iba naTigaiioa was open, large e^ipUes wete inponad mm tmlm 
eountriea. All tbe eom eo parchand ie depoeittd Ui maiailaai ia^M 
aouibem pravincee, and aolJ to the indifeni '"hiHiinfi ai pitee aHL* 
—New Fennera' Joamal. 19ih Feb., 1831. 

t Ttie p f eeeure of tbe deficit, in Ibis aatasna of 1833, m 
coninM tbe oeuel enlBciency or abandance of tbeir hareeai. 
•t' ibe proTiDcee which in other yeara, as in 1817. eoald aaaia 
canks of r>-e alooe for tbe supply of other eoontriea, hava now in 
lively noihiiif for the maiDteoaoce of tbeir own populadan.*^A^ IM 
Jan., 1S34 

i **■ Rifa, 93d Dee., 1833. Hempaord. TUa ycar^ axpait . 
than erer before, 100,000 barrels, of whieb BelfiaBi alone bm < 
60,000 banele. Thia erop is oonaideTed abvodaot : bat it la wltwmmwm- 
pected that this article (beflspaeed) will be partly need aa a oabauiaMir 
com in those proTincos where tbe crops of llw huisr have tOM^ 
ybreicn Papera. 

4 "Here the lower oidera of pet^e exial faindpally ao Hack ImI 
•Dd groats, as potatoea form a eoaiparatively small aoftkaiitf t^te£2" 
^MawFarmeraP Joamal. 1st NotIHsiS, i««««iwww«^ 

or THl WORLD. 298 

a distant maiket which would take their «aper- 
Thm •boondinff ttate of produce in hand waa to 
that even Scotund could affordf and waa willing to 
to the New World part of her hay. t All that waa wanted 
hM baan, m doe coorae of the navigation, taken to it ; and, 
whift ie parfaaps more extraordinary than the necessity, at a 
■ach laas pnee, though several thouaand miles off, than her 
cMaaiia haa to pay for the same articles from their own back 
■■ltlaiiianta.t now espreaaive is such a fact of the supers^ 
hndanca of European atocka, notwithstanding their univer- 
tdr multiplying piopulations ! 
AM parte of Euit^ seem able and desirous to export. 
•van seeks to ■upply us with potatoes cheaper than 

grow them.^ The Italian ports, even Naples, com- 

af the dulness of trade, because there is no foreign de- 
fer the com they are ready to export. II Italy is also 
growing the hard wheat it uaed to fetch from the Rus- 
pofta on the Black Sea.lT Even regions so near the 
\ aona as Archangel have so much produce to send out 
eaoatiy as to loi^ several vessels with it.** The great 

ible periodical, in Janusry, 1897, tlms states the eireain* 
Amenca llie wbeat crop in very deficient, and the necenniiy 
to Iks iapsnacion of 5,000,000 busliele is sniici|«led. Thle cslculatKNi 
la — isansf sli aHowanees coosequent upon ioereased economy."— New 
MiiMj Mag., I8r, p. 146. 
t * A vesaoi is about lo sail with s cargo of 10,000 stones of bay fhmi 
aad a larger will follow fhmi tbe Clyde.**— lb., Oct., 1830, p. 

I *fili atttod as a new and curious eirrumsiance, that wheat may 
■d ftan the Baltic snd Mediterranean at about half the rates 
apoa lbs same article fhm Roeheeter to New- York, snd about 
of what ia chariprd Horn Ohio. "—lb., Jan., 1(07, ji. 148. 

4 "Aa lannenae esportaiion of potatoes ia at the present moment 
■Hag ilaes at Havre for Knghind. The price has doubled there within 
*s IHI BHMb.*- Hisndard. 6ch Jan., 1897. 

I * Waplas. f7lh Uec., 1634. The demand haa subsided. Good Bur- 

Msy be had si tO». a quarter, put free on board." ** Leghorn, 
I8M. The corn-trade la in a dull ataie ; white Tuacau wtieat, 
m».'~-9Um Farmers* Journal, 6(h Jan., 1834. 
V ■■ Al Otfaaaa bard wbest is realixing above i5$. a quarter, and the 
swy llniilsd. It is, however, fortunate fur Italy that iia entire 
«■ supplico from Odeaaa, Taganrog, snd Marranapcrii haa 
■rs diminiahed by the riiltivMtiofi oThsrd wheal In Apulis, 
fe wtake maeormii /torn tketr own wkeatt. Tliia is Ihs 
or lbs poor, snd the (kvounie aitVrAe of lixA qH v\a w^ 
*iMg JWapo/jiensr-Ib., «7th Nov.. \Hin. 
''Am anld» la ibe lantga papers fktim ihis pon «v l\ift^^>^* ^•^^'*" 

€94 Tfll SACftBD HI8TOET 

raMon of PniMia for otUbliflhiBg t h ronriio u t Cw i tay 
new caatoiii*houie league, for the ezclunan or rrpniMiii 
fpraign commodities, except at nnaaleable datiea, aimed i 
cipaUy ^^ our manufactures, haa been stated to be to coi 
vm to admit their superfluous corn-produce into our isba 
What all the above-mentioned nets concur to show Ic 
ime on this sub^t is likewise confirmed bj the acknowW 
result, at this Ume, in our own idands. Although ov ■ 
bera have increased beyond all former proportions, jet 
production of food haa also augmented still more. IthH li 
often asserted, and theorized by many till it became an hi 
ual notion with us that we did not grow enough for oar > 

Wevsmber, ISIS, sbows tbla Act: " Arduuifrel, Nor. St. CMa 
Bssd are oar atairft co u Mn e r c c with H<dland. Bat the qmintliy bn 
4swii this aatomn hao hseii deident, and flfty-fimr Tsssula kaslki 
ins bavo cleared out fiir HoUand." This diminoUoo was owii^ • 
fhilora that year already noticed. Ruaaia also rhnnaea to grow aai 
port a great quantity ofllnaeed aa well aa bempoeed. 

* The Oennan Statea which iu the bagUmiiif of 1819 had Jniaad li 
laagea W9t9 meotioiMd to bo— lauABiTAara. 

^niaaia * ^ . . , , . IZfiOOJoloO 

Bavaria ..,.,.. 4,000,000 

Wartembnrg S,000/)00 

Kingdom of Sazooy ..... 1,300,000 

Saxon Duchy 000 000 

Grand Duchy of Baden .... 1,100|000 

Principality of Naaaaa .... SMjOOO 

Dneby of Heaae Caaael .... 000^000 

Duchy of Heaae Dannatadt TOOiMO 

Franklbrt Free City OOjOOO 

Other amaU States ..... 900,000 

Total Joined ^JWOjOOff 

Thaoa whieh than had not aeeaded to the ante were— 

^(Mria . , 10,000,000 

5M«^«r , . 1,900/nO 

vochy ofBmnawick .... SSO^OOO 

DochvofOIdenburgb . . . , 990^000 

^raod Duchy of MecUenborgh 900,000 

DocbT of Holatein and Laneobaif h . 400J)00 

The three Hanae Towns .... S0O,000 


• M.^ . ^ German Papa 
I b«Of« aaoM of these, in the last two yeara, have adopted iL 1 

ever endeavoarod to eaubliah a oounter-leagoe. but tbla baa bean f 

■p, aa the Proaaian league will moat probably alao diaaolve. oalaaa 

douad for poUUeak 4bi«cia\ (be Vi baa been atated that the Prei 

govemment loat by VluViitbftftiM.^«ax ol'oa'wvjtemL.^MiKWSiM 

jMaa.— Tinas, nttk!*w«ito«t,\«». 


RunptioB, and thereibra needed an impoftation from abroad, 
thia preaumption our enterprising merehanta apecolated in 
poicnaae ol large quantiiiea of foreign conii and lodoed 
B in their warebouMa under the bondinir ayatem, expecting 
. the riae of the pricea here would allow them to bring 
r importation into the public market.* 
"or tnia event they have been waiting abore three years ; 
although, during thia time, we have been aubaiating aolely 
nor own harvestt, and have been increasing in our num- 
I, and therefore in our consumption, yet in neither of these 
ra, nor at the end of them, has our own supply been found 
mequal to our demand aa to raise the prices to that amount 
ch will allow the owners of this bonded corn to bring it 
» the market .t Our stocks and harvests of our own growth 
e been so much more thsn our population haa meded, 
t the prices of com fell last year, 1836, almoat below a re- 
aerating amount ; and although they have become higher, 
no aigiis of any acarcity of our domeatic supply occur ; 
token whatever that there is any want of the bonded for- 
n com. That, therefore, lica still in the warehouaea, giving 

** Of bonded fbreifn grain there Is not less than 500,000 qaartsra in 
elMiWM. a qnaniliT equal to the average importailons of a long sortes 
lara wluie England did eoniianie foreign wheat; aiid,oreoiirae, a good 
frvt : since England, for the laiit five yeare, has exhibited no want of 
tgn aaoislance in sulNilatIng her Increased and rapMly-lneraashig 
■mien.**— New Monthly Magaslne, December, 18M, p. fitB. The 
Mky of Ibrelgn corn and irraln In the warehouses at lbs end of 18S4 
I dmi sutsd officially flrom the Custooi-bouss oa SOih Dscsaibsr, 


Qtm. Butk, 






r,fl87 - 














Indian Com 

1.176,897 6 

Float, cwts 141376 

" Ksar a million of eapltal has besn three years set test la tlis bonded 


TW Isai fbor yeare have decidedly showi how nearly eqoallssd is 
mid and supply ; even under the enniluucd IncraaaaeCuA yoiviAaiisA^ 
m kM Htnjimmd not tnijf a «H|ki«uyi b«i ^ swyirdbiiaMM a sre ? 


a dsmoMtntion, at long ai it ia there, that the ratio and pio- 
duce of our agricultural food atill equal, or, to tpewk with ttil 
more preciae truth, still exceed the ratio and the wanta of our 
increaaing population.* This ia another proof that the Um 
of our foMl and of our multii^ication are not in oppoaition to 
each other, but arc in steady adjustment and so kindly propor- 
tioned, that, as I have inferred before, our aubaiatence is al- 
waya in advance of our population inatead of being intilfiTT*** 
to it. This bonded com remaina atiU locked op, is die 
aphng of 1837 is advancing, because we grow enoo^ withp 
oat it.f 

Another fact which indicatea the universality of natme^ 
auperabundant produce in this period of our worid ia the cii^ 
cumatance that, in the Duke of WelIington*8 campaigns m 
Spain, when it was necessary for our conuniaaariat to unport 
into that country large and continual aupplies of food for our 
army, and often for our allies ; notwithstanding ao much com 
went from this country as to raise its prices to an eztrandi- 
nary amount, yet a large portion of the required supplies wen 
also obtained from the harvests of some Asiatic regions tnd 
contiguous isles. Com was shipped from the eastem ports 
of the Mediterranean and Egean Sea in such large quantities 
as to enrich the active agents in this new and unexpected 

With all these facts before us, can we allow ourselves to 

* *' It is ascertained, beyond all question, that notwitbataodinf tbs la> 
creased ooneamption, and ttie harvest commencing three weds laur 
than last year, thus augmenting the consumption by one seveoteeath 
part, there were aioclis beyond what uaed to be considered Che avarags 
of the kingdom at no very remote periods. This (hct, taken with aa- 
ocher, that no foreign com can have been consumed in England te 
the last three yearn, proves incontesiably that a crop a little above tba 
average ivUl produce considerably more tban is required to aappoit tks 
population "—New Monthlv Mag., Dec., 1836, p. 938. 

t " There are in bond 500,000 quarters of wheat, an anxnint (Villy equal 
to the average demand lor a long series of years previous to 1818, rasdy 
to come forth ibe moment the averages shall allow."— lb., p M9. Tbs 
official return was 627,587 quarters. 

" The stocks are so far from being exhausted, that we know of ftna 
era who now hold three years wheat."— lb., 115. 

t 1 have mislaid my note of the authority from which I dnived aqr 

knowledge of this curious fdct, but 1 think it was flrom one of oar qnsf^ 

terly periodicals, and that our consul in Cyprus was mentioned aa the 

individual who bad been xealnna \n pTocurlnf the wanted com, and hai 

been one of rbose who bad deaarreoV^ ^tottxc^ \axiibVi trai&^&» Tatciode 


or THB WORLD. 297 

1 with nieh an unfoanded &iiey as that popuUtioa 
n its ■ubostenee, or eyer hat, or ever will f That it 
as is visible from the present astonishing numbers of 
i ; and this is a pledge that it never mil. I again 
B your notice that we me no other pledge or certainty 
n beholdiitf the sun, or for another summer, than our 
pericnce oT their continued recurrence. All the busi* 
our worldly life, and all the attachments and concerns 
social life, are mainly founded on the same assumed 
b, that what alwaya has been, in and from the consti- 
if nature, will continue to be as long as the same system 
as. However mankind have multiplied, the subsisting 
I of nature have, from generation to generation, equiv- 
multiplied with tliem ; and it is because this hai tMsen 
plar and successive fact that we are here, in the five 
id eight hundred and forty-first year of the world, with 
:oexisiing populations than ever aj^pearcd together on 
ace before, and yet with a greater quantity of food in 
lan all these augmented numbers need. Instead, there- 
' the Malthusian theory of the contradictory ratios of 
lion and subsistence bciag a grand discovery, let us 
loom it one of the most fallacious suppositions that ever 
sn insenious and amiable mind, llie able and val- 
nan who still support it will, as they extend their in- 
tions, be in time oisinclined to continue their sdherence 

you will ssy or feel, Is there, then, no want — no desti- 

Are none in beggary — none without food, or almost 

I from not having s mifficiency ! I answer. Yes : there 

poor and necdv in every land. But this is a different 
n from that of vegetable nature not producing what 
Hilations of the eaxth require, and ought never to be 
ided with it, although tliey are perpetually uvued and 

upon aa if tliey were one and the same. This is a 
Bisitake. Tlioy are subjects quite distinct from each 

One — the natural supply — is always a question be- 
huinan nature and Providence ; and my conclusion and 
ty on this is, tliat Providence has always given, and 

will give, m the annual uroduce of his earth, as much 
lopulations upon it must nave in order to vubsUt. This 
i aulBcicncy litu nover failed whera^int ^\i« %Bii yEis?^ 
jittrttioa has sought for it. The Vur(«a^ ^ >BSoma^ 


have ■hniji been enongfa for all ; and the noof tini 
the fact, notwithstandiiur the myriads or miluoiia that 
in want or penury at tne pireaent moment, or at an 
point of time, appears in this accompanying fact, Ua 
u erery where now, in the possession of the other pov 
the population, enough for all that need, if diatribiited 
want. It is not because there is not a anfficient qm 
the alimentary articles on the earth that any are in n 
is because they have not the means of purchasing or ok 
what they require from those who possess. If they 1 
trading medium, they would find in the public maikefa 
where the sufficiency they desire. Poverty and wi 
therefore, the topics of an individual question betwe 
and man, or between each person and society, and not I 
mankind and Providence. This important topic shall 
particular subject of a future letter. 


OrowtiM for a Raiioiud Assurance that tkefkUure MuitM» 
Mankind wiUfind sufficient Subsistence. — Provision made ii 
/br this hif the quantUf of Ground left hitherto uncultivated. 

Mr DCA« Sydnby, 
That there are now sufficient articles of subsistenn 
the inhabitants on the earth, in their actual possess! 
circumstance which could not have taken place onless 
ties of food and population bad been concurrently act 
advancing together, with a similarity of increase, inste 
dissimilar or contrary progression. But as the sam 
were as practically true in the reign of William the 1 
now under William the Fourth, and equally so under I 
dors and their predecessors, and, indeed, in all the i 
periods of which history has transmitted an account, i 
assume that there has been a constant adjustment esti 
and effectuated between the natural supplies of our ft 
the natural enlargement of our population ; and that 
the original, and nas\)eeti\)&« coxi^vcraLC^'^VKQLoC our ci 
that thM result abovAd vlwasra accotoiows^ ^vst ««:e^ «i 

or TBI WORLD. 299 

parimee and langaBM of the past becomo thus an aiiu- 
opbecy of whftt Uie futuxa will be in this respect to us, 
w away all reasonable grounds of doubt or uncurtminty 
t ; becauaOi before mankind can become too numerous 
ir food, this adjustment must be dislocated ; the laws 
vnciea which have hitherto produced it must lie sus- 
or abrogated ; and tlie very plan on which the course 
ra and of human life has liecn carried on ever since the 
, must be fundamentally altered. 
It only that there will not be this mutation, but that the 
sonatitutioii, and order, and succession of nature as to 
d and population will continue to be as tliey have hith- 
en, anu we are then secure from tlie disaster and misery 
werpeopled and starving world. For at no ascertain- 
9int uf precediri)^ time lias the c$artli been incompetent 
port the |K>puUuons which have inliabiled it ; on the 
ry, It has always yielded tlie requirttd suiiplien, whenever 
tieen resortctd to, by easy and practicable cultivation, to 
e them. It has, up to tlie present moment, been able 
itain every gcnuratiun which has dwelt uikiii it, although 
man race liave lieeii increasing from six parents to 800 

the earth could not have thus increased its nutritrous 

tion, in continual pro|)ortion to its enlarging population, 

it had lieen created on tlie plan and purpose that it 

do so ; for then^ inust have Ikhmi provided means snd 

es according to a previous design in order to cause 

Ji effect ; and tln-nt was no ntason but the (yreator*i 

■t there sliould be corn, or alimentary roots and plants, 

I as rus«'N, elms, grass, or tliistleH on its surface. What 

eant to be material of our nutriment lias liceii specially 

1 and intendiMl to In* mo ; and to l>e always as long as 

bould ne<-d them ; for it would be imputing folly to a 

r to suppose that he meant the human race to lie on (he 

Sbt several tlioiisaiid yam, in a series of generations, 

iding food, and yrt so framing nature as only to yield 

•nee for a portion of tlicin or for a few centuries. It 

B an ef|ual arraignment of his intellect to imagine 

leaning sikI caiisiiig |>ofMilation to multiply as long as 

on this glolN*, lu* liuH not sIno no roiiHlitiiled liin iiys- 

our sulMiihteijre that this sliall Cimliuuu \u \wr.t«.wM. '\\» 

f ia due firoportion to our inu\UvVy\n% \\\ TMmi&ytt* 


Otherwise, as we have alictdy suggmted, he puts hiniMlf into 
contradiction with himself. He wills on the one hand idat 
he docs not will on the other ; and this would conrert cna- 
tion into a chaos, And be incompatible with ereiy raliaBil 
notion of an intellectual Creator, and with that skill MadjoS^ 
ment which all nations and ages have descried and knded m 
the rest of our mundane system. 

On first principles, therefore, independent of all cafenlitioDi 
on the facts around us, we may he sure that there is no mon 
reason for our doubting or disbelieving that our paotsrity 
will always have a competent subsistence, than there was W 
our forefathers, in the days of Queen Anne or of Queen Eliir 
abeth, anticipating that wo should be starved. The apprs' 
hensions raised by the Malthusian theory resemble thosi 
which aeitated so many of our political reasoners during tlv 
reigns of all the four Georges, that every augmentation S(Mt 
national debt would bo an advance to nation^ ruin. We see^ 
by their parliamentary speeches and pamphlets, that this calamr 
ity was feared, and confidently predicted in every genentioa; 
and I believe, with great sincerity of thought uid (M^vgi 
myriads, meaning no error or evil, in the days of Geoige ths 
First, would, from their ideas and materials of jud^neot, 
have pronounced it to bo impossible that, before the third 
sovereign of that dynasty should die, our funded system should 
increase to £800,000,000, and yet the nation be more pros' 
pcrous than ever. I do not arraign their understanding kt 
their mistaken anticipations. New events and causes navs 
come into action since their day which they did not foresee, 
and therefore could not reason on. This will always be ths 
case with every theory in the succeeding periods of our world. 
Science, arts, and luturc itself will be always evolving new 
facts and operations, which will make all anticipatii)^ ressoD* 
mgs and measures concerning them more like fallaeious spccn- 
lations than serviceable precautions. We shall shackle pos- 
terity more than we shall assist it by such provisionary activi- 

New facts and phenomena, bearing strongly on their sub- 
sistence, must be expected to occur to our succeeding gener- 
ations BS they have arisen to ourselves since the pmriiamentary 
regulations of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Tho 
past will always be edvicaxionx wcA vnAitMiCtion to us, and no wise 
man will omit carefuU^ u> %vv\<V^ \V.. ^mv V^ Vaicox^ ^^Vfr^ 

or THK WORLD. 801 

ir, liMfl flnrf \mm an #itrt cofiy of i(. Many k<"m<'*' 
orf likffffiiNM may mnaiii, tmt Uics iiidividuiU frMunm, 
d habiU will In* always chaiiKiiiK. if, then, out foi- 
opiilation mIkmiM t:u\nr§(n in |>ro|Kirtion tii un an niuch 
vf! iloiH' ni roiii|Miriwiii with otir atatn when tlia Ntiiarl 
rioafil, tlifjr Will liiul Ihinr auliaiating rnaourcita in- 
rmi nrw in<*aiiii, ■((fiuru'a, and rirrimistanrcsa, wluch 

rrratr ur fliarovf r, |friT|M*|y aa wi* liavn \ii:rn (ifnii(( 

ar<-rNNMMi Iff <fi-(irKii th(t Sartnui to tlu^ rnigti uiMliir 
1 am n«fw floiiriNhinK, wilh ahiimlaiit Niiliaiatfiticfl laau- 
illy Iff UN 'I'lMf aiipfridr caiiiiri f rum whii:h tlieafi ariaa 
viiir wiMloni, cari*, ainl hriu'vokiirr — nf vrr rlianKa ; 
hrar WI* may alwaya r**lv, aa fttcrnal pniiri|iloa whirh 
ry, and whirh nrvcr will Im; iiirfrprtnal to ua. 
I iifil. WftrUttv, vi from mint mat iiik a|i|ir«'tianaUiiiB 

our iHNitrrily on thia Niihj<*rt than our aiK:<;alors did 

lift u« h-iri«latr on fwnUny^ rvila wlirn rinroaaary, 
'Ml iifMNilihr oiiri, aiKl nrvcr on alarniMl iniaffiiiation. 

daiiKcr hravfly whi-n it romi:a ; hut Irt ua not ri^ht 
•niN and ii|ffi iri'« of lliir iiMaKinallon whirh havr no 
ri*alitv "iir ]trft\i-rvn»titn wia«Oy h:ft ua, m to our 
nfetiiri', to f'rovnli'iirf*, arnl to iMimi'lvra. Jiijt iia, in 
inrr, li*avr uur di-Hci'iidantN to their own raaourriM, 
and nrrlMinti atMMit il. 'I'ln-y will have; thu aamn 
id I'rovidiMifc aroiiiMl thmi aa all niankind liitlirrto 
Kniui thrv ihiy Will ri-iirivr ai aatiafa«:lory bciiMi- 
rvrrdini/ tnnif^ have vuytytHl. Thry will iMit liav<i 
itiuily, rnli'r|frim-, mimI inffimtry tlian oiirarlvM ; hut 

havf moir knowli d|iri-, inorf; rwiviiuHi miiNl, U'lti-r 
I haliiiK, Mini ■ iiHiiir i-iilaru[i(l and i*iili|{hlfit4-d jiuIk- 
n rvi-ii wp |iiiniii-iiii Willi ihi-«<i incana and ailvan- 
•y will do lifiii r lor i)ifiii«flvi-ii than wii ran do for 
rid Will only ainilf nI our a|i|iri'hi;nMiona that, with 
nd and *iif'li a ayaicm of i-«IitiimI naturo on tlirir aid<s 
uM li«- dmiiiifd to iii'riah hy famiiff! iN'rauan llvy 
and niiilti|ilif«l. aa thry wrrr rrraird to do, and aa 

in pvi-ry iM-rifMl, mi lia|i|iily aiMl |iro«|i«troualy doiin. 
I, lh«*n, ii'|KHW fahiily on On- fM<:t, lliat fto<:Mrty haa 
liMin aii|i|ilH-ii, rrifularly, frmn tin- natural ayalein of 
rith thf ffHHl it haa rf'|uirMl Wn havi*. in thia ad- 
lariod of litf world, I'lHitiKh \w (mi \n«mi\\V iiwA» \ 
hm prowuling rauaaa lnm\ w^ucVi VW» wi&B.w\«i'^>i»^ 
/ —C c 


reflultod to us are still in tbeir efficacioiw operation, i 

eoTW no aigns of dimiimtion, of general failurei or of 

■inff inaufficiencY- The aame bmeTolent plan, and al 

Bociated purposes, are in steady execution; and t 

principle of our trust and hope has been delivered to 

the highest authority — " Your Heavenly Father know 

you have need of all these thinss.*^ As long as he n 

to exist on earth, nature will oe made to yield the 

which that existence will require. We must be e: 

from his creation before the result can be otherwis 

Ikws and processes for our nutrition will not fail untL 

to cease, and then we shall no longer need them. 

then, not look with an evil eye or a fearful mind on 

crcaaing population ; nor seek or desire to repress it, 

vise or pursue any measures for this purpose, to the i 

inconvenience of our present contemporaries of usf 

or class ; and, least of all, of those who are in thentse 

most helpless and powerless, and unable to plead fc 

selves. On the Malthusian hypothesis, enlarging po 

is an evil. By nature it is given, and in revelation it 

resented as a blessing. The more largely the su 

studied, its benefits will be more fully seen, and moi 

putably wpreciated. Why, then, should we be so u 

ungrateful to its Author as to deem it a malediction ? 

new-comer will have a right to protest against our goc 

or good feeling if we do so ; and will deny our right ti 

him as an intruder or an annoyance. By his superior i 

ments he will show that he has a greater right to the 

ance and enjoyment of a life on earth than ourselves, 

qualities, or attainments be the criterion. We have 

vantage over those who preceded us a centuiv agi 

successors will be as much more progressive beyo 

selves. They will come into this world as we hav 

If they have no right to emerge into birth, neither 

Their natural title to existence is, therefore, the same 

They will be, from their additional improvements, a 

of the human race superior to what we are. Instead 

for§, of attempting to suppress their appearance, oi 

proach them for it, we ought always to welcome the 

and cordially assist to train and guide them to that 

gradation of out comtnoiv Tv^Xwtci ^\v\c\v l^vey cannot 

nibit. But the mctcaae W\Yl cctV^x^^j \bi^^ \>a& \ 

09 na woftLO* 809 

f !• hmmiofflmd^m ondcr lopalifl wbom wHbnt 
f ipt i m vu iMo • pvofpcr poiilioa fcr atuini^f , by 
nas aad eondoet, urn mmMUimtiem tbtf wiO iimnI 
is MKb an tppannl cOTUintjr that Um imw fincra- 
€kttmto mm will be a wenn of trnMemdnif m- 

whttt wc am aad to mcIi mhtr, dM I caoooc bat 
: lk« f ptOHM of oar aaltiplicatioii uid of its firob- 
■MMiieo. Tbojr noat wiiyiM 00 in knowkidg*, bo- 
7 will be continoeUy acoainnf now ■cceeaiona of it 
■CMBCC, in everf path of inqoirjr. Tbejr caimot bat 

Tbe mind, «■ one wntor tnuy Mid, caimot anknow ; 
Ml* It knows, the more it loves knowledi^e, and ax- 

1 pleasure from it, and, therelbre, will alw^ soak to 
md enlari^e it. Knowledge cannot inciaase in soy 
Mit cnligfaleiiing bis mmd, snd, by Rnr»«K kna more 
aolmaJs and wider riews for judginc opon, moat an- 

jodfrnent. Bat aofmentations of knowledge and 
t rnmrt act upon the conduct, if not fully, ^et alwaya 
■oportion, to Ibetr smoont. Everf one will 6nd thia 
ilf, and a generation will act more 

hiBfs, with incTMSfd knowledge and judgment, tban 
lo withoot tbem. Ifence moral conduct cannot bat 
M esperiffnr^ increases, and its rssahinff good ssnsa 
More common, and will also not only become moot 

to eirenr one, even m worldly tlungi and ciicam- 
tat wiU be prrreived and felt to havo tbii iaaoe, and 
tlwrefore, prartmcd from self«intereet in the tiMbh, 
m from noMcT impulses in those who love and soak 
Mrty, as soon a* th#7 discern and onderstand it A 
It of higher moral htruing has already risen in soci- 
9 mMct:*!mot% may have their vices and errort, but 
1 havs beneiicisl diffprmccs from oors, and will not 
that augmenting m^'lioration which wiU be alwava 

to lesaen their power and conaeqoences. Toe 

wMfesil laei Is 
tngkUr frm km§ 

siM all ilMi Is anil 
■si ka Ite fMi* ar 

Ml.. |if7. Na IM. p. ML 


mora enlightened miut, on numeioos occirione, think anl 
■ct more rightly than the nnenli^itened ; the cleerng^iled 
must tee better then the blind or dimaiglited. They on- 
DOt do otherwise. They might be more mischieToue, if mis- 
chief would be serviceable ; but, as this can never be the 
case beyond some temporary effect, nor without punishiqf 
reaction or results on themselves, right conduct and wiser 
mind will increase as population continues and enlaifss, hot 
will never be so great or operative when that is statiooiry as 
when it multiplies.* But all increasing national popohtioitt 
must, like all individual children, have a jMroper juvenile edu- 
cation. No civilized society can be comfortable without this ; 
as Uie omission of it would leave those who are without it to 
grow up with the minds and feelings of the uncivilized com- 
munities, t 

• Oor fso4 Biabop Hall was in Ike Netberlands between MM ml 
1004, and aome Acta wliich he mentions of what be saw stnm^y show 
Iba improvenMDia wbicb have sccraed lo tbem with their ioereaUag 
pwwlation. Of Ldcos, be aaya, **Tlie sireeta are moiac wiih VmS, 
whenia there is no day, no night that io not dismal lo aome. Ble law, 
DO raagiatrate laya hold of itie linown murderer if bimaelf liau For 
three days sfker thla fliet, the satea are open and joatlce ebut. PrivaM 
violence may parane him, pnblie juatiee cannot. In every comer is s 
naamet (an image) ; at every door a beggar ; in every dish a priest." 

Of 8r4, now auch a ^hiooable reaort, be remariia, *' a village fiunom 
for her watera of iron and oopperaa. The wide desertt on which it bov^ 
dera are haanted with three kinde of ill cattle, firedMiofen, wrivea, aad 
witehea, tlwagb tlieae laat two are oAen one." It was one of lbs Ihoetas 
of the day that the wolvea which worried peraons in the towns uid vfl- 
Isgea were human evil beings who aaaaroed tbat abqie. This waa a 
theory anffidently abaurd ; hot the Act that the country waa ao aDCBlil* 
vated aa to have theoe animsla, and that they woe nomerous nnoft M 
do much miacbief, ia not leaaened by the hypotiieaia adopted to sceaaol 
for it. We may, therefore, believe what he aaw, iboagh not what he 
thought " We aaw a boy half whose faee waa devoored by oos of iheai 
near the village"— near the now celebrated Spa ! He adda, 

** Along oor way, bow many cburebea aaw wo demoliahad, aolhtag 
left but rude heapa ! If there had been no Hollander lo rsie tlwm, ikf 
vfould have fallen of tkenuelves. Charebes All and Jeafnil8> coDsfM 
riae everywhere. Tbere ia no city where (beee are not either resrisg or 
bnllL" These cirenmaunces are mentioned in his ** Ufo." 

t No sentiments can be more true or oaefVil than the eonelnding is* 
marks of the English Poor I^w Commissloiiera : ** We are perftelly 
aware that, for the general diffhsion of right principles and habHa, wf 
are to look, not so much to any economic arrangements and legulstitNis, 
as to the Influence of a moral and religimiB education. As soon as a 
food adminlatration of the poor laws shall have rendered Itartber ba- 
pr&remeat possible, the moal Imvottaai &«vi «r the legislature is to ufci 
UMasuiee Co promote tbeT«^Vo«»ii)&umai«AaieMteia«ii^QM>alM«rfK 

or TBI WORLD. 906 

to HM that popuistiona ctniiot now miiltipl3r 
A improving. Thm iwni of Um multipliciUicm curri^u 
I the evid«nc« of Utt iiiiprovcinifiit ; hr, wittiout th« 
r vf luipruviiig cmutum, iiatioiMi chiiikH enlarge, fhtty 
wirvr Miultipli«d wittuMjt iftiK'h ^rr*>f(roMitm ; and ntwur 
lo multipljr uiiiil l\iti ini|iruviiiK a^tifMi comtuttnetiu whirh 
. a/Ill a<;i:<fffi|j«iiii'» tli«ir inci^aM*. A)I iriy hmtorical 
ctUHia li'aii MM! Ui Uii?m: dmhirMuun ; arxJ, if ttiiry U; jiiat, 
lltipJw:aLKifi u( «vi'ry piipiiiation inntit Im a i^Mid Ut kiu- 
•tur*;, arid, ttMrri'k/rir, a pltfaaiir** U; it« f(r«;at vri|{inaior.* 
lOpuUituii ran tiirrv?««f!, wittniut «vil Ui uiiraelvtsa or to 
artierity, <:v<-n from ttif: natural mttana whi<:h ani now in 
iic«, wu tiave aaiiMfarolry irrouiKU (or l>«rii<;vinf( I will 
brw'fly, tfmn: of H^ iv.ln and r^aaonuif^ii on winch I «ti- 
I this 'ifiirnoii 

in tli«i«- ri-marka I \h-]( yoij to rf;iiif*iiilHfr tliat I am 
«riUK tlK: ttuUyvi wnv aa l>irtwi;<rii inaiikiiid and their 
ft only 'Jli«: aii|jj<ft aw U'twi'Cii man and man will im 
er ronMidcralioii h'tmu hiin will roinf; alwaya an'^igh 
; tin* i» til'' |if/int wlnrh I am at jircMrnt contemplatinK. 
B tbtni^a artr, of nmtm:, uiv-.ttnitikry for all fMpulationa — 

cultivate, and alimentary nuimlanrfrii to raiaa by tftie 
ition. Jf, tli«n, wc arc to niiil(i|ily lieyond our |ma«iit 

.* Tim flrM f^Hir Mcniittjrc* to i)ii« nfprtft ar*, iba B i a h a p a af 

1 and f.'brairf . Mr muigfrk lluuriii!, an4 Mr. HeiiMir.- -Rayiirt aa 
IT Lawn. |i MS 

■y r«lrr u* iIm prMrnl aiit* of Irelaiul. as Maind In Iba up m fh af 
ito KumtH. <ffi ISili Frlifijary, l*i37, f«ii diiiailifig bM plan far Ite 
elMi «f i^wr law« lui'i ihal i»i»iid, aa tlluMraitng Mum af Iba 
«awrt«. Il« aaid " Pr'mi ilip aiairfiipnl itrthf l^uur Imw tUtm- 
wra, 'hef< wcr« nearer ilir*-*; irnllifKia lUan iwo rniMiMia(ir|«raana 
«4 wlio wrr« III a aia(« itt minwM abagluic draliiulion , a larga 
MM of ihc Inali |«#|iijI«immi i^iHttimnl ifi«!iidirarir)r during a eunaid- 
pnuntlMU *ii ilM yrar . iIm; larrn^r* w«rr fibiig«d Ui rufitrlbulc lo 
ilar : a«4 it waa ih< |irariif « of the Iriab turuimr to aH aaidaa iwr- 
mmily ul Utm puiauiaa fur ilw mrudtcaiiu wh^i fraina Ut Um ^umr.' 
m mm, Ihat alilKMif li mm third iff ih« Iriab iiufialaiifin w«ra in a 
r 4aaliiaiMi« and HMfidtranry, jrst ilie famHT bail irw |NHaiiiea la 
MB. I'baa ibc fciMd bad yielded ciwuRh Un all aa liaiw««n maa 
lora. And ibaf ilw graai inuMi|ilM'afiiiA »t ihc Iriab pOMlaiion 
■■ aM-ofti^iiMd by iifiprffviiig agrnctaa. wa irwy alao infer fron 
r p^aaagc in bia lordafaip'a very able and f utn|ircl»iriial«a apaarb. 
Mat alaff kwk ftu ilic f<*«iLii«i. iHrativrHvaT whirb ha waa in« 
, m i.<Ty f M4irf<T, waa M«fW prwaiHlifig in Irciaitd ** ■ Maud , \9th 
9f, lay?. Hut bia whfrfa aprwh ah«rwa that maltiplying aciipul^ 
ifMirr aaw aiid wiac nwaauraa aa tbay ariaa. !fai\\i>Miaaa y^M^ 
I tm llMaa a ffaal brumfanur la aneMy. 

C t 2 


numbers, it is essential that there should be gnrand for ths 
new multiplications to till and fertilixe. Our fizst questkn, 
therefoxe, will naturally be, Is there on oar siobe territorial 
■urface now unused or unoccupied on which an additioail 
population may exert its productive industry 1 The geognpk- 
icu answer to this inquiry is, that there is on the earth plenty 
of soil now lying uncultivated, from which future mmiben 
may derive the subsistence they will need, as long as for iiiy 
useful purpose we need extend our cakulatinff foresiriit; and 
this appears to me to be another instance of uie Dinne gor- 
emment of our population, and of its continual adjastment to 
its needed subsistence ; for large portions of the earth have 
been kept unoccupied by agriculture until this period, when 
the new laws that multiply population are brought into action, 
and make more available surface necessary for its use. 

It was shown, in a letter of our last volume, ** that one six- 
teenth or seventeenth part of our preaent dry land would be 
quite enough of available ground to nouri^ at one time, the 
greatest amount of human population which has hitherto been 
permitted to be, contemporaneously, upon the earth, all living 
as our countrymen do.* Now, from this fact, we find that 
there is land enough to subsist sixteen or seventeen times 
more than all our existing populations amount to, even in the 
present low state of genera] cultivation and produce. This 
truth gives to any alarm on this subject the character of ab- 
surdity. It was also mentioned, that it had been calculated, 
on very probable grounds, that China alone could, if prop- 
erly cultivated, be made to supply at least five times the 
amount of all the human race now on the earUi, and apparently 
many more.f 

Let us pause a moment to reflect on these circumstances ; 
for they lesd us inunediately to observe that the Creator, in- 
tcnding, in this age of ourjvorld, to cause his human race to 
multiply more largely than they have hitherto done, hat hitb- 
^to kept them in this smaller proportion to the hahitu^ sax- 
face of the globe, in order that there might be land enough 

* Sacred Hist., vol. ii., Leu. XXL 

tit was there shown that China contained 040,000,000 of acres wWA 
mifht be cultivated, and that an acre of rice woald ailbrd a supplTof riet 
Ibr ten penons (br a whole year in the M>utbern provinces, ana W9 fu- 
■ona in the north. Rice ie the natural food of the Chinese. So Ihsl lb» 
itfrfcuJdiral produce of China mifht be increased, even by ibolr prmot 
mode orcultivatioa,aDastonka\iiuiati«Ba1Mb\A«jm^mAVI«rva8fla 

or Tim wuHLD. 807 

lir tifiw gnitfiraliuiit tu ucTUjiy mitl cuJtivftln wlwii liia 
«a for iitmir |iritMtiil iiiiilli|ilif:Biiuii iitMiiikl \tt urdmutnA lu 
a. Ilmn'cf uiir ii|Mfi'ii*H may fnarlchMly iiiiilii|ily frcuii 
1iiua«iKl milliiiiiH to «iiti'nii Uiiicm liial iiiiiiilN*r Imioru 
vitl Iwvr <irru|fUr«l tlui |tri>iiiiil wliirh now Uan rnsdy for 
ftliuur Hut, Urui* im f Jiiitii m, yd \uir mijiI iimy liu nu|i 
liot to hi', more lltiiii otiis Iciilli |Mrl of llm nutUvM of ail 
%i of ()iit i-oiiUnniLii anil uiaiulii of our |iUlittt ; aiul, 
irtf.f if klMi aiioulil Ini iiiMflfi lo NulMiiit livit liuina tlin 
It of iImi |irrM-iil huiiiaii racr, llin iiif«rf>n('ii will Ui, (iiat 
lid may |{o on omlhiilyinK '" ^i^'Y '*' "'**^y tum«« lluiir 
il amoinit lM-fiir«* all llm auifiii'i- wmilil \h: liifiy irullivalail. 
iti liuvr no auliioiiLy lo kii|i|Hiki' liial llii« iinmaii rar« 
a cvrr rurrw-il lo Una f»lrnl| niir lliat lint iiritaniil worUl 
lat loni( t'UUMyU lor ilii-in in ilo mit. Kcvrlation aiiaiiraa 
it ■ |M imnI ol llir iliHkoliiiioii ul II n |iri-krnL loriii haa imitii 
iril lo ■rriv, lhoii|{li it liuii<liHcoiiiiif{i'il Ihn vani atiuiiipta 
n to III iIm- liiiii* 111 ila aiiivul, liy ili-clarinif tlial iioiii- 
IT Alini^tiiy Tallifr yi*! kiiowa uIhmi tlic awful ronaum- 
II will iiri-iir Jinl, ui) iiinny niilnrii's will yi:t ri-volvp 
I Ifiaiiktiiil will fiiiil I III- IuimI ol liir rurlii lo lin iiiauflM^ti'lit 
rir iiiaiiili-naiiri-, wi- nri-il iml raiiy our liiouKlila ho far. 
ttH>U|{li tlial iiiuiiy iiilrivi-iiiiif{ rriiliirii-M imikl lakn |ilacii 
• mankiiiil can Inlly i-ijltiviiii' I In- wlioli- o| llicir praaMiit 
'r, for ii« lo ili«iiiiii4 ull Milii iliiflr NlMiiiM|ii'irMibaiat«iiu:n, 
■ny wniil ol luml In riiiM- ilirir lmivi*«lH rroin 
r raukr llml mi iiinili mihI iiMnuiiin in llim uiu'iillivalril 
111 ao lalf an a^i- nl llif worUl, la, liial maiikiiiil liavi* nol 
lu waiilril morn iliun liny liuvi- tilli-il aiul maili- ii«it of 
raiM' whut iIhmi i-ii«iiii^^ tiiiinlii-rq iri|iiiri', ami lli«*y will 
v miirf* l)i*iiiiiiiil Ik iilwiiyii flu* rnlrr ol ruUivalion, and 
liar Mrn will nol lalriiiir lor iiniliiiiK No man will (ill 
row riirii iiK-H-ly lo urn H hiitonl, ami llii-ii Irl il rol it|Nin 
lOiiliil II will iHiwIirrr Ih* |iriNliiri-d iiiilll II Im wantrd, 
lidy aa il i* wmilfil. Noiliiiiff liut tin- ({radiial inrrraNc 
|illkitiofi liaa raiM-fl mn-ii m i|iiJiilily ol fiM>i| aa tlin Ki-nt* ral 
■la now |iriNliii-i' \ kml ihi-ar Im-iii|{ iiiiirit lliaii llui |fr**BffUl 
rra ai'iiially i-ifiiaiinii*, kinrci moal liirmi-rii havit nomi* 
■ liy lli^Nii iiniic ImihI will mil Ih- mliivatMl until atfrratrf 
plifatnm ol iM-rMiiiii armt-N lo m-cd il. Wlial itiav want 
will work for ami |iriNlin'f , aa Uiii|| aa tli«ra la Uuua Ui UU 
« liUBgv wiil bnng iiarvMti. 


Eforpt hMB been surprisingly improved hj its present roleTf 
Mehemed Ali. He has, for his own sake, ffreatiy encouziged 
both its agriculture and manufactures, and made himself the 
pnmrietor of their produce, in order to use what he wsnted, 
and to sell the rest. Yet, though he has obtained supplies 
from it far beyond their former amount, one of o^r latest 
travellers declares that there might still be raised to w*""**" 
four times the amount of its present population.* 

That a minor portion only of Poluid, though a grsin coon- 
try, and one of the supplying granaries of the Contment, is in 
proper tillage, has been already mentioned ;t and Spain md 
Portugal are in the same neglected state, t But we need not 
pursue details of this sort. The general fact is well known, 
that in every kingdom of Europe Targe quantities of land are 
left uncultivated. We may confine our attention to our own 
islands in this respect. It has been calculated that, even in 
these, if every part that was susceptible of beneficial hus- 
bandry were tilled, enough might be raised to feed 120,000,000 
of people ; that is, five times the amount of their prMent 
large population.^ On another computation by a practical 
agriculturist, it was remarked, that our usable soil could be 
made to support 300,000,000 of persons on vegetable diet, or 
above 100,000,000 on a plentiful aliment of both flesh snd And one of the most prominent Irishmen of 
the present day has asserted in parliament that his country 
could produce ten times more than is now raised from it ; of 

• Mr. Csrr, in 1835, states Egypt to contain now 9,500,000 souls, of 
whom 940,000 are in Cairo, calied by ttie natives Mesr. He says, ** Hs«r 
different io tlw sute of Egypt now fhrnt what it nnight be ! ponsnsilili 
a population or scarcely more than one quarter that it might be reodiw3 
capable oraiMUining."—Carr's Account of Modem Egyptiansi 

t See befbre, Lett. XXIX., p. 980. 

t See before, p. 980. 

% The statement was made in the ** Edinburgh New FhUoaopUrsI 
Journal ,** for September, 1898. that the United Kingdom coatsiss 
74,000,000 of acn», of which 64,000,000 might be colUvaied It wm 
reasoned, that half an acre would annually yield com enough fbr oos 
Individual, and that one acre would feed a horae. ilence, that our isfaUMk 
eMfdd maintain 120,000,000 people and 4.000,000 of horaes. 

II "There are in cultivation, or capable of it, 33,000,000 of sens ia 
England, 9 in Scotland, and 16 in Ireland ; in all, 58,000,000 of aeras. 
Every acre will aup|iort a family on vegetable diet; but to live on both 
flaiAi and vegetablea, three acres must be used in order to have jrientl. 
At tbi» rate, our United Kingdom might support 300,000,000 on veg^abM 
diett or J00,000,000 on fUaah and lenMlD^Mr— VbK^-NaiaA Eapnss, 8lll 
^jHMnber, Jd34. 


1/ «• one* MMrrtoin Um rfmn!»«:r lA v.t*:* in a t.ounUy, wi 
Mft r*clum tur o<ir«*:lv«« tti« rfijfnt««:r« jt w</iil«J «iiiiUrri ; tor ^ 

MT.ii fMdj«MSii«J With two ftiifi '/ri«: tmr'i « vir«;( k * Tfii* m tnor*i 
UMk I UMk, wti^/, yr/ij kii/rft, liv<: (*firi/ i)««IJ)r ii|><«fi tstt-Htl. liui 
MAM* ^f wfiftAt, III lU '/r'linvry pr'#'iij'<:, -aiII tnrtnnh t-u'tuyiU 
I* nuit* llif«4 tirfM:* till* «!>i«riti*y So t|t«f tf,/«:<: f;« rfcon^, 
WMiM 4««!t i» Ilk* miri«;, «:'«<#]/i «<4rf«i«l «« ' tnuforXii»Ay «« I «{/« 
Mnr <Mktli0i ytwlntA lA » «frii;l«; n/rc Mux Ut*i p</|#ijl«tiOri« of 

llritflM «m1 '^hlMI tiltf*!*! Ofi »#<•, km w«: fjo Ofi wri«!«t , mA ku '/I ft*.*., w«! firi/l, will «t,i|tiiir, \tuut hvt-. \t, Urn ^t^^iun tot 
» )r*Sfi and Ui«; ii^*t^A»: ui Utf%*: "tutiUtiH %f. ituui 'ttf. iNir'i 
to WM tmif '4 all ite riiifri(»«-r« tut^ tm ^u*-. «'«rth 

f./«rry tli*'M! wU-un roiinH iri^ worM, «ri«l im«<irri<: tii«i iti«; 
•Wi wcpvmI tttrinnit t« riiany iri)f«Mf«rit« «« r|>j4rt«'r« of wti«:«t 
••<vi4 b4 raiftMl frf#fn it wti^ri: wri«*aii m ronn'i/iiH, o/ Un 'irri«!« 
M MMvy »• lhi!r« WomM t*«! HAff-^ of ri": in #'i(i|V«rMri wrii:r«: 
tti« .^Wfo i< Mt^i, afiH yoii will fi-«-i it ml \u*-f: r»ri ti«r m/ tmntt 
km ^km\»tiMUK^ «t tft«: rri>ilt<|#ii' n'lori of \,ti\ri\hU*iii lor nuj U n^th 
ctf tWft to whMii w«: ri«-«-«J Mi'.ii'} O'j/ |#r'Mp<'tiv*s «o>)'if«xi- 
t«M«» y,^*ry ntUU*i*nt»\ ;««r«ofi Aiil ri-'|iiir«: tfi*' «fi iMiflitiori«l 
^vtnmt M wfif'tt «ri«/iiM t«« r«iM«l ; uri'l, f'/r «■«' r/ trir*-*: ri*-^ 
bvMMfi t/«iri^« 'o riiiv^ •rue, «ri «' f iu'a%X *i*- f/'il in dliJii/i- «t 
\Hm rmumfftt ]^ttA'if»t 'I riii«, if <fi«- f></f/(iUtiori r«» »^ilar(/<-'i m 
t*ri y««ra }fy l,tMMt,iHlf} luot*- inh4»«i'»nf«, IJHHtiH/ft mot*-. 

•tmOm iniMrfwrlioM »f iM lri«h p4nr f^w Nill. Mr iMhMi '/^ wtiMl 
W» |M«« M^ " It tisil fffk#n I****! ii4wiiii*4 ibal lr*)»n'l w«« « 
ry r»fim» «f i w« w ilirMt fifri»« ita pi»^it* ' 'jii. *«•!«» Ilrj> i>i»r* 
M put *^ lr*iaifl Iff fa^c. whi«h i*«a n'^ r«(i«i«i* «f *n»u% »h\U 
t» a 4tifr<i* re* riMia fn««rt! (/f«^fKii*» ifttn n i*««w wm 'ttt^rm 
tamm mtm Uritth nl ii w««f» i«n4 whi'ii h«4 r**^^ MAfi br^kcft 
who'll w%« '!•«••« »a|»«Mr r,f r^'i,v«>iiifi ' Mf «ri«!«r'i, l|)ti r»>, 
|. 1417 I '#*<*»rT*, «!««#, th«f. Ml ih* Mrii» *0»»nm>'in, IjttA ll'iW «k 
1414 "It ii«4 ^*»n (fMij Mh'l tii«i "••r'! «»*• ho inn '«f 1" «'•'! 
mMM imm, »i7 in»r*«M«l feki.:. r«i> mai)* m ptt^,fit*-9» tm thu «(r.»r , 
tM MM p^vrtii «f tri» Itful tntimih*iii m% ihm n^tu^nti «niiA|^**Mi ' 

* "flm itht0fin\ 'jii«n«f *A wif»«> wrifh* V0i ^^ittAm. ti^ in im 
hAiwl»4# ■ |'^«4 'fVk^r, wil lurit uW IM f'Air {j^^tifM |/4tv*«. M*'!. ■• 
Ifepa* i|wri»f« f^t •"» i« III* Nif »f»tm^ t»*Httt Iff •!•• "Wh minim in 
tagflftff. an a^r* wiii pn^tf^m mutr** *••( frain Ut fft«h# V# in«v*a, mjw 


qnuten of wheat must be nieed, either by increunig to fktt 
•mount the productivity of our preeent land in cnhiratioii, or 
by bringing 330,000 more acre* into cultivation, if we noof- 
iah them from our own toil ; but if we have now ten tiocf 
this quantity of producible land yet uncoltiTated, we aet 
that* at this rate, we may go on multiplying, •• nmch as wa 
are now doing, for a hundred years, and still grow conenoogh 
in our own islands to feed them. The rice conntriei wood 
allow two or three times this quantity of popohtion : so 
abundant are the means now risible for meetii^ the higmt 
increase of population to which we hare any jost o ccs aiop to 
advert. We can reason still more exactly on tfab point as to 
cor own islands. 

England contains, in its whole area, about 92JOOO,COO of 
acres.* Of these, 3.3fi0,000.haTe been deemed incapable of 
improTement ; and of the remainder, nearly 3,500,000 of 
acres are in an uncultivated state.t Now this qoantity of 
land, if put under efficient tillage for wheat, would, aceoraiif 
Co the statement we have just reviewed, provide soffidcdt 
food of vegeuble diet for 10,000,000 more inhabitanto m 
England alone ; a number not likely to accrue for forty or 
fifty years at least, though we should multiply further in our 
late accelerated ratio. 

But if we reason on the amount of land not at presnt in 

* ** The ares of England is 50,387 squsra natnle miles, neloriis if 
Wales, consequently a,M7,W0 scree." The separate enomersilsaa if 
tbe eonleoie of each country come to 31, 770,015. —RJckm. Ennm. AfceL, 
vol. U., p. 8M. Mr. Cowling *o calcslBiloa makeo it 31349,400 aeim 
On eiclier ealeulallon, tbe emoant would be aoarly 33.000,000 ofanvs. 

t Mr. Cowling, a eivU engineer, In 1837, deliTered to a Select Consul- 
lee of tbe Hooae of Commons bis ststenenl on chlo eobjeet, wbfeb be 
sstd wao the raeuU of bio personal ezaminatioo, having ezaaiioed IM 
of the eoantiae of both ielands, snd psrtlslly viiited tbe oiher 11. Hto 
aeeoont wao a detail, of which the fiMlowing ia a sonmiarjr :— 

bol hnprorahlo. 
England . 35,033,000 3,454.000 

Wdee . 3,117,000 530,000 

8c90tland 5,305.000 5.950.000 

IreUnd . . 13,135.380 4,00UAM 

BrltiebUaiftds 383,090 104,000 


40.533.970 lft/)00.000 15,871^401 

Mr, Porter, in his eQinpeikdMma^<AwM«C ^'Ths P rogreoe of the El* 
ika," hu iDMfted Mr. CowU&i^ ^sMas^i aw — wi >v'gvien> 

or TH WOSLD. 311 

hMhindiy, Iwt wbieh la «MCMiCiMo of cultivation, hi all firfat 
BfiUMi and Inland, we fkia that lUttrtt un no ftrnttr ilian 
lAtMWiOOO of acre* in thia waata but improvalilif cofuliiiofi ; 
isd, thiarafora, that w« havn Miil enouKk yet unuMil whurh 
eouU be made to firuvMie 4ft,000,(MlO iijorn ^tfuiAtt in our two 
iUanda with veKi^hli} food from our own rfMuuititiu. I ftij|>. 
■iM to you, that wm may belie vn tluit, if Nurk an aij|{menUtion 
•houid ever take place m our nation, im ireneralionN for whiirii 
we ekell have any iirrwffial intereitt wtil ke in l>etii((. Wo 
have land enough to Ofrcupy and (nad nil that will f:om« for a 
very long tiine ; and thiN niakea it quite iiniiMtevMiry for ii« to 
ipeeulato on Uie retulta which niiiy take |ilaf:« wlwru every 
acre la in full cultivation* 

Oi the land now in cultivation in our iitlandit, aliout two 
Mm only are m tillage ; the rent are in the graany utale. 1 (if 
Ihoae which are tijli'd, a profMirtion only i« in culture every 
year lor wlieat. Kull mi niurh Imit l»een coiiNidercfl U* irmw 
and beana, and tlie ri-maiiulrr liarli-y.t At |fre«Mit wh 
a vaat «|uarilitv of lK>r«i:«, anil iracli lifirne i« Maid to rn- 
aigtit tiuieit the noil mid Mulmtmice which would MU|f|ily 


* TiM Mammary In Ihn urarMliiig imiOi itrrmiM^ iIm wtnilii land ttf iIm 
■mieh lalMida, ruliivaird, waalfi, aiid Uiit«r»ntalila. a« aiiKMifiiiii( to 
77 JMiMS arraa ; uf which alMiUf otiai flfih iniIv la rlaaaod un4rt Mia u«a- 
laaa ehararicr 'fh* i ulf ivalik rfiiiimii* «| ,tm,V7U hi tern, wliUli, ai ilin^ 
haaMa balnga par mtrr, wnulil rw)4 |i»4,A4e,(i|(i indivHuala. I'u thia 
■maaac, ikan, w« may aafriy muliiply. 

f Mr. Uownag Ikua dialiiif ui«bMl tha gmund thai la now la ruliiva* 

Aralflr aiHl fJarrfrna. 

MMdiiwa, PaaiuFM, 
and MaralKa. 

I*taiiii« Arrr«. 


WaU . 

. lO.VM.HjU 

. lA.rtt.sno 









IkMiaa lalaada 



itt.iaft.MTi n.sM.Mo 

(VfWling'a Prograaa of ihn Nauun. 
I Anker Voeaf Wlrvpd ihac, in Kiigland, iharr ar« a«aaJly i,itfiiJM 
af tfoa awry yaar growing whroi, m many prMlMring harlay, anil aa 
■May oowod Ibr oaia an4 hcana Mr f .'oiiilior agraMl wiih bim aa lu tha 
iral ood laai i4 iliraa ■ntrlni, liui llioaght ibnl Ihrra waa ncM ao marh imr- 
lay rie Ibw fmiiil I ain inrofuprtam lu jatlgi!. Niifna Ihiiili thai iiHir* 
waaoi la now ralaod . an4, a« wp nmdarr whfal nhough f^ff iMirowii uar, 
Ihaff* moM tir Mibrr morr itinn S /Jun AfMi or arrra (i^aittaA w\Mk ^,««i mo^ 
a« aa arwiyv, / mM aa< ^ a iluea yteitaia. 


food for a man. * This has occaaioned some to urge itroagty 
that the vtcain incchaninin should be applied to agricnltiire, 
not only that the ground which now provides what ibey need 
might be applicable to raise more focNd for the cnlirging pOfH 
ulation, but also from the diminution of farming ezpemw 
which would follow from its adoption.! There ie such i 
spirit of enterprise and intelligent ingenuity among our coantiy- 
mcn, that wc may expect that all improvements yrbkh an 
be invented and brouglit to bear usefully on this point will in 
time occur as our population enlarges, because tnat incxMis 
will bring more acting minds into existence, and stimoUte 
their activity. It is gratifying to perceive that the attempt 
has already begun and b<;cn found practicable. t 

In these facts we may diiicern a certainty that the adjost- 
ing principle tM;twecu multiplication of population and muhipfi- 
cation of food will act as steadily and as efficaciously bereamr 
as it has been operating hitherto ; and that due provision bu 
really been nuulc that it stiall have this effect. We have i 
further assurance of this result, and further means of procuring 
it, in the other element of the system of our maintenance ; I 
mean, in the very articles which we consume as our food. 

Two principles have been pursued by our Creator as to the 
Bubstanceb which are to be our supfjort, with an express view 

* Aeeordinf to thn parliiiinent«ry retams in 1728, the horaes nmoinf 
in fUMchM in (areat Britain amounted to 178,841 ; and a writer in IlM 
** New Farmers* Journal** of 1st November, 1833, considers tliat all lbs 
horses that are excluaiveiy einployed in drays and draughts would, with 
the eoach'horses, amount to 000,000. To these are to be added tbow 
which are IcepC Air agriculture and pleasure. *' it seema admitted thai 
each horse conMume^ what will support eight indiTiduala." From this 
he reanons, that, if out of the whole number, dOOjOOO alMNild be auper 
soiled by iicaam carriagca, their absence would enable com to be rund 
fbr nearly 5,000,000 more people. 

t We must not aup|NMw iliat all the expectations of sangaine ealcoIS' 
tors will be realized ; but it ia as well to know them ; because Ibey ex- 
cite experimenta which, if not Terifyiiig what ia proiniaed from them, yet 
often elieit many new utiliuea. Thus, "Mr. Brown otthn sutemeflts 
to pnnre that the horses now uaed in liuabandry alone are mainiained at 
an expenditure of 30,000,000^ yearly. He calculates that, in ten yean, 
the profit in favour or a aieain-plough over a horse-plough would smoant 
lo 775/., even allowing all exfiennea on ita first introductioo."— New 
Farmers' Journal, lat November, 1833. 

t Lord Heoniltor ataied, on rtih September, 1837, at the East BuHblk 
ifrfeu/ruraJ dinner, that he had received a letter fWrni afliend in Lineds- 
mSint mentioning that in Uia na\f\\VK»&T\MMA iViMy had already a tuam 

pi&ugh^ which would harrow t\&\n) aAt«aixv^\fv«^^^«iam7tcday. 

— Atindud, 14til BsiiiMiber, 18M. 


BlimMd multiplieitioii ; and tbest are, that thev ahall 
MmeroiM, ana that their producttre ijritem ihau hare 
of ineroaein^ fertility, both from natural amnciea and 
nan cnltiYation, wboae limits of improvabhity cannot 
Idbied. In both these laws we have a security 
Ming famished by augmenting numbers, which we 
iver to forget. The food of the animal creation is 
tpU, commonly some one or two articles only, and 
tending beyond. But, for mankind, a diversity of ed- 
itances has been created, and many such have been 
d are still, in manv countries, the most convenient or 
I food. As it will not be incurious or unusoful to 
bat is taking place in the world in this respect, the 
hoe provided and applied, and the increasing produc- 
•r of some articles, shall be the topic of the ensuing 
I further elucidating the Divine system in our human 
life abundant provisions for its comfortable support. 


rifk 9f Animal Nutrition m, that it ahall pnaofnm whM hot 
k wiiiim it.—Jknimal and Yegttmblt Orgmn ia a ttm M iwn i y rg ali 
i fWrf.— fWto to ahow that Mankind can and da Vnd on all 
IMS ^tht Animal Kingdom, andjlnd N%Uriment/)rom all. 

DBAR Son, 
ig thus seen that there is groimd enough still overy- 
Dcultivatod on our surface to supply a greater multi- 
i of our race, and a longer sories of its generations, 

have any reason or necessity now to advert to ; and 
mdence has kept the earth in this condition, as if to 
d supply its human race at that period when it intend- 
ilazge and spread their number, let us now consider 
has created to be the needful aliment of mankind, or 
frrertible into their nutritious support. 
It five great divisions of material things— the aerial, 
•ons, the mineral, the vegetable, and the animal — the 
• only contain the articles of human tu\MM\«nA«. \^V» 
kabh Act, that animal life is •appoiied ofdl ^n^fi^^^a^ 


which has had hfc in it. VegeUhle existence irises fna 
the mineral kingdom, under the agencies of the serial and ths 

aueous, on iis provided orssnization and principle of life. 
■nts, therefore, are not indebted to any preceding vitality 
for the growth or continuance of their own ; but no aninul 
can live on the influences alone of the three compartmenta of 
nature which sustain vcsetation. They require to be nour- 
ished by what has had lite in it, and therefore either by vege- 
table or animal substances. This is remarkable, and beymid 
our power of explanation. If there be any exception, it Um 
in the microscopic world ; though as the seeds of some plantt 
are invisible, and, by the mould which follows, damp appean 
to be wherever moisture is, even the livine molecules, which 
our artificial magnifiers reveal to us, may derive their subsist- 
ence in the same manner as all other animals, from vegetaUe 
cryptogamia or from each other. The chymistry of the living 
pnnciplo in plai/ -:. in functional actions, seems to be neces- 
sary to put tne material particles of the mineral worid which 
form our food into that condition, combination, and digesti- 
bility which will be subservient to animal nutrition. The fact, 
at least, is certain as to ourscIvcH, that we can live only on 
what has been a living and organized being, cither as plant os 
animal. We have not yet discovered the art of converting 
azote, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, lime, or clay, or silei, 
into nutritive matter. The vegetable principle universally 
has the power of effecting this, by its diversified organixationf, 
into its own compounded substance, and this, so made, be- 
comes our food. Whether mankind, who now, by Mr. 
Crossc*s experiments, have attained the power of cr3r8taUizing 
matter into gems, and of reviving insects or infusoria by the 
aerial electricity, will acquire the knowledge how to imitate 
the vegetable process, and, like this, to put the material par- 
ticles of our surface into an alimentary condition for our nse, 
no one now living can either affirm or deny. It is not impot- 
sible, nor is it more unlikely than the galvanic metallization 
of the earths and alkalis by Sir Humphrey Davy was anterior 
to his experiment, or the crystallizations of Mr. Crosse be- 
fore the last year, 1836. If science should ever attain to rival 
vegetation in this respect, then our population might double 
themselves as fast as Mr. .Malt bus suppo.<9cd ; for subsi^unce 
then would, like the air and water, be ho common and so mo- 
curuble as to bo, pcihapsi ^o mot« N^vi«^^(i(\3Kx\>2u!s<j -^.n: Bat 


ty of inaintmanre woiikl inevitably chan^ the prea- 

f of human HorietVi and mofit of itii employmrata, in- 

I. rnjoynirntN, cl(>0imi, anil haliita. If it were poaai- 

the aliiindanrr of mcanii umlcr our present ayatem, 

population nhoiild increHM* b<*yond their auppliea. 

In* thrn the will of our ('reator to lead the human 

Bornr diMTcivrrioa cif thin sort. If creation abounds 

idi*rN, M> do the irivrNtif^ationN, the rajMicity, and the 

»f the tinman spirit, whenever the Divine influence is 

asHiNt and ifuidc tliein ; for this I believe (o be the 
rent and leader in all our trrund disroveriea. 'I*he 
• |^|»|*"^'(l<'^ I'rintinf;, tho rotton-niill, the steam-en- 

1 other unpnivHi^ inveniionH which have so much ad- 
■Of'ieiv, eanii! earh into our apprehension and uae at 
mIh when they were nioNt iH'iieririal, and could lie 
)Hl RVMiliiiif, UN if a Niiprenie intelligence had siiccea- 
nmvnUti tlii'in. Hut h'sving all tlieHc eventualities to 
I Its SovereifTii, we, at pn'Hent, like all our prrdecca- 
I colli ciiiiiDrHrieN, inuKt seek our food from the elabo- 
iimI pHMiiii'tN of vegetable and aniniHl chyrnistry. On 
me iiiurikirid liave hitherto Hiibniiited ; and it will not 
ereHiint; or iininHtriirtive to olmervir liow our fellow- 
H M>le<-t iirid apply tlieni Un tlieir nutrition and gratifi- 

We will tiej^in our survt^y with the animal classes 
UHed an fo(Ml. 

not the liir^eiit |»art of human |iopulations that now 
itlv on animal diet. Tiie wilder nations of the earth, 
1 the hunting; Mate, like the North American Indiana, 
f iKistoral Mate, likf the ('affres, and otlier Africana, 
.•ral Tartar trilH-n who domesticate cattle, aulMist prin- 
ijiori It Milt It IN too diliicult to In; aci|uired when 
lals are at liberty, and too contly to lie reared wliere 

tanii-4l and ronfiiird, for all to liave it ready and in 
t <|iiaiitily for daily reiwHtN. TheM' retpiire what can 
at hand, and for a loii^ time unsfioiled, and be also 

into Hiif'h HiiiMlbT portioiiN mn tin* occanions for uaing 
id AnimalN inuNt Im> i|iiirklv eormuined, uiilcaa they 
dried or rtalli'd ; and ttien-fore animal diet cannot be 
eral 1(mnI of any |H'4ipb' afti-r they iNrt-oine numeroua 
in to adopt tlie civilizi-d liahits. »iit it is use<l every- 
'I soirif pro|M>rtioii ur other ; and all the ocdet« qC ua 
kingdom /lavir been aiid arc, in mhim i«i(iMKi « 


made the subject of human maetiretwm. Quadnipeds, hh, 
the phocine and cetaceous anioials, the aii^)hibiou8 kindi, 
binis, reptiles, insects, worms— all are taken and enioyed m 
a pleasure, as well as aliment, in some country or other. 

The cultivated nations confine themaeWes mostly to cattle, 
sheep, kids, and swine among quadrupeds ; to their domesti- 
cated birds, to that selection of the wUd ones which they pn^ 
sue as game, and to particular species of fish. They gco- 
erally avoid insects, worms, and reptiles, and the rest ot the 
animated kingdom. To this, however, there are still sodm 
exceptions in Italy, even at Rome ;* and as to frogs, at Vie 
anna and elsewhere ;t the Spaniards of South America likt 
snail soup,t and the Portuguese there use shrimp pies and 
fried ants, which one of our medical countrymen ^pplanda.f 
As there is no more natural reason for using one of thess 
than for the other, it is perhaps habit and taste only vdiich 
decide on what shall be our liking or aversion. 

Elephant flesh is used in West Africa, on the Niger, and 
that also of the hippopotamus, but neither was pleasant to a 
European palate. II Monkeys seem to be a favourite food m 
many parts, though their resemblance, when cooked, to chil- 
dren, must always make them displeasing to any cultivated 

* At Rome, in Mareh, 1820, the writer says, ** Paasiug thmogfe tht 
market this day, we mw things exposed fi>r sale which we sbooldBaidly 
snppoee human creatures would choose voluntarily for food. Ttot 
were baskets or Trogs and shell-snails. These w«re crawling aboot asi 
pushed back by the boys. The fhigs were skinned, and looked ifViu, 
uke chickens. On the stalls were owls, volturas, kites, bittema, tta» 
tits, cats, hedgehogs, ravens, and sbaiks. Some days ago oar eook smU 
us up a hare at dinner with the paws, to prove that in was not a cat*— 
Narrative of Three Years* Residence in Italy, p. 181. 

t At Vienna the fh>gs are kept and fod in tube ia tbelr eeUan^ tobi 
OMMre lit for their table cookery. 

t At Monte Video, Mr. Webster mentions, " that large quaathks ft 
smdls are sold in the market, and are used fi>r making soup.*— Vojftp 
In Chanticleer, vol. i., p. 77. 

^ The same gentleman remarks, in the BraxUs, at Rio Jaoeire, "Ai 
shrimjjo are very large, and, when made into pies, are an excellent dish.* 
~Ib. 51. *' Ants are so large that they are fned and made into adBUMM 
dish."— lb. 

llie Arabs revolt at shrimps as much as we do at ants. 

II At Boossa. *' We have received from the king a dish of siewrf 

elephant's flesh, and another of an hippopotamus, a short time bclbn 

eaoght in the Niger. This was rank and ftt, more like pork than any 

meat we know ; yet it is considered delicate and delicious eating. Bi^ 

phtnVu flesh, unless very young, is almost uneatable flrom its tougbnaia 

and raocid nature."— Lander** TTaN«\«, ^o\.\\.,^. VW. 8o in Burma, 

In the Eaat Indies, Captain Ijow aa^a, " Vl« v>^ «». ^XAa tRMa.««!)(MiH 

OBmb," 4ec.— Joorn. R. A. 8oc.»"No. %. 


mmd :* in English trsfeller imtber liked their flayour in South 
America, t Badgen wesejnyen as a present from one of the 
royal wiyea in Afnca4 Buffaloes are food like our cattle 
wbererer they are met with, and horseflesh was used by our 
Anglo-Saxon nation, by some Scythian tribes, and by modem 
Tartars. Dogs cooked seem to be great favourites in several 
places, emcially in the Sandwich Isles. ^ Here they are 
fired for that In the Arctic regions the bear is 
made an article of food, but on English sailors it was found to 
produce unfoTOurable effects, and particularly in a removal of 
their outer skin.f The natives oi those parts are not so af* 
feeted fay it,** but such a result is a strong indication that our 

* Kki Grande, AfHca. **The natives eat the large wicged monkey, 
whidi tbey oondder as a great delicacy."— Capt. Owen'a Narrative. On 
fhs river Amazon, at 8ion. "Tbe Indians who returned fVom the chase 
ImmI lived ei^t days on the flesh or monkeys.**— Dr. Poeppig, Travels in 
Chili. At Burma, " Monkeys are also eaten.*' — Captain Low. At Fori 
4pain, in Trinidad, "Monkeys are sold in the markets, and eaten hy 
Bsoy as a delicacy.** — Welsh, Voy. Chanticleer, vol. i., p. S74. 

t ** Among the Indians on the Huayabamba, monkeys seem to be the 

CDdpal arUele of their animal fixxl. We saw great numbere of these 
Dgiiiff up, dried, in moat or the Jioones ; and they formed no inconsidw^ 
able pfMtion of our food fill we reached Sarayacu. At first we felt some 
mmgoanee to, but habit and necessity got the better of it ; and, 
wbao accustomed to (he meat, we found it by no means disagreeable." — 
JB^lh*s Narrative of a Journey from Lima. 

I ** The king sent us a turkey, and one of his women presented us with 
Jl masted badger.**— Lander, vol. i., p. 232. 

f In tbe Sandwich Islands, in their feasts, the flesh of the doc constl- 
ftntfls Ibe principal meat. " I liave seen nearly 200 dogs cooked at one 
ttaM ; and during the last visit which the late King oi Tahucu and hia 
^■avn pahl io the governor of Hawaii, a feast was prepaied by him, at 
.which Anna was present, and counted 400 baked dogs, with fish, hogiL 
IBd vqfetables In proporiion.**— Ellis's Hawaii, p. 348. They are fond 
of dogs also In West AlViea.— Lander, 8. 

B ''Nnmben of dogs, of a rather small size, and something like a 
tvrier. are raised every year as an article of food ; they are mostly fixl 
on vegetables. The natives say that it is sweeter than tlie flesh of tho 
(Ig, and roach more palatable than that of goats or kid, which some re- 
nss to toacb, andibwxare to eat.'*— Ellis's Hawaii, p. 349. 

V ** During our stay at Fury Beach some polar beara were killed. 
flome of our party, tempted by the fine appearance of the meat, made a 
Imiij meal »f the flrat^hat was shot. All that partook of it complained 
-sf a vloteaC headache, which continued with some two or three days, 
jnd was ftrilowed by the skin peeling off the face, hands, and arms, and, 
Ja some, of the whole body. On a former occasion 1 witnessed a some- 
■Unilar oecurrenee ; when on Sir Edw. Parry*8 polar journey, hav- 

lag lived fhr several days on two beara that were shot, the skin peeled off 
<tM AsC, lags, and arms of many of tlie party.**— App. to Ross's Voysge. 
«* ■■ TbB the flesh, without experiencing any each idf 



hu an important connexion with our digMtive j 
and this may account for the changes of the cooBplexion wl|ieb 
many undergo. Abstemiouaneaa ia probably « gieafter t^Ua- 
man for tho preaenration of beauty of conntenance dan ii 
coomionly imagined, and in both aezea. 

It baa been thought incredible that the fiercer part of the 
ancient piratea of the north ahould drink blood ; bat we find 
that this repulaife liquid, with animal entrmila, is a banqnet fo 
the western Esquimaux, who alao preaented to Captain Bee- 
chey flesh in iu raw state aa an additional kindneai.* An- 
other aet regaled themselves with blubber, and pieces of the 
walrus, which no European's stomach could poainbly ratain if 
ho could swallow it ;t others added wild beniea, fish, and 
train oil.t AH these things are sufficiently nauseoaa to those 
who are not in the savage state of Ufe ; but ants, grabs, 
worms, snails, and reptilea are aa repulsive ; yet these are 
liked and uaed. Snakea and aerpents are eaten in Egypt and 
in western Africa. Lizards, mice, rata, and cateipilhn alio 
on the Niger. ^ Ants are eaten by the Hottentota, either 
boiled, or raw, or roasted after the manner of coflfee ; erei 
Europeans like their taste, II and one traveller thinka them nu- 

eonvenienee ; but the liver was always givsn to the dogs."— App. te 
Boss's Voyage. 

* ** Tbe blood of animals is as much esteemed by tbese psopls si by 
the eastern Enquimaux. They placed several dishes beCbra ns. Twoa 
their choicest were the entrails of one seal, and a bowl oT coagolsled 
blood. Seeing oar reloeiaoee, Ihey tried us with snotber dM, eooslichif 
of the rsw flesh of the nsrwhal, nicely cut into lumps, with sa eqau 
distribution of black and white ftt."— C^aain Besehoy'a Vovafs. voL L, 
p. 344. 961. 

t " At another villsf e, bowls of blubber, wslms, sod aea nnleors^ 
flesh were offered to us."— lb., 305. Near Icy Cape, *' One of the ekil- 
dren was rollinf in the bottom of the baidar, with a large piece of smI- 
blubber in its mouth, sucking it as a European child would a eonL^- 
lb., p. 385. 

: At Chamisso island, *< resolved that we ohoald psrtake tbeir hoipt- 
tality, they placed before us striiw of blubber in wooden bowli,ui 

tax an' 

whortleberries, mashed up with rat and oil.'*— lb., 991. *<By 

aet, a dried fish was presented fo each of us, and a bowl ofcranbeniM 

mashed up with sorrel and rancid train oil."— lb., 394. 

$ See the first volume of this History, Letter XVT., near the end. At 
Katiunga, near the Niger, Mr. lender saw in the market ** an ImmMM 
quaniiiy of mice, rats, and lizards, dressed and undressed, all hsvii« 
their skins on, and arranged in rows.^— Vol. i., p. 180. " The nidvii 
roaat, grill, bake, and boil lizards, rats, locusts, snd caterpUlari.''"Ilh 


U **A letmed (brelgiifir lQ!ld^\haxw^«&^a^\il]k^«n&a^1lM«llai 

or THJB WORLD. 819 

1 iMvliMni Umid to the mwoU which ■ome civilized 
wajittf* SeveiBl kindu of fprub* we ealoii in civ- 
loottietf M well M bv tluMo we deern MVK((c.t 
Mr. Kifby'a fhwidi tMnred tiiin that tliey were luucli valued 
hf MOM of our own Mlow-subjecU ;t and tliia valuable eiitu- 
mfdamttt concun with Dr. Dsrwin, to recoiimieiid tlio addition 
rfbotacockcliaferatiid their larvw to our own well-filled tablcM.^ 
il as not, thofofore, the mark of a aavagc iniiid or taste to like 
llMee thinga. Indeed, we fuid tlie Cireeka approved of them, II 
■idlJM Romana iatteiied aoiiie fortlieir eiijoyirii;fit.5 Heiicf) 
w» BAjr eilow the Ilumieae to eat tlieir woniia/*' and othcra 
and apident without braiidintf tliein aa barbarouvp 
■appoeinf that they niuat bo fainialied to do The 

II, ka appraadMa U wttii iba eiid of hia walking atlrk ; iba ania 
eel la graal numbara ; aoma to nvonwHtrn, mmim fbr il»« nmrm ax- 
I ; wiNe iha aii^ la prauy w«il eov«red witb tbcm, b« drawa li 
hia llpa and aacurea ttiein all. He d««crlb«« Iha ia«ia a« rovl 
^ nak ; imm ealika tbat of iIm plain called Mirrcl."— Nonb Aimtrl- 


* TMa la ftaMaHiman, wIm aaya, " I hava eaim ilwni diaaMd in ibia 
wmf (raaaMd), aud Ibiak Ihaw delieaia. iKMinabiiig, and wbnlaaMne. 
era aanwibing awaiiar, tiMNigh not ao clvying a« iIm maggot of iIm 
Iffw ba««l«, whirb )■ aarvMl up ai iIm laMea of iIm Weal ludiaii 
, particularly Iba Freucb, aa oiie of Um graatcat lukuriaa of tli« 

f ■• MadaflM Marian baa flgurad aevtsral of ibe larvai wblrb Ilia native* 
aC ■OfflnaM raaal and aat aa dclifioua Pwd in iirr * Inaecia at Kunnam/ 
fWLiUi and IH. PwrrR nut icaa una in tha Mauriilua, wbinb boib wbitca 
eedUarfca aal graedily.** -Voy.^p. 79. 

I ■• A frwnd oTmina. who baa reaidad a good deal In the Weat Indlea, 
Intl^ ew tbei IIm lata Hir John f«a Forey waa riiremely fbnd of the 
Brfai greb wtien pnfparly nmkrd. Mr. Halt liifur'na ine that in Jamatra 
iba grab aalled iiiaraiini la in reijueel ai the principal ublea.*- Kirbyn 

~kMWDl.. vol. l..p. SOU-l. 

4 •*! Ibink with fir Uarwin 'I'hya., 3M) ibil the lama of the rork- 

' r, wbicb lead ajMHi the ruuia of graaa, or ihr perfMf iiia^ta tbeni- 

iirigbt ba added lo our ciitrrnieia: bale, iurfceya, and oth^r hirda 

Ibam eagerly."— Kirby, p. 31H. Me ala*! reniarka, " li la probable 

all Ibe aperNn oT ihia genua might be aaMy eaten, aa well aa many 

I ** Ekan maniiona that an Indian king aet hrfore bia fJrerlan gueete 
■ HMlat worm, taken ftom a plRnt whirk ilic Indiana eaieemeu dell 
ilaea. Tba Cirvha rancurred In ibe v^iiion" JKl. Ifiatory, p. Ifl, e 13 

V "Pilny BMniUiiia that tlie Koiiian p|Hrure« fa'iened the mmwu* wiih 
gaer."— Iliet. Nai., p. 17, <■■ M. Mr. Kirby ihinba It not ceruin what 
gpMlaaar greb tbia waa— P. 30S. 

•• ■• Tha lauao palau. a long white aaml pe tlncld worm, which le 
ftlBi ifldaraytd wood, la rackooad a delieary In Banna.**-** .'apiain l^w, 
imtn. Aa. Mac., No. 41. 

ftMkMi/trmmuioiia ll>a apMar etfen, p. HO. '' Ja Teiv 1Ma^GW»»% 


Greeks feasted so much on their gnsshoppers as to distingaish 
critically their diflfcrcnt flavours.* Locusts are highly TalOfSd 
and dressed in various ways by the Arabs,t and are not less 
precious to several other nations. t But if th^be so plessant 
as an English clergyman thought, some future age may wel- 
come their visit, and grind, salt, boil, stew, or fry tfa^ as 
soon as they begin to devour or to attack the vegetable har* 
vest. They will then add to our food instead of diminidbing it 

The convertibility of animal matter to nutritious subsisteDce 
appears to be bounded only by the use of it. Whatevet anj^ 
people are not in the habit of feeding on is either ansalntaiy 
or unpalatable to them. But, whatever they accustom them- 
selves to, they seem then to like and to thrive with. Thoa, 
what we use only in besieged towns, when famine b^;in8 its 
lavages, stewed bides, is a regular food in some parts of Af- 
rica ;^ and the skin of fish, to us so indigestible by the stiODff* 
est stomach, is the allotted food of children So 
the hippopotamus, which Lander rejected, and which wooki 
have been insalubrious to him, was delightsome to his negro 
attendants, who had frequently feasted on it.if 

But, amid all these diversities, mankind seem to have agreed 

New South Wales, tbe natives eat snakes, bat not unless killed by ibeoh 
selves, lest it should have bitten itself, and .thereby become poisonous-* 

* From Atheneus and Aristophanes we learn **that the Gredant 
thought grasshoppers most delicious in their pupa state ; that the mtfa 
ones wore at first the best, and that the females, wiih their ^gs, wart 
very pleasant."— Kirby, 305. 

t " Mr. Walpole mentions that the Arabs are as much astonishtd at 
oar eating crabs, lobsters, and oystpjs, as we are at iheir eating locnsia' 
—Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. i., p. 187. The Arabs grind them and alz 
them with flour ; at other times they boil them, or stew them. 

t ** The Hottentots flitten on them, and make soup of their eggs. 11« 
Mahrattas salt them. Mr. Jackson, in 1709, found them prefeired by tha 
Moors to pigeons. A person may eat, it seems, two or three hundied of 
them, boiled and Dried, with salt and pepper, and a little vinegar. Tht 
Bev. Mr. Sheppard tried some, and foand them excellent."— Kirby, Eittf 
p. 304. 

$ Lander met with stewed bufiblo hides in the Aftiean rai^oaB be 

il At Kotzebue Sound, *< We noticed, that at their meals they strippad 
■the dried fish of its skin, and gave it to the women and children, wbo 
ate it very contentedly, while the men regaled themselves upon the fleab." 
— Captain Beechey, vol. i., p. 454. 

IT «' In the Isle of Gungo, on the Niger, with some boiled com ui 

Ush, about ten pounds of the flesh of the hippopotanraa were sent ua. 

This being nearly all fit, we could not flincy it, and gave it to our petqia' 

SHiey assured us it was llie fineax tneax vYvvf ^^»A «<<«t xaM«d. It firaa • 

fitincljml part of the Ibod of iXm Tiitt?»e(a?»— v*aA«i,^A.^iau,^.'». 

or THS WORLD. 321 

in one pomt, and that is, to prefer the animab of all sorts that 
live on Tegetatkm to those which feed on each other. There 
is ft rankness of taste attending the flesh that is nourished by 
flesh, which is nniyersaUj offensive to every state of society. 
The canuTonras are, therefore, generally avoided, though, as 
&r as nutriment is concerned, t^ may be quite as services^ 
Ue as the heibivorons and gramimvorous classes. 

It is obvious, from this ci^offue of the diversities of human 
Ibod, that they are all matters of choice, and not of necessity. 
Tliej have beten adopted, or, at least, continued, from individ- 
ual taste, and not from want or starvation. The European 
approbation of them is an evidence that they are so much ac- 
tou addition to the existing means of human subsistence ; 
and, therefore, let ns multi^y to what number we may, as 
loiw as there are any classes of the animal kingdom on the 
MttSi, mankind cannot starve. What they can eat for pleas- 
me they may also eat for its utility. Even raw flesh, where 
it is stiU used, is eaten in that state because the taste of it is 
liked ; for, in some islands, raw flesh is served up with sev- 
eml cooked meats.* But nothing is more capricious than our 
use of the two senses of smell and taste, for we find seals pre- 
Inrad by some to turtle ;t even such men as Goethe and 
SebiDezt had peculiarities in their olfactory sensations, which 

* la BawaH, si tbe kead govemoi's breakflut, " a number of his Ik- 
voortte ehtefb sat in circles on tbe floor, around large diahea of raw flab, 
aad baked hoc or dog, from whieb each belped bimaelf wirhout ceremo- 
■y."— BlHsrsTonr, p. 49. At Macquarie, in New South Wales, ** their 
find is alwsya eaten in a raw state;" the reason they give for thia is, 
IhaLir roasted, ** it would become dry, like a waddy ,** or one of their clubs. 

tbsplalB Beediey, when at Kamachatka, " presented the governor 
with three large turtles, which they bad never seen before. His cook 
esavNtsd them into excellent soup, some of which was sent round to 
seA of dM respectable inbabitanta ; but several declared their preference 
■rthflir own dfarties, msde of seals* fleah.**— Beechey's Voyage, vol. iL, 
a. MS. 

t Dr. Vogel, in hia account of GSethe, gives this account of Schilleifo 
UUag the evaporation of rotten apples. "The following I had flrom 
nsue hinnself : One day be went to pay a visit to Schiller ; but, not 
ledUiff him at home, he took a seat near his library table, waiting fbr 
Ms letom. Here, st first, a peculiar smell became troublesome to him, 
aei soon after tliat Im foil into a atate of insensibility, flrom which he did 
Ml neovwr antii he was carried into tlie open air. The cause of all thia 
dwy diseoverad to be a large ouantity of rotten applea which Schiller, 
tarn a fbadness Ibr the air dsveloped fVom them, had atowed in the 
^K^mm of his tsble.** Of the ssme aminent man Lord Byron told Mr. 
WiMi^ •ithat hs Qssd to compose with his liNC in s psU of eold wsisr, 



one may a5 m\ich wonder at as to find such a civilized nation 
as the (.'hincfio dt'vuiiring what wc should term nauseous gai- 
batrc, ihouirh its nutritive efftnits may equal those of the moit 
dehcato food.* Tlie most deplorable and degraded peculiai- 
itv of any portion of the human race in their eating, has been 
that of making banquets on their own species.t 

The Divine instructions given to mankind as to their food 
were those comnnmicatod to Noah, and througb Moses to the 
Jewish nations. By the first, all that moved vnth life, and, 

t\-ith a pot of hot coffee at bis elbow.**— New Monthly Mag^ 18SS, p. 

(;()othe*s ecrentricity wan a lore of the confined air and smellof aetaw 
mom. " It WU8 with difficulty that he could be induced to bave a wii- 
duw opened for ainng his study and aleepins room. An ofibnalve amdl 
he did not particularly mind. He also felt much vexed If any onesnaflM 
the caiiille in his presence ; nobody conid perform this operation loplaan 
him. IIu became exceedingly displeased if either book or paper did nit 
lie with its edges parallel to the corresponding edge of the table."— Dr. 
VogcrM Aocount^his confidential physician. 

* ** The extremes of luxury and misery are nowhere more Indicronily 
contrasted than in China." The rich boy, at a neat price, the edible Unit' 
ncftiR, and highly value shark-fins, dried, and the b^che de la mer,a 
blacit- looking seaslug from the Pacific Islands. By the poorer, "the 
hcHds of fiiwls, their entrails, their feet, and every scrap of digestible 
mauer, earth-worms, sea reptiles, and other vermin, are greedily deroond. 
We have noticed lots of black frogs, in half dozens tied together, expotid 
for sale in shallow troughs of water. We have seen the nind-qnarterof 
a horse hung up in a butcher's shop. A lodger in a hotel complains that 
his bedroom being over the kitchen, he is grievously annoyed in a 
morning by the noises of dogs and cats which are slaughtering below fbr 
the day's consumption." — Missionary Voyages, 1S32. 

t Cannibalism is so abhorrent to all who are not in the savage state, that 
the mind, fVom its desire to disbelieve it, struggles against the evidence 
of its existence. But the authentic testimonies to its practice in IH>Iyns> k 
sia. New Holland, and in some of the East Indian Islands, and elsewhers, % 
are too numerous and coinciding to be discredited. One of the latot 
prooAi of the practice siill continuing even in New Zealand, into whidi • 
Christianity and its civilization are beginning to obtain an entrance, o^ 
curs in Mr. Wood's letter from Kawia there, of 10th July, 1835. "But 
Kress darkness pervades the minds of thousands who are, from time to 
time, actually destroying and devouring each other. I had an oppcNia- , 
nity of beholding a most disgusting spectacle the other day. A pany 
from Waipa was returning from Taranake, about eighty miles distant, 
where they had been to fight, and where many poor creatures had been 
cut off, roasted, and eaten ; and some of their flesh was brought away, 
and distributed as presents among their flriends. However revolting 
this may appear to your feelings, aiid to the feelings of Christianized and 
civilized people, I assure you it is a ftct. I saw the head of a grssl 
chief nanie<I Ta Guntu, whose body had been eaten on their way boma^ 
This was exhibited as a trophy of their conqoest.''— WesleyaQ HH- 

or Till WORLDt 323 

dwwfo r e, all onUm of the aniRuI kiiiffilom,* wftro niyi'u an 
■Mat lo tha human r«ra, to bo immI an finely an virf^iiubld 
Ibod. TUa gaiuiral a|ipoiiitin«?nt of every liviriK thinK lo \m 
iMHntiva nibatancf, Mi it wholly to iiulividiml tuntn and 
thotrm aa to what kinil or clauaa of aniiiMtcd nutiin* farh |)op- 
nUtion or pcraon would M>krt bihI iimv Nonn ar«i ihvrvUittt 
rtiwBraMo for any mrlicular hahita hi thin rratMTt Mri)it Ihn 
eaMibala. llwi wiKiIa waa given to man for hia aiiNtfiiii^cf-, 
and ihcrotfiDm, wd inay aay, iirovidiid for him. No rffitrirtion 
or prohihiticm waa jilaicnd on any {Nirt an In tlin world ut Urj/r, 
cicrfilthat tku blood waa forbuhlfii to li«i natcn with lh«i flfnli. t 
Bat aa to thn Jowriali nation, a fM^rica of rouiiNfillmg \tri:vvuin 
W9n givon by ihn Unity, thron^h Mom«h, to thnm, an to what 
n^MH Uioy ahoukl alwtatn from and aa to what thtiy nhould 
vat. Camolai rahlnta, har«ia, and awinn with forhiddnii ; Imt 
aU raminatjii|{ aniinaJa tliut wcro rlovm-fofiti^l or dividrd in 
Aa hoof were allowftd. All finh that hail not fina and M'uira 
wtfa lo bn avoided. Hevoral hirda, uMiatly of tiio ramivorona 
apaeioa, and all re|jtili;a and himtIn, wcm liknwiait firohibiicd, 
auopt locuata, bofthsa, aiwl |{raMHlio|i|N'ra t ThiifMi diitinc- 
laooa aoom to have liad aonift moral und nvil olijecta in vmw, 
aa wall aa rafrmice to thnir iHmlihi and rhmatu, and |nm:u-- 
Uar character and aituation. 

* *<BvBav nevlag thing that lifrth ahall ba ni«al fbr you ; aven aa 
Ifeinaaa Iwrb havaijpviin you ali. rnmum.^ -ikm., r. ii., v. 3. 

t^Ml iMb wHh Ika life Ibamir, wMch la Iba bkaid ihmnof, ahall ya 
■n aat * <i aB ., «. ii., V. 4. 

I LtfWaoe, c. St., v. % -17. WMaala, mlM, tortotaea. ferraia, cliama* 
llHida, aaalla, and mdaa wera alau tbtH/^Om lo iha Jawa.- lb., v. 




Almtal an tk» YtgHdkU Kintpitm U mffUcMM mnd t 9 % \ mt » k wM 
BtaHon, Food.'-hutaneta t/thi$ m the DMof its varimu Ommf 
tkat Pwrpote in the different ParU ^ tht WMd.--Tk€ Ji 
SUnktnd ftritkingfnm " — - — 

Mt dear Sou, 

We haye leen in our preceding letter that almost thewkflli 
of the animal knigdom, in all its orders and species, is ippb 
cable to human subsistence! and that each kind is found to hi 
alike gratifying to the taste and nutritious to the life of thai 
who are accustomed to it. The human body has been friMl 
on the principle of deriving this pleasure and utility from aai 
mated nature ; and this, in all its genera, has likewise besM ■ 
formed as to be subservient to human benefit in this reraad 
The consequence of these arrangements is, that mRnkiwrt cfl 
never be famished as long as any animals besides themsebs 
are in existence on the earth ; for man, being everjrwhere th 
master, no species can escape his search and power. 

The vegetable compartment of nature is as universal^ vf 
plicable to human nutrition ; almost all kinds of vegetatioi 
will nourish human life, and have been used for this puipoic 
and are found to be satisfying or pleasing to those who am i 
the habit of taking them. To be as bnef as possible, I nil 
only select some of the m(ure particular kinos as sufficia 
evidences of the general applicability. 

Acorns are still used in California.* Lupins were th 
common food of some of the sects of the Grecian philosc 
phers, and especially of the Cynic echoed, which they canie 
about them in little bags.f Lupins and chestnuts are sti 
used by the Sicilian peasantry when they cannot get corn. 

* At San Francesco, « other Indians in the missions wer« gria^ 
haked acorns to make into cakes, which constitute a large portion of the! 
lbod.»'-<;aptain Beechey, vol. ii., p. 20. 

t In Lucian*s " Runaway Slaves,** philosophy represents the Cynl 
philosopher as saying, '• a halfpenny, to buy a few lupins with, is all 
WSAC, and the first brook I come to supplies me with (mnlc" Ttwy ea 
riid these in their wallets. 

In IdSfty a travelleT in BVeW^ dwetttMA.^'- 1^ V«ml ^rA:^ <a "Qm^^v** 

or TUB WOALO. 880 

.iillcfl tri} iiUU-0 to be hi|{)ily lMiiiurii:iiil to i\u\ nuil limy 
ltd with.* AruriiN bttVft now Imu'oiimi tint fnvounla 
JO fiir i'liflttf! iiijiijitf( till; I'riiNniiiiiN, ami iiu'rvHHiiiKly iu 
y ,t Mini l)i« bloiuiuiiiM iii' tiio liiulfii-lri'i) itw. ioiiiid t<i 
IMlaliilflf t«'ft ti> tliii NIIIII1! clintifi|{tiiHii(2(l imlioii, uiul Vo 
iriinul iiirflirul Hlf-«:lN \ 

itfivkn of iJii) priiM'fiL dvy nm* ihiMLli'i, mul n11 Morti 
H, AM iMrt of tiii'ir i(MNl.^ (^nMMiN hmjIh urc l-Ut<:ll lit 
II mid tlif iriN ImiIIiii at ihii (!uim) of (looti ]Io|M).5 
L vaM'tiUr iiittttcr of l)i<* Wirrli-lri'i^ii l)i'lw«*f'ji Uio ruid 
wuimI in iiIm) rvMtrUiA to.'" The hvmutuI food of th<i 
uMi |N-uHiiiiiry iM Hlated io Im; rlMinliiuLii. t j In 'iVm 
gu llify hvit iiiiifh on brrrifN. } ) 'I'hu Kimrc] liM|iliuul« 

mppuntiii liarir on br«n«, luiiiim, anil cliiMMnuta, whlla tba 
IMnabiiiK III ihfi iranariiM and niaiailiMiN of iba neb |iroprla- 
Mro|i., |N3ft, |i. 44MI. 

iMraiiy, iiiii(fii| ilir grurn llilii|« biirinl in thit Mill Hir tba nw- 
nt itir lanil, IU|iliiNiNiKbl Iu \m «in|>Ui>'(Hj in prffrrRtiM, aa lh«y 
If maul Uir r«rlllily of llin fluid* in whirli Ihciy am auwn. 
'ruwMa, i-oflMi la now vnry grnrrully mail* Irurn ainiriia. Iliay 
I vnry ainall larri-a, ruaatrtl, uruuiiil, nimI |irit|mnid prnlaiily a« 
Sfiiiiiriii iiiniii-Hl nwii r^riiifitnriMl iliriii lioib aa a loiilr and (br 
Mil. 'I'bny am ilatly biH-iNiiiii| tif tnura gaiirnil van Iu all CJar- 
MhHrlimul liniifiNiiy, vol. i ,ji UU. 

' lUvuur l« vrry agrMialilr ; ii d(ir« tiul Irrllnia llir nervaa. I 
•4 niy>rl( ll^uniiily iH a aliflii i-iild tiy itriiiklnv plnnlliully of 
liartiiaii duvlura mvniniRinr il aa a btivnraga in alinual evary 

, a rri-«fnl iravrllcr, mrnilona, In bla " llnninUirftnraa uT Bllil- 
iha vrgfiiatila diM of ilm f Jn^ha iiirliidiHi llitalliia, and all aurt« 
. Ilaiiia tha imivnrb In IIhnU' ffiunlrira, " A Cirattli gruwa fkl 
■aa aiarvra " 

%lif|i|Hi aiid iia nifighlNMirlNNNl, rriirnaea arn rullivatad In gra«| 
Dr. Huvarll iiiriiiiiina "IImI iliii rout iif una Niirrira are iMlan 
babiiania. and ralliil UHiiinialii r u r iim I wra I'lunr flavour I* 
4 aa aunmihing likn lliai ul a nui."* Wrlab, Viiy. (J|iaull«l., 

■ fariiirra make a dmh ul ihr ruata fir builia of ilie Iria edulla. 
nidy iNNlnl, Ihny laalr vriy inuib tlkn a rtirMinuiur waiy pi^ 

m lludMHra Hay ('Mn|iani<^* |Miu|iln had alrippail Iba birHi Iraaa 

inri III iiriM-uitt Ilia Mill |inl|iy tmiirla in unilari Willi tlin wiaid, 

a awrri, bui vrry iii«ufbi-ii!|il Iu aailaty a rraviug apiMUlla.**— 

m JfHirn , |i IHJI 

anr gmrral Imid runaialMl ut naiaird i-hraiiinia, WMliM diiwii 
aiiriiig W4lrr. Wlini limy i-uuld uriiruri* a lillla driad flab ur 
Wllh iHai k aiMir lirrnil. lliay wiMild ciNialdar U A laMUl of llUr 

■III rmikr'a Mrm uf Ilia iMa War, y HI. 

art. Viiy , viil I., y IbS 


en make Miipn of the fir bark,* and likewise pound, grind, and 
work It into bread, t In Barbary, the poorer Arabs hve almoit 
entirt-lv on thr wild fig while it is in seaaon.t Gonrds and 
pumpkins boiled, stewed, or baked in pica, occur in many 
places ; and daifH are a favourite food of the Arabs in Aftici, 
and vvluTf'vcr those trees grow. That the mallow and the 
diifTodil wen* part of the aliment of the ancient Greeks; that 
burs as well as thistles have been used as food, and that fem- 
roots arc a chief {)art of the subsistence of New ZeaUnden, 
and at vuriuus times have been ground and made into bretd 
in Europe, was mentioned in a former letter.^ Also that the 
nettle and dandelion are lioth still eaten, and the root of 
the Utter made into coffee. II The sago, palm, cocoanut, and 
bread-fruit trees, and the bananas and their great produce, 
were also noticed?. Some trees are used to niake an infb- 
flion from, like our tea. The leaves of the Paragu&y bolbf 
are so applied in South America,** and in our back settle- 
ments of Newfoundland the spnice-tree is found to yield a re> 
freshing liquid of this sort. ft ^,Ve read frequently of new 
Tegetalilcs, not used or known before, brought into cultivatkm 
for their nutritious qualities tt Tho yams we have long 

* In wintf r they munt put up with dried flsh, and with soaps oTIi 
baric and reindeer tallow. Tliey peel ofl*in summer the inneniwsl bsik 
or the fir, divide il in long sinpA, and hang it up to dry for winiiu- sums. 
When uxed, these si rips are minced in small pieces along wiih lbs nl»- 
deer lallow. and iMxied logeiher for several iioura witb water, tUltlwr 
form a thick broth.**— Von Buch, I'rav., 1808. p. 3S4. 

t The Laplaiuiem of Trymil make their ** barke brod** thus : ** Whai 
the youn^ and vigorous Or-trees are Telied. the tree is stripped of Its btfk 
for Its whole Iriigih ; the outer part is }ieeled ofl*, and the interior eotw* 
tng Hhaveil off; nothing then remains but the innermost rind, whicbli 
extremely soft and white. This is hung up in the air to dry. then bsfcad 
in an oven, allerward iiounded tnd taken to the mill, where it Is grosid 
into a coarM meal. The meal is mixed up with threshed oat-ears aa4i 
few moHH seedif ; and a bread about an inch thick is formed of tlis 
position.**— lb., p. 87. 

; Campell'H loiters ou Algiers. 

J'i Sacreii Ilist., vol. 1., Leu. IV. 
I lb., I^tt. VI. IT lb. 

«« '* They call it mattee ; it is not so pleasant as the China 
Webster's Voy., p. 87. 

tt " I made acquaintance hero, for the first time, with a decoetioBir 
the lops of the spruce branches, to which I afterward became miKb » 
cnatorned, as a substitute for tea. From exi«rienoe, I can prxmoanee ItH 
be very nalutary and bracing, though not no palatable as the bevi 
supplied by tl^Eawt India Company.**— Wire, \ewfoaml. Journal. 

a " Thus, Mr. Redvdli has inokt auccewtnilly caliiyated the ' 


i Imt, perhi{M, have not been Kenenlty aware that • 
being couM be supported t>)' only lutll' a otie for bit 
od • 

beac facta concur to »liow that it is as true of the vc)re> 
I vf I tie animal wurl<J. tluit all itv cIsiwcm are usable fur 
food, and an- suHicieiit fur human nutrition. For it is 
It we di-rm Kilid fuod, nor tlie i]uantity of il. thai is 
il to iM-ttlih or strenf^th. I'tic lulM>nou» liindoo Cool- 

• carry tiie hi-avjr bii;r{{ai|re are an nihtam'e of ibis, fur 
ke but om> moderate meal a day of rice and water.! 
•rantv fair less pleasurable ttuin tlie moht costly and 
■t, wiK'n tlie uiind is not fretful about it, and when 
i invKis X 

iNie of (he HKHut remarkable facts to show the universal 
bility of all vr^tabli* maltrr lo human nutrition, is 
, the Qijihinaiif ruuntry. ni soutliraist Africa, israss is 
n artirlf- of human lood, and i^ cultivalt.'d for that pur- 
fid f*04ikfd into a jMilutablc |>orrid^i- ^ A still more 
dinarv cimiiiiiitaiice of the same lK'ariii;r is, that the 
Bf tri'i-s aiid hi-rbb an' boih apiilicabli- aiui suHicient (or 
ienaiM-e of a human bt'inf^ wiiu lias l^'en ac4-ustonied 
laeof them, and an' cajwble of giving bulb strength and 
able vitality. 

. a simple lub^rrir of whuh affimls s large qoamily oT whols- 
rf ; III- luic rueiitblM bo(b ilie cvaiiiKNi and bwmi pocaio.*— 
im. IfM. p 11. 

Landrr wa« iakcn by tlie Kbnra ; •• While in their hands, w« 
« kr|ii ou ibe rrguUr »l«ve silowance of bsir a )aro s da>.'*<~ 

p. »'A 

«M hunmn aiiifiisUof bunleii brytn lo slinf the heavy bafgageio 

c« lu r«rr) it uprliruurii itie imHj'.tiiiii |iaHi.r«. Tlir nmiuvlhey 

• 9rr\ grrai . >n the) kriilifiii lakr inf>rp ilian one iiml a da>, 
urn ^rT\ •{■sriiigl} it ruiiNintM cliirflt iif boiled rirr snd a hill* 
Thctr drutk is wairr." -Odlccr's .NaVranve, in Frazer's Mag., 

■•ander ihua eiprrHftea h>k own frelings under saeh eirram- 
while in I he hand* uT i lie Kbiws " Wr bad suflered rrum hunger 
Is day. wiiiHMil beiiif able to ulKaiii aii>tbiiig. Soofi aner ws 
for li*e nif hi. our guard* gsve ua earh a piere uf roaaled yam. 
flied >am. waaln-d duwii wiib a l.nie wairr wss lo ua aa jiivrui 
m if wr hii< *>mi irraipd wiih the iiioat MiiiipiuiMia fhrc, and w« 
irivcBdowii III Ihf raiiue lo kirep ill roiileiil "—Vol ni . p. IM- 
ha i-ouiitr« anfuiid MMr«uro la ru'iivaird fur aoine milea prinri- 
ih •.!••••' *i»i.i-ri, briu'r II m (jiiii« ri|ir. m pSurked. dried, and 
IS alargr wuuilrii luoriar.ihciigruuud briwenii wo rough aiunrs. 
■al IS inadc into a porn4gs, sii«l, la gsnaral, saua w«k tak.">' 
Vmjr, rs/. it , p. it. 


" In the department of the Tar, a man la now Mwfng wba, fearlag Im 
at one period of hie life reduced to great want, waa oUiged to eat raw 
l,K*VK^ oT trees, herbe, ice, lo aaiiety hia hunger. From beiog accan- 
lomed lo II, he now prefers ihie diet, and adda only three or fbur ouaeci 
of bread aitd a little wine to hie dally &re, with whleh ba eoald caaily 

" He te n^markaMy strong and healthy, oT a kind and BBnlle dispell' 
tion. and is BuHicieiitly iiiielligent. Ilia eleep la quiet, bvt feiylfiA 
tor llif* nioet trillitig noiee, even at a dlHtonce, wakw htm. Hla akia ii 
reniarkably ineenaible, and the eats and acratchea wbieh caoie gnat 

Gin lo others are auarcely felt by him. BMidea thia, he is ail In the 
tot aRecied by extreme oAi/** 

That foliage, after his being used to it, waa piderrad by l3tn 
individual when other diet was in bis power, is evidence that 
it can be pleasurable to tlic oj^ns of taste ; and that he wn 
strong with it is also an indication that herbage would invigo* 
rate human bodies, as it gives power and energy to our catde. 

Yet still more extraordinary than this, and showing what 
yast latent powers of nutrition for man are residing in the 
Togctahle kingdom for his use, in case all other food ahoold 
ever become inadequate to sustain his multiplying popula- 
tions, a crisis under the other provisions of nature hardlypoa- 
siblc to occur, is the ascertained fact that wood may be con- 
verted into nourishing and palatable bread. We owe this dis- 
covery to the German Professor Autenrieth. Dr. Prout has 
thus described the preparation of it in the " Philosophical 
Transactions :" — 

" First, everything that was soluble in water was ramoved by fte- 
qnent inHceration and boiling. The wood was then reduced lo a mroorc 
state ordivi«ion ; that is, not merely into fine fibres, but into actual noir> 
der ; and, aAer being repeatedly uubjected to the heat of an oven, wm 
ground in the usual nuiniier uf corn. Wood, thus prepared, accordiag 
to the author, acquires the smell and taste of com flour. 

" It IS, however, never qaite white, but always of a yellowiah colear. 
It also agrees with corn fiuur in this reepect, that it does not fl-rmiBt 
without the addition of leaven : and for this, some leaven uf com flour is 
(bund to auNwer beet. With thK it makes a perfectly uniform aid 
spongy bread ; and when it is thoroughly baked and has much enM, k 
has a much better tante of bread than what, in times of acareitv is ne- 
pared tVom the bran and husks of com. Ji " i" 

," Wo«Kl flour, also, boiled in water, forms a thick, tough, Uemblini 
jelly, like that of wheat starch, and is very nutritious.'^ ^^ 

As this is a very important discovery in its bearing upon 
the future population of this world, and is alone sufficient to 

* Mhenseum, 1833, p. 627. 

t FhUoa. Ttana.^ \«Vl , i^ka. V^ tuk 

or TBI WOALD. 889 

m ail Mlicituda aboul the miatonuice of iu pOMJble mul- 
itiofM, I will ■dd ttie ProfcMor Atitonrictir* own «> 
how to iniko thia wood flour in iMrfcction : — 

I, aner bfiin| ihnrnuichly Hirliiprd of lU barli, l« to be nwrd 
irvaiy iiilo ili«ka of bImmii oim inch in dianirifir. Th« wwduM la 
iraaarvrd. and I ha ilmkM arn to \m bmiiiii lo fltirm in a poundinK- 
Tli« flbroa mid mwiIiimi, iniifH tO||flili«r, ara next to da dcprivnl 

rlhlfif binaf, wMiRh la aolutilfi In waiar, by boiling tbfini wtiara 
M abundant, or by auhjeeimi iham for a lonnAr lime to llie aci ion 
walar. Thia la eaaily done by eneluaing ihem In a alroni aark, 
Ikoy only hairiltl, aiiif braling ihn nwk wlili a alirk, or iraading 
Iha feet In a rivulet : tli*' whole la ilirn lo be rompkirly dried| 
m Iha aun or by ihe fin*, and repeatedly ground In a fUMirniill. 
• ground wood la iieil baked info iiniall llat rakea wiih water. 
Ml allghtly mnniagiiMiua by itie addilitin of annie derortion or 
illow aialka and leavea, linie-lree liark, or any otbar auch aub* 

ir prefem mallord rmrta, ofwhlrh one ounre wilt render 
n qnana of wairr aufllrlrnlly inurilBHinoiia, and Iheae aerve to 
■r pouiida and a hall of wowl lluur into raken, 
mm eakea are liakrd, and ilay are brown on I lie aurfkra ; after 
If are broken lo laerea and ag:«lii ground uniil ilie flour paaaca 
I a line boiling rlolh : upon ll»c flneneaa of Ihe flour Ha flinraa lo 
raad dependa. Tlie Ihtnr of a hanl wmnI, aunb aa beech, raiiuiraa 
aaaa of baking and griinhng to lie rrjieaied. 
Md flour ilom not fernirnl ao reaiiily mn wheaien flour; but Iha 
pr found lliai fillern |M)undeor btrrliwimil flnur. wiih three fiounda 
wbral Iraven, and two iNHJiida ol wheal flunr mixed up with 
lurea of new milk, yielded tbirty-aix pounda of vaav uuui» 

it atraw, hav, hiu) iIi» atulka of Irffoil, Iih'ctiio, and aain- 
id \Ht:u fuiiviTli'd III FrniH-f iiitf> flour, and tluit wlirat 
bad Inm'U madff into hn-ad wliirli whh afrrrnalili! and nu- 
a, aiMl flU|N'rior to ihi- loniiiiou lirr*:id iiacd by llii; lowcir 
on tho (Jontiiii'nt, waa incntioncd to you in tlin firat 
r our rorrffi|Mfii(lf'iirr f 

thraci fai-iN f'oiifitr lo hliow tlut it haa horn tlu* plan of 
rt'Btor to niakr iii'Mrly iIm* wiuilr aniinai and vitf^clablo 
una a|i|ili('al>l(' und auliMTvicnt to our NiiliNiatitnrn ; and 
villi ff'W Mf'fptioiiN, hI! ihi' )ilutitN of till' field and tint 
if llif* lori'tt iiave Ih-(>ii |iiir|NiNflv no (oriiicd aa lo yield 
r aulmtanre lo niHlikiiMl nnlrihoua and iijenniiif^ food. 
is rvrn liitli-r and nn|ialaiHlili' niav, l»y nkiII ami ireal- 
bo waahfHl Inini ihriii ; and lima tlic aniiijcat ran* liaa 
11 Chat the lorda and iiK»at inlrllif^fnt (icinga on tho 

* Quanarly Raviaw, vol. St. p. 410. 
t taar. Um., vol I., Ull. IV., y. %l. 


earth •hall never perish for wtnt of gntifving aliment, whitafw 
be their numbers. Most of the animal and vegeuble geaoa 
have been and are in use by some people, for this piuposSr 
and both nourish and please them. 

As far, then, as the question of our sustenance rests b^ 
twcen man and his Creator, there is a most diversified and 
abundant provision made for him, which will never fail fior 
his su]>iiort through all his generations, let them spread as 
they may, as long as herbs and trees can grow, or anunab ex- 
ist in addition to all the com and cattle tl^t can be reared. 

It is, therefore, contrary to reason and fact to imagine that 
our population will in any age of the world be sUrved. The 
mainuining bountiifi of Providence will always be eznbe- 
rantly on the earth, ever ready to be converted or applied to 
all that require them. Our Creator raises them in or upon 
the surface for the benefit of all. But, having done that, he 
leaves it to mankind to avail themselves of his provision, and 
to circulate and diHtribute it to each other, so tkat every one 
may have what he needs. This is an affair entirely between 
man and man. 'Ili«;re is always plenty on the earth for aU, 
however much any may be destitute oi*^ it. It is the paipose 
of the Alniij^hty that human care, industry, skill, and jodg- 
mcnt. and human virtue and l>encvolence, should be the agen- 
cies and instruments to cause every one to partake of wb^be 
is always amply ^ving. That any want when there is enoasfa 
in society from its great Author for all, evinces that oar b* 
gislative provisionit, and our civil and social arrangements and 
course of things src yet defective or insufficient for the gen 
oral welfare, lliat any one should, like Mr. Hazlitt, be two 
days without food, in a metropolis abounding in plenty (and 
in all nations there are thousands at times, if not always, in 
that state), is a circumstance which announces, not that we 
are overpeopled or that nature is inadequate, but that human 
wisdom and benevolence have still to devise the means of en- 
suring to all the BulMiistcnce and necessaries which they want 
It is man, not the Deity, who has tvthink and act rightly on 
this subject, and thereby to remedy this great social evil.* 

* *< William Hailitc. a few moniba before his destb, met Heme is ibt 

street, who inquired after hlH bcAlib and eirrumeinncGe. Both wen bid. 

He simwered, * You are aware of eoine «ir my difflcullies, but no hQBMi 

bting knows aJl. Can ^oa \end iiia% ehiUinc ^ I bave been wkbeH 

ISmmI tAeae two dayar**— HimUi^^r Hh-.^^*'^* VKA^^.naA. 

or TM WOELD. S81 


«M« IMji-^rv**r Mmtr€M y U.~TkT*t thai will ta»t a* hng at 
m^mm mil mlm-mffw mMM.- Tke Unufit ^ •mall AUntmmitt «n4 

Mr DBAtt Hon, 
A f«w iriore vtiMrrvntioris uttti rircuin«taiir«i will compleU 
rnriTMf of tti« fil«iift uttA \mrittrtn:% of t)i«3 iMily in hi« «•- 

talili*ti««! •ytUrrri iknd urovition* for our iiijb»i«t«fiA4:. Wc m« 
dMf Imk kn* <]««igri«a i}uit oijr (kmIic* »iifiijld Im iiouritlittJ, 
Ibc^if MKiving fMirtifilM hti uumAwI, i)i<rir •tructtir't roniiriued, 
dMir living prirK:ipl«: Im^ r(rfr<:«(l^d, und ila union with t)i<;m 
bir injitn(«in«--d. ft« long u t^i^; ii«vK:iafioii i« ti> conlinu*;, l;y 
tmnwl and vf^i^frUMft miiil«;r, and Uy lUf. flU^r^.n\ ■(f<:nf.-K;ii 
wluch arrtmifMiny it 'Hn* rnnUT »iway» ronkikU of •«m/ii: 
of UwM'- «rl<:rn«rniiiry fMirtirIf:ii of wturh ih*: «r«rth itaf'lf i« com- 
pCfUiiAfsd, arid '-hifrfly of til' four ittfut pniififilim whirh Mr^n 
10 b* OtT tM»t» of ino«t -oiyj/fh, )iydro(;«rn, az'/U;, and carbon. 
Btttf in ordtrr Ut b^<:orn^ M:rv !(:«•« blc in lll^ oflM:f» of nutrition 
|0 ua, iti^a^r nult^rul «;kfnirnt« mutt undf-ri^o th«: artion of th<: 
lifin^ fiinriioiik of or^ani': lifi-, mid \iy lh*-ut, in their ori^ani- 
ftfivcia. I«« •:UUiralid or intfrntt-ii into thait «tatfr and into 
dMM roMibifiaiioim %vtii>'li (/iv: to thein t)i<-ir •liinfntary efTi- 
CKV upon tjft Onf form of niiimii) or vi-({«!laM«T or^anixatton 
would iiav«: ti«:#-n tuflir jcnt to miik«: that «:Ub<ir«tion of the 
■AC^riai flfrfn'-iitA wlii«-b would !;«: nuiriiivr to u» , but, in- 
■Ica/! fif ronntiiii;{ bi* supply to any niw/}*' in'Mf, w«: firid that 
•ur Urf-uSor bii« <-lKf«^ii to pU/-f an/I arrauf^f- it in liMjiiaanda 
of 4iir«-rairi«'d form*, ^^Uu•U liia liiviiir imajfination baa in- 
TitnCMi It la of no Mn[iOrtaii«:<- Ui ita auatmninjf t-ffi^rt from 
«ti*l fi{{ur«-a or f-onif»riailioni: of it tb«: nutntivf* mat if r i« 
MM*d inl«> our atoina* h Our nuatiration dfatroya all fonna 
Ouf («*tb batrr In-fn d#-\iM-d to bri-ak atni rornrnifiiit«: tb«-ni 
iBt/j affiall fra;fm«'nta, ainJ iIm* dt(rfativf: prfMr^aa diav#lvfa aynry 
kind iiiUi atnallfrr ar^J finmr fn«il«ruU!a WmH \w. \«m r\«Ma.\\VQ 
our #/•, Mtid ynduet to tt» Uil\i iuuUiKVUiX >^ManH.% 


and improvement, by shapinff the materiila of our food into 
thioM innuincrablc forms and appearancea of beauty and in- 
tcrestingncsii which the several species of the two ornpic 
kingdoms of nature arc everywhere presenting to us. Thii 
waa not at all necessary to our nutrition. That depends on 
the material particles of which the plant or animal consists, 
and not on its figure or colour. Azote is the peculiar ani 
predominating pnnciple of all animalizod matter, as carboa 
u of all vegetable comiiositions. By cither, or by both, in 
the elaborated state in which we receive tbem, in their or- 
ganized arrangement, we arc nourished, and our present life 
IS continued ; but, as all vegetables contain the one, and all 
animals the other, and all shapes of either are destroyed in 
our mouth and dissolved in our stomach, it is quite the same 
as to their nutritious operation from what figures of either we 
receive it. The bird, the quadruped, the fuh, the insect, the 
serpent, eel, and other animal forms, alike present to nf 
the animal matter that will benefit us, as every species of 
eatable plant brings also the vegetable element we can live 
upon. All forms of them boinff equally nutritious, it is really 
indifferent to our subsisting life from what organized figure 
they come. To which we shall addict ourselves in prefer- 
ence to others, has always been, and always will be, as far 
as we can yet foresee, a subject of national habit and indi- 
vidual taste. These are everywhere varying. None servilely 
copy others. Each country has subsided into customs in thtf 
respect satisfactory to its inhabitants ; and each seems to pre- 
fer, in inclination, such as it has adopted, and to adhere to 
its own articles and mode of diet from actual liking And de- 
liberate choice. 

The true view of philosophy, therefore, seems to be, to re- 
gard all the animal and all the vegetable kingdom as two 
great magazines of nutritious matter, provided by our CieMi 
for our subsiHtcnce, and set before us, in all parts of the world, 
for our use and ratification. We prefer the corn plants, and 
culinary vegetables, and our domesticated herds, and flocks, 
and poultry, and selected game, for our daily food, and leave 
the rest of the existing fund of animal and vegetable matter, 
generally, untouched and disregarded ; and we are right to do 
MO as long as these will aufRce us *, but when we are n)ectt- 
Utir^ on the question whelYvei Yivxtqaxi toXxo^ cvcv^ ^ncdumsaal 
on earth, imlois its popu\al\ou \>e cV^ec^MA. at ibsssaaAiK^WN^ 


rislit that we shoald remember all the sources of aubaistence 
vraich will be always at the command of our multiplying pos- 

Tne fiicts of the last few preceding letters prove to you 
that there are, and will always be, four dictinct procesaea and 
•ooTces of nutritive matter to ua, of which every generation 
may avail themselves : the cultivable ground of our surface, 
ttie increasing produce we may raise from this, the other ve- 
getable matter which is convertible into palatable and nutri- 
tions food, with the great body of animals in nature, not now 
used by us, to which others may resort ; and the possibility 
that future science may discover the means of imitating the 
operations of oiganic life on the material elements, and of elab- 
orating them into a nutritious form by human chymistry, as 
nature is now daily doing by her vegetable and animal econo- 

Of these four sources of supply the first three are ccrtain~ 
are before us — are always in our power ; the last is only, at 
present, a conjectural possibility ; but it is at least as probable 
to occur as it is that there ever can be on earth that multipli- 
cation of our numbers which will make it necessary as a last 
resort. I think we need not doubt that our surface and its 
cultivated produce can be hereafter made to supply all the food 
that any numbers which may arise will require. *^ But if any 
choose to extend their imaginations or their apprehensions be- 
yond the vast amount of human beings which these two 
soarces can be made to supply, then, as long as any forests 
remain, or new ones, or any other vegetable besides the com 
plants can grow, or any species of animals are in being, the 
marvellous numbers of human kind that arc supposed capable 
of coming will here find supporting and suflicient nutriment. 
Oar forests, and the new plantations that will ever be succeed- 
ing what may be cut down for use, will be at least as inex- 
liaustible as our coals. Wood convertible into bread, and 
eoals usable as fuel, may be expected to last as long as human 
nature will be on this earth, though it is one of the most improb- 

* Many ftcts show bow land hitheno uncultivated, or of a very infe> 
Hor kind, may be made to yield great quantiiies of UHenil food. ** In 
ISSS," I read. ** part of tbe sandy noil of Bagshoi- heath, one of the ntoat 
barren parts of tbe kingdom, has, last year, yielded at the rate of ten 
IhiilMrt* of potatoes an acre, and has now a luxuriant crop of catile-eab* 

^ of not less than forty tons to an acre, growing on U."— New Monthly 

.,1815, p. 415. 


■Ue of all poMibilitiei that mankind riioald ererbe caDi 
to uuke iMves o{ their trees, or puddii^ or porridga c 
grass and straw. But it will be ratioiwl to contrast 1 
improbability with the other. That there is plenty of li 
tilled on our surface to cultivate, a former letter atated. 
may be made highly productive.* No fact can be mo 
tain than this. It is not less obvious to the enligfam 
oenrer. that, even where laud is in husbandry, it is not i 
tivated aa to yield the quantity of produce which, if dolj 
•god, it would now supply. This is declared to be th 
evon in England,! and still more manifestly in Wale 
withstanding all the demands which have been made op 
The aame complaintb have been made as to puts of Sooi 
If our improved islaiMl be still in such a- defective sta 
its present produce could be easily doubled, we do 
wonder that every other country is now growing so mo 
than it could do, even from the ground which ia in ca 

* The Rsv. H. Beiry, in 1833, thus staled the improveoMMs 
Coka, who baa been oiie or the grealent of the SfiiealiUFsl bem 
of his age : " Mr. Coke's estate, round Holkham, cnnaiacs prinst 
asndy inam, ur licht gravel of the aame character, with nrnaisi 
not fVequeni, patches uf bog. The bog waa covered with low skier 
and aedgea, which aeldom fbiled to hold a fbi. They are now, 
tkilUii application of capital, highly productive water meadow, 
be flrat came to Hnlkhain, an eaiue that waa tithe-Oee let fbr e 
pence an acre ; aubaequently at tbree Nhillinga. and waa left by I 
sni becauae he would not pay flve ■hillinga an acre. Now let 
apondency ceaae asto the capability of our poor eoila to|voduee fb 
be property, under a aystem of judicioua management. From ihii 
Mr. Coke haa, by hl« auperior managenMnl, obtained 79 bushels • 
ley per acre ; and on the aame land, and also on land of a simiiar c 
his eropof Whkat produced rather more than 34 bushels an sera. 
WBs obfsined flrom land decidedly not wheat-land, but it showa w| 
liratlon will achieve."— New Farmers* Journal, 13ih November, I 

t We have been asaured by the higheac practical authority, itt 
Bsgiand in general aa well cultivated as Nonhnmberiaod and L 
it would produce more than double the quantity that is now ol 
fhm it with a leaa proponioiuue outlay."— Edio. Review, K 
p. 391. 

t Measrs. Kennedy and Grainger, in their ** Observations on thi 
snt State of Tenancy in England." remark : " Nor does Wsles, i 
oral, produce half wliui it is capable of doing under projier maoag 
But whatever requirea a little trouble above the natuml prodaeii 
the land ia thought quite unnecenaary, and itt totally neglecied." 

^ " In aome of the northwest diairicta uf Scotland, where it is im 
lomary to grant leaaea, agriculture ia worae than in Walea."— Edi 
view. No. 120, p. 397. 
i In 1633, Mr. Colpte, oT Cbsvewlni, teiKnbed how be bad oc 


The iniie amall ptoportion of producible food that is actually 

.BOW nised, appears m the moet opposite quarters of the globe, 

md tUke in the New World as in the old one. It was noticed 

,ia Wallachia ;* it is complained of in South America.! It is 

■o, in some desree or other, everywhere else. 

Bat if the vuole of our lands now in husbandry would pro- 
duce double their present harvests if all were properly culti- 
Tited, then we can support twice our present population by 
Berely making. good farming general ; so that, as it would 
tdce fifty years to double in at our present ratio, we are 
Hfe for this period from outrunning our subsistence. When 
■that term is reached, the cultivation of the ground now lying 
waste would meet the vvants of the subsequent numbers ; 
tad the introduction of the spade husbandry on the inferior 
luids would make them as productive as better soil. This is 
iht case in Flanders, as we noticed before. It is so in the 
'T^l. The spade is there used,t and such is its efficacy, 
mt the English occupier of twelve acres cannot live so well 
«• the Tyrolean peasants with his four acres.^ The picture 
dawn of one of these little farmers there, who lived on the 
nodoce of only four acres, is very curious and interesting. 
In his bouse Mr. Inglis found — 

**0ix persons at dinner at eleven o'clock— the iieasant and hia wife, 
hris psople, about fifty ; a son flrom Trent, another at manhood, and twin 
iwiiiUiis about sixteen. They had soup or Indian corn ; about Ave 

Ibar qoarters of wheat (torn half an acre of irronnd, by driliinf 
•■d booing. Of two sor:8 of com, he says of one, " I have this year 
ptwn Hve qnanera and s half an acre, while the remainder of the fleld, 
■WB with red wheat, produced only seven sacks an acre.**- New Far- 
wn* Jonrn., 90tb November, 1833. All such things show what may 
Jit bt done. 

* Dr. Walsh ftrand it thus in Wallachia : " Wtteat is the principal 
^ pl M ilHiral produce, bnt the quantity raised bears no proportion to the 
MHK and fiMliliiy of the soil," p 293. 
t General Miller, as he travelled in Peru, says, " The land here prt>- 
floeoii-UHif, rice, Indian corn, pineapples, ice, in great abundance 
exedient quality, when cultivated, though very small quantities 
e Ihings are grown, owing to the laziness of the people who Htiper- 
or work on the hacienda, and whose almost only food conMsis 
if the bianched potato, sun-dried meat, and ca|»aicnin. Vegetables are 
tanely ever seen, although the soil and climate admit o^ths production 
ifasBC sorts ft>r the table "—Journey (Vom Cuzco. 

t "ThsTjTolean small proprietors work entirely by sp:ide huabandr]^ 
i|d iMve no occsaion tbr the outlay of an English farm.''— Inglis, " TUS 


poDiidaof bacon, bnlM; AMiad; bread, nude two thirds of lodtia eon 
and one ili:rd oT whrai, nnd a liiile buiter. 

** The yrbiile of ihis land waa ftiur acrea ; of thia one Ihiid waa da> 
voted lo Indian corn : hair an acre waa In wheat, another half of one m 
barley : a quarter of one waa iu flax ; one acre and a UtUe dmr waa la 
graaa and wood ; and a quarter of an arre in a sarden, eoaiaiiUiig cab- 
bage, potatoes aalad, and a few ehcrr>--f reea.*^ 

**Ttoa Indian corn waa uaad Id iha eatablMiineiK ; om taalf Ibrtbo 
fiuiiiiy and one half for the winter food of the cow and oiber aaimala. 
There waa a considerable surplua of the wheat ; and thia, wirb the bar^ 
leyi waa taken to the Brixen niarliet, where they pmdaeed noie than 
waa BUlBcieiit to iiurchaae eoflbe, augar, wine, imptennala, aad the 
clothtng needed. A aiiiall niotiey eioek waa alao aavad bayoni all thai 
waa required, which auiounied now to a eonaiderablemirae. The flax 
waa aiMiii, and woren, and rai^hioned in the fooiily. Tbe graaa waa all 
needed for Mimmer paature for I he cow. lite %vood oupiiUad fliing. 
The vegeiablee were iaobed upon rather aa a dainty. 

" No cheefo waa made, becauee the aoup conanmed all the milk, ex- 
cape a little that waa aaved for butter. Beeidea tbe cow ware two iriga, 
a Uiter of young oiiua, and a number of hena. The dinner I bad aeen 
waa the regular dinner of the bouae ; except that, abou two daya in 
the fortnif hi, mine Treah meat ia bought at Brixen market fhan Iha 
money obtained by the aaJe of egga and fowla. 'J'he maaierand hia aoa, 
with a little aaaiHiance fVoin hia danghtera, managed and itllcd the 
ground, which aeenied a good, iighiiah aoil, and waa reaHurkaUy eleaa.*^ 

If such a family could be thus maintained from four acret, 
who can entertain any dread of a population being ever 
greater on earth than its producible food can nourish, when 
he computes the number of acres available on the earth U 

That the spade should supersede the plough would be a 
retrocession of civilization, which would be followed by con- 
sequences highly injurious to society. For the most com- 
plete cultivation and the most generally abundant harvests, 
the ploughshare must work, whether horses drag it or ma' 

* Inglie, *• The Tyrol," vol. ii., p. 5. 

t Ibid., p. 7. Mr. IngliM aMcribca much of the superior comfort ef 
the Tyrolean peojianta to tbe greater produce and nonriNhmeal of rbt 
Indian corn. **The flne athletic peasantry of the Tyrol alleat tbi 
wholeeome and nuiritious qualities of the Indian com."— lb., vol. i., 
p. 180. ** He told iiie thai he had never known hia crop of Indian em 
to foil, though it had varied ; but hia whetit had aevenil times beat aa- 
productive; HOinetimeH from inaecta, aomethnea from other eaosn.*^ 
Vol. ii., p 9. 

X How much the siilMiHiing produce of a rountry may be Incrraaad by 
more and better cuiiivation. apiieara in the remarkable aagmetiUliOB if 
the exported corn Oom Ireland within one century. ** The quant ky «f 
grain exported flrom Irelaiiri in 1728 waa Stt.OSH quartcra." In iaft,ibt 
exported com had increased to I2,774.44t quartera, that la, 400 linwi ia 
mmount. So that the superfluity of Iriah produce Is now sbsse 401 
elates wliat it waa one bondted ^«ax« afii 

or THB WOALD. 337 

cUmnr impsU H. Himwii Ubour slom mu«t alway* •«t upon 
ft mmtt Mski of cfiwC, eompurisd witli Oi« MttiiilinK power of 
■wIb and nrcbaiiK eoadjtjtorii ; but Uic ainde irmy irc- 
ynUy ba an unp^irUint ulijr in Ows liarid« of wiuill cuUivftU>rS| 
•«4 opCfalA btrnefKiiiUy on Ui* inlf-nor Mila, which iiununl 
laboufi ao aimiAoytd, umy wukt mon* prfxlurtiv« thiin art mid 
cnNal could Ue ao trIBriently and m# prufiubly iiff|>li«d to. * 
WliaD nora produce la waniad, liie apula may be ibuii aiii- 
||m»4 coUaftarally with the plouffti — a »ijtfordifi«ta iMitruiiiant, 
SMod, but with a eo-oparatiriK and ciniHtniuin r<;«uU. At 
fnmmui, wban the cuUiialioti now in pra<:iu:«, with all iiii ina- 
yaiitiaa and iin|ierfertioua. !• every wh»:rt; raikinff mora iluin 
tta oonauinption demand*, thcrre i» iiw uiir.umwu to reMori to 
Iho manual oparatum for ttie |fiiqi<;M' of prorunng «:orti.f 
WImo Kha niimben inrreiiM: m niu<:h a« to n«'«d mori; auMe- 
MAC* than tha ptouahed landN will yit:ld f:on»i»ti:ntly with 
flwtr ochar produce, the npiide may Ixr put into activity to t:U' 
IWKe Ibr Mujiply. iSul, until ihi* um-ftnily tluill ariac, there 
b no occaaion to inrreeM: itu^it.u:itry muj tujierfluity. In the 
■aoA iimtf*, th« allotted »y»tem und it* pergonal lalKiur, diinn|( 
fhtt unorrMotnd time of I lie ai/rK'ultural aMiiitanta, may l«e 
rcry uaefully applit-d u» I lie lurri'Utie tti tiifir domeatic rom- 
farta and lo llie uiipro%i:»ieiit ol llM:ir inflivulual (:liara<:t«!'r t 

* A( iIm Ipawieh l/itinMr*f*' yruntd Horirty. Mr Fiikin«f<m ffimlMiiad 
MM " aaaw Im4 i beugM lliai lalMUrfr* wouM, hy furrMl criiiw,Mff|iiyv«f 
M Me Uttt4 , Irtii tie ifi*iitficr iia4 )«« ai-Mirr»4 i« warraiii ihi» «|itiiiMi. 
Ua ilfee mmtnty, *km aJMinrnia «»«rr r'HiiMl lo inrrcaM in |iriiiiu«:ii*«' 

I'bry dM|ila)«l a ainrii nt rmulaiMMi in ilMir rullivaiMMi i afi4 
wfcMll liatf b«rfi cMiaMlrreil barren and wmiM aiarv* a ralilMl, bad 
tm yttUd r«iti«iii*raiin| i fo|M."- I.ouniy < liroe., Tih Ike,, 

t Wmw iMnga ran aMir* aatitrarifiriljr |fr«v« (bat Kur«p« la firMturing 
•aae oere ihaii na |i«)MlaiiMt« runvnnw ihan iiw •|ff«a4mf rHliivaiwn 
af aaaMiwa r«ir aega' I • l'>3 ilM-rc ««rt- nearly lUl manulacinri^a nl 
Mm la eaijr iwii <rf ili« dr|iartiiiriifa of lraiM«, Ijb .Nord and I'aa da 
CilaM. |if vdiiriaif aiiiiuBiiy l^MiMMIi* ul vugar lirrniany aiid ICua- 
fliaf* alae trying ii 'Ibrr*- ar« niiw iliiny manufarioruii of it u, tw 
Oat afMrMwa in MeMia Pranr*- la aiau cifttiiiNftiiiiiig le inaka augar 
#BM alMaliiiHa, and fliida ifiai "aMiw pjUKt^mmt id cJifraeiMPfi Kav« al- 
laolf yieldai feuriMHi |wr rani . nkhnh m niura thanaqMal inflic avrraga 
fmmm id nm baninmr Puiihr l'ai«rk, Itili January, l*iS7. In inMi 
if lifl envtiiMaa of Franr*. cvirry iliiid y»ar iIm land la alai«d to Im irii 
MMlM.aas aaafel falU*w «iai« . and yci FraiiM ra« fcvd ita mmu yuf^- 
Ipoaa, aad aa«a « a«r|*l«a «f |««duc«, aad land for l«M-r«afta and miiar 

ilM gewtwu af Iha lalbuannt Aaaaa^, laaMMm vv* 



Wiihout injury to th« farmer or to the community, they can 
raiHT tiieir little »iork» of nutritious vegetables for thenuelTa 
and for their cUsh of :-ocicty, ^hich would give them more 
foixl. and coiivi'iiiPiiri's, and iiidciiondcnt maintenance thin 
thev can now onjoy.*^ It shoula lie always an object id 
philanthropy to uiukt; our poorer brethren ap much easier in 
their circunistancc^s, and happier in their feelings and pros- 
pects, as wine measures and kind thoughts for their v^'d&re 
can occasion. The allotment system, under judicious man- 
agement, has, in numerous instances, produced this result, 
and promises to be more extensively beneficial, and will be 
better understood and directed in profiortion as it is tried and 
practised. t I rejoice, therefore, to see our nobility and gen- 
try, whose respective character and conduct, as classes olthe 
British population, are distinguished by their liberality and 
benevolence, encouraging the experimental exercise of this 
humbler husbandry . t I - nder pnidcnt regulation, and with the 

win cirar the country of much of its poverty, and a great uroporiioo of 

" Id, In Sn 

lu crime. William Allen's ciiciage colonies, at Linfiek 
fbrm. In the woodland scenery, a cheerinn piiiore, creating conifiirt, 1m|^ 
pineM. and security where there was waste, and iuiser>', and DMral 
desolation.*'— (bounty (;hron.. Int February, 1834. 

* Mr. Williain \llen thUH deHcrihes his benevolent system and object: 
— " The plan is, lo cultivate these allminetits by the spade entirely, in a 
certain rotation of cmpn. which aflurd the grenlent quantity oT Awl (br 
man and beast. We have (bund, thai ir the rnrmer'n labourer is permit- 
ted to iiave one acre of land, at a rent Ooin 3(hr. to 4(Ur. Tor the acre, be 
may, by Havinic manure, and cultivaiinic the land ha f in potatoes snd 
hsir in com. realize 3«. a week \n addition to the wages (torn his osb- 
ployer, and derive many comforts to his (hniily besides. In some in- 
stsnces the wife end children have done most of the work. The laboarv 
has, in every instance, a qiurter of an acre for a garden in addilioa to Ite 

t The Marquin of ('handos, one of the warmest snd most intelli|NOt 
patrons of Hritt»h huRbHiidry, expressed his approbation of the syaleM 
ai the Bucks Association in 1834. ^ We must induce the labourer IS 
asm his living without psrochial assistance. In my own flimily, ws 
bave found the allotment s)stem so sdvsniageous, that, iu ssversl pa^ 
ishes, the rates have bren greatly reduced, and, in one, etiiirdy takei 
oir.*'--ro«nly Chron.. IhI February, 1634. 

X "The Bishop of Hath and Wells, one of the earliest snd enlightened 
ftiends of this |ilan, has talien lb acres of land in the parish of Charle> 
conib, near Bath, to Int out lo honem, industrious families, in s quarter 
of sn sere to each ; Ihn rent, siter the flrsi year, to be 1/., with the con- 
ditions not to receive p-i.-isb |My, not to work in it on Sundays, not to be a 
drunken or disaipsted character, and not to keep a beer-shop.**— Keene'S 
Bath Joum., February, 1834. "At Saflh>n Walden, Lord Braybrooke 
luu patronised alloimenu xkyoxv an exxwM^i^sicslft^ and, for five sessions, 
tbtn hmd been no vruRXien."— Coauxi C^xwa.^ i^^bl '^^waBBaass^ IBSL 

or THB WORLD. 839 

IMrdian •uperintendence of enlightened proprietora, it will 
■ninutc and melionte thediHfHmition aiid conduct of our a(;ri- 
raltural peaMiitry, and train them to be nixintaneouHly moral 
tod iDteUectual bicmgi to such a deeroe aa will utrenf^hen tho 
iModaiionM of our locial fabric, aitd make them reHpectablc 
tod respected members of its most numerous compartments.* 
Thia ayatem. however, like all human schemes and institu- 
taons, rtt|uirea a prudent superintendence, and tho«e regulap 
tkma which, in producing all the cflbctible good, will prevent 
or modify any evil consequences, t 

With all these realized eflfiTts, those prospects, plsns, re- 
•ourccs, efficiencies, probabililieii, and possibilities, and with 
that apint of intelligence, philanthropy, and moral purpose 
which IS now actuating our countrvnicn generally, and spread- 
ing largely in every nation around, wc iiisy look forward to 
tbe contmusnce anid multiplication of the human race on our 
^obe with joyous hope and well-grounded belief that every 

*Tks Marqals of llatiibary ta s stronc sdvorate for smsll sllonnvnls, 
WHb sMds huataiiflry, to I he poorer elaaoM. In I bo poniOi of lis! Arid 

I, wf lbs Bdnimofi of ibm ayMtm, ho hs* ribrtorf a osviim ofaovoraj 

■n4H a year in lbs parochial espendiinro "— Huodsra, 1Mb Feb> 

r. IHT. 

riM Uuko of Bedford, the Marquis of l^nadowno. Lord Konyon. 

Morpoih, the Biidiop of l.irhfiHd, snd oevenil other noblmien and 

r k ii m i. arv fiviiif ibo ajroteni a (kir ina] and frnorouo cnroarafmnrat. 
P. Tbnl^p•on^• plan, near hw neat at Kmck Park, Is thuo noikod: 
-^ Bvsry labourer or hamble mrrhamr. in the panahco In whirh his 
Iw. M ptwidod with oiie romi of land indrpendnii of ffardcn or 
I. ai iho name mil prerinaly a« w paid by i b« rarmer. The hap* 
■liaaraciprriMirMl. Thr truly induatneua wiib ibrirfMnilieo, 
eniMHaiiity buny upon ibnir atl<ifmriiiii. Tbonr of hablia loaa 
ara Ibond to ruliivaie ihrira wiih proAt. aoti^ariion, and ronient. 
TIW i«ni« ara poid lialf yrarly. Vjmrh Irnniil baa a pnnird ropy f iven 
•• kiM !•{ o- nil«-a by whirh hf hnlda ili^ land It la to bocullivalod by 
■aavai l botir alon*. with ihr airirirai rrfard lo ImnoMy, moraJuy, and 
Wmi noifli urhood "— C'nuniy t'liron.. January. 1HS4 
t Tfeo mir adopiMl at Wanmnatrr wm- " Th« i|uaniiiy to a Isboorar 
bo what will nupiily bia wanta. htii not be onoufb lor osla ; a 
nf nil arnt would do ihia " A frirnd to the plan vrry aanaiMy 
** I olMwId likr lo acv thff apoda in uac in e*rry panab by the ro(< 
on hia allotmriiiM. bui hm ha« no buaiiirao wnb lb* plonfh. and 
lo ha*r no nmfp land ihan lie ran fairl) iiiannga wuh bia own 
■nd iboao oT hia ratmly.'* 4 hi* ppmnn. whrn hia Hptrfirvion waa 
d, barauw he waa not of (oiid rharari^r, wiid. **<iivr mr an op« 
psnaimy of honoallv nniilo% mi my linia. and m* land obnll bo aa wHI 
fllllhriiod aa ibr raM." II' Ium k^pl bia word ; he ban bcrilow ilrainrd 
Ms ISBtf. and bin imi la penrlually paid."— K«w HwWiWii ^te%.^V<lft^ 


generation will increase in happiness as well as in nomber 
and in lightness of conduct, as progressively as ihey must ad- 
vance in knowledge, and may advance in piety, talent, and 
mutual kindness and urbanity.* 

I will close this letter by a striking instance how much the 
manual industry of a worthy poor man may improve useless 
land, and by another which shows that the poorest may, by 
care and diligence, attain even a respectable portion of mod- 
erate property ; both indicating how much the mind and char- 
acter of the man, as well as the produce of the country, may 
be advanced. 

••Edward Rtehsrds, Sfed sixty-eight, tlie latber of six childrra, ssd 
ssn of a poor man, bsd resided AAy-i wo yeam ia Cirencestor paiisli, sad, 
during the early pert orbi« life, was s common labourer. 

** About 15 yeara ago he agreed with a nirmer to clear ont an acre of 
imigh quarry land, on condition of having it three years rent ftee. Oa 
this uHpromiaing spot he and hie wife applied their nurpluslaboiirio each 
advantage, thai, during the three yeanlhe cleared 4fU. He then pa^ 
chased two acres of thin, poor land for SOI. Theee two seres bsve leng 
been in a highly productive aiale. Soon after he entered on thie eoltivs* 
tfcM, ke raised^ in one year, skvbr QCjUtraas oy whkat flroos it, ani 
hss refUaed 100 guineas Tor it. 

** He obtained fVom Earl Bathurat seventy-flve perches of wsste sn* 
productive land, at a quit-rent of 10«. He haa poueeeend thiu epot thirty 
years, and haa brought it to a niate of great product! veneee. For the 
last ten yesra he han rented five or aix scree oT land, besides these two 
l^ote ; end during that time baa kept two cowa, and sheep, and pigs."— 
The Lsbourem* Friend's Msgazine. 

** Mr. Gray, of Pscham, died at seventy-four. He end his wife sflbri 
a rare instance of frugality and industry. 1 hey were both bom at Pa- 
eham, in 1761, of poor but honest pareuta, who hod large rarailiee. They 
went to aervice in famihousea at an early age, and went married sboot 
twenty-one. Their pareuta, dying, left them nothing but the wide world 
heforv them 

**He worked aa a day-labourer until he had several children. He 
then hired between three and four acres of glebe land, and had the Md 
oT the churchyard, whicb enabled him to keep a cow, and bring up s 
IhrniiyoTten children in a very respeuuble mamier, without any sxpsnse 
to the porieh 

'* He has followed hie daily labour till with>n the last two years, held* 
Ing his occupation lo the time of hie death. It ia aupposed that he hss 
•sved betwe<fn 1000 and 900U/. His widow and children survive him, ssd 
are living in a very rcHpectable manner. He lived and died an hosMt 
man."— (Jounty UUronicle, 7ih January, 1834. 

* I cannot avoid adding an extract, marking an inetance of Jndieloai 

encouraKemenl to »he industry and inttvrity o' our poorer brethren. **0a 

1st of November, the Bishop of Bsih snd Weils gave a dinner of rosrt 

iteef and pium pudding to 905 tenants of the sllotnieots let out by him.* 

'^Naw Farmers' Journal, 6ih Novonbat, \%U. 

Iii§a pisasure also to find xUan U» eondteMs^fl ^teNsteuMca m i» 

'^i — 

KMOrltOHeWM fit', tf J*T •!« 

vta^ eri»* *•.•.•■ e 
'i«n'a:i.:>.j v» ... ^^ 
WUd*' C'^tr t» ..• . , 

«C L>o •;;. »• . 
«: vw* -..■^•.. ^*. .^.^ 
^iu»t:: »».•.'•.'•.-• ..- 
^ lA/t,.:' iiic ••• t . 

f ^«'.-.-v* '. .•»•.- 

ft* ■_:*•■. .■;:•< 

****••♦: •■ :. »: ,-k- 

r lllft*rtr..>> .• .-. " 

f- V r*r::.»-' ...... 

MtltC ill ^%f./ti>« *», ^, . 

UliiiM rtJ» I'B ■•<■ ««c. ..» . ' **^' 

* iHffHUil* U ^it^i/.f- «.(,,« . ' "^ " « -• - . 

b*«f i K«/:i«a ..». ,.,,^ "** ' ■*•• «• . 'f 

t. VUUtl acf- I.M • ,.,,^ '-^ ^^ ' -■'.-,. . ., ' ' ."**• 

null. «u,u. u;;.i«»«-* «,.^., - / -«^ .V ... .. . 'T.J,,::jl 


comfort.* The siknplcst and most natural are at gFatifyxng 
at the artificial lo those who use them.f 

The Prussian nation is one of the most coltiTated of the 
present day ; and yet, with all their prosperity and improro- 
ments, they make bread and butter their favourite food ; and, 
next to this, potatoes, cooked in rarious iiK>des, which tbey 
find sufficiently gratifying.^ The Greek sailor lives upon 
olives snd bread. | 'Die habitual fare in a chief laird's faonse 
in the Hebrides but forty years ago was no better ; it was not 
less pleasant or satisfying because it was the simplest lUment 
in use. II In the early part of the last century meat was a 

* A Isd in a villiKe, lately taken np for atealiny, was s ents aced la 
three Bonths* hard latMiur in a priMn. Ttie policeman lold him that ht 
would there have to live on bread and water. ** Shall I have bread 1* 
was the hO)** anewer ; ** that will make me quite happy. I dool wiak 
fbr anjnhinf better." 

t The reeJingii oT a British officer in the EgypUan fleet of Mebamd 
Pacha, in 1833. on this subject, written with a recollection of the priva- 
Ifona he had there to undergro, and of the thinfa oflbnaive to him be had 
•scat, will illasiraie the natural atate of the case on this point. **iB 
Eiicland, we hear every day oT the diatreaoes of the |ioor Irish li^sf m 
cold potatoes ! I can tell you thai cold potatoes are no auch cooienipii- 
ble food ; Tor I remember ihe time when one of those would haveMM 
considered by me as a luxury. A raw turnip would have been p i cfc rtad 
to buiird horaebeaiis and oil. Talk of bread and wnier as a puniahiMM! 
why, if we could hnve eoi hold of a aupply or thia, we should haveeatta 
till we bad almost choked ourselves. So no more about tbe miseriaB 
In England. There are no auch things in existence.'*— Unit Serv. Jovs., 
1814, II. 368. 

I ** The Prusaiana are in general extremely abstemious ; bread, batter, 
and potatoes being their principal anieles oTnoiisuraption. The potatoes 
are no with the lower claMes ; but I have seen ail ranks jmnakt of the 
breud and butler half a doien times daily. If you visit a flrtend, tt to 
more than probable that the luncb will be buuer bamme, bread and bsl- 
ler. If you go lo an inn, and order refreshment without specifying ssf* 
thing in parftcular, thia will certainly be brought. But, however pomriir 
It is, it divide* its empire with potatoes, which may be deeiMO tht 
national food, since I have frequently seen ihero served in nix diflknst 
flMtns. The bread wss made from them, the soup thickened with tbesi, 
IMed potatoes, potato salad, potato dumplings, and potato cheese. Tfeli 
last is one of its best preparations, and will keep many years."— fikslcfeaa 
of Germany by an EngliMh Traveller. 1836. 

J Man. Chron., I4th July, 1836. 

II Mr. Matthias d'Amour, who was a domestic in several great ftmiliea 
thus descnbes the i.aird of Ka«ay*a bou5«e. when the family he served 
psid their visit there, between 1780 and 1790. ** All the MrvsiKs of dM 
sstabltahment, without one exception, lived excluaivdy on two meali 
a day, and these meals were composed of thick water porridge snd lls^ 

ie" tmnnoekt. I bad now and then a I itt le exceedingly lean SMat aliowal 
JM 10 dlaasr. Contrary to tiMte c«nuNDa,\^a4 Vmiktec allsfwsd m^ 

UUm» SS"***. and —r 3 

•*•• •" fcimT K"'ll'.!,"r'""""«l.l.„-. '•"-•«• 


most refreshing in the vigorous exercise ni a hunter among 
the mouniainii of Switzerland.* Plentiful eating is, thereforsi 
not necessary to strength or «ctivity. On the contrary, it so 
usually lessens or counteracts even our mental elasticity, ss 
to have led our fictitious Peter Pindar to his satirical Uiie— 

" Fst hoIdH ideas by cbe legs and wings." 

But the indulgence of the feeding appetite is so pleasant tint 
few can resist its allurements. Lven the knowledge of its dis* 
easing and Honictiines fatal results will not overcome the de- 
sire to renew the immediate enjoyment, f 

Those who make their diet a predominant object of their 
daily life will indulge exuberantly in it. The respectablt 
classes at Vienna are represented to us with this propensity, 
and as making it an earnest object of their attention f It is 
right, however, to add, that, if they yield to this bodily indh 
nation, so dangerous to continued health, they have been hij^ 

support. I know you will bring from Semlin cold fowl, and him, and 
sundry oUisr ihiiigs; but I bad tn throw ihem nil away, as thsy got 
spoiled. I found ihat extreme teiniwrance enabled me to support tbs 
fatigue."— Morn. Herald, 25ili November, 1833. 

" Mr. Came thus speakH of an Biiglish navy-captain who bad retired 
to Swiizerlaiid to be a chamois-hunter : — "His unfailing resource ajriiiMl 
fetigue and privation was not the usual flask of brandy or kircb*waaeer, 
but a large lump of white sugar, the virtues of which he extolled to the 
akies. When hungry or exliausted, he sat down by a bruok and ds* 
vourad a piece of this talisman, and then soon went on with Irrahvigoor 
and energy.** — < arne's Travels in Swiixerland. 

t The common dram drmkers show this effect every day : but one of 
the Btrongent instances I have seen of such a deliberate practice of Ite 
** Dam vitimuM,*' was menlioned by that clever and humorous surgeoii, 
Mr. Wadd. lie was called to a respectable lusty farmer, who bad ia- 
diilged ill his strong home-brewed ale till a serious Uliiess came npoa 
him. AAer some attendance, bis medical li-ieiid told him il was dev 
that, unless be leA off his favourite beverage, he would not live six 
months. ** Is thai your serious profesiiional opinion ?** ** I sm certslD ti 
it." The fkrmer iliought a few minutes; tears came in his eyes; he 
sighed heavily, and at last said, " I am sorry for it — ^very sorry ; it*s veiy 
hsrd ; but I can't give up my ale " 

; At Vienn.i, " eating, everlasting eating, forms with Ihem the cUif 
charm of existence. It is here pursued in a most determined manner. 
The flrst day I took my seal in the dining-room of a iiotel, the wholi 
group of gourmandx, previous tu tak ng their places at table, cast off Ibdr 
coats. On niquiry, 1 learned that this cool, svsteinatic mode uf stufflng 
is ver>' generally practised thruughuut the city at this hot aeason of the 
vear. and even in the houses uf some of i he nobility." — Strong's (Sermaay 
in 1831. Another traveller confirms the Ikct as to the divestment of ths 
etmi, but mentiona that, in the higher circles, they taavs a silk 
aaduii, wliicb is not indacoioua. 

or THE WORLD. 345 

pr aiBed for llieir geneza] umabiliueb. * Snmf- rati iVk: iar|rci\ . 
and ye: react at advancfL »p» •icKtnt wm- out o: luvm .- 
bat ar me larger poTkioi: sufier ur an unuc sui-i Hhuiiiiaiii-i . 
h IE n^: for ut to tiear ii. iiiinc tiiu: nit mu^ in u^ iiapi>\ u- 
all. as y^eU a^ safcrr. wtio acrus:oii. lIu-nl^t-!\t■^ ii- iiuHUTuit- 
xepantt. Instaticet of huci. tfen-rt-s'iraiir. ii. Uit iniiui's: c-ircitk. 
axid with lot mom affiueii: mearib. luiix iiri>\t iiii^ u- uy 1; 
was GenerBi Lafayetie'fe iiaun : Tm J wuvi. ^.M-iuifiiiiii. wliu 
bad settled in Pniiadeipiua iron. Luru> ui..\ am iu:f!\ tiivc 
mortb eight milboriK of doliarb. v>:ii\n tn ;r«-a:fc inh l^lt■IIll^ a^ 
UbcrallT as tbey det»irc-d. kei>: K'.i-adiiv ti luf- inSit-uriu^* n-h- 
olatiODa, Id order to aven diKeatM- ^ P('r!I;!Il^ i: uk Anit-ri- 
eans iodulged lesK profuKely iii tm- coiitnin riiitii:. Mit*^ wouid 
escape those diMifrrc^iibk jm-oi>^«-iiuii(-(-> whu-i. lu khiiii jiariii 
have almoKt tiecoine a national coinpiiiiMi • Tnt uiiMiluiur^ 
c&ctB of erroffe m tuit retc^iecl. ii: uua!i:\ -At- ucii a»> ih quuiiti- 
tv, of what IS taken, are nut coimned to iiit C-uiuut'Liiai. ciuiij- 

* ** The Viennese ii aa ctiaiifefui ir hip fmmioiii. ah lit- ii^ m hib pirak- 
■raa. Be batea and lores a diiseii iiineh a uay iiui iir rair't aiiowk it»r 
aUB to fO down upon liw wrath. From al: iti'ai 1 liuvf iirarti. I eni Ird ip 
Mieve itiat, for kindneaa ol diHpoiiiiiuii. the }mipic- u/ lUia rii> iiavr 
seanMly any equala. 'I'lteir ritant\ . ion, ib ai« wiuiidjn» ai> ilirir iHnrioi- 
tan. The)' love no countr> half mo viell as ibeir owi:. and roumdrr noiie 
half so faappy." — r^ironf'a Ueniiany iii 1831. 

t **GCetbe ate a great deal, ana Wen w-fii^ lir MeriouK!> rnmplained of 
Want of appoite. be often inok Tar mon ihari oilier >nuiii:er and liealtliy 
peraooa. He was partirularly fond or fioti. meBt. imMirv. and kwrrtniraia. 
Be never would own to tiavinie connniited a inuii in diet ; and Ina in- 
taniKTance in eatinr nauaed fretjueni fltaul iiidigeKtioii.''— Dr. C. Vofel'a 
Aeeount— bia cunfidential pbymcian. 

I ** He dined at boirie aa olteii av poM«iblr, and tiih rnicai meal invari- 
ablj conaaatud of a imie flub and the wiiif of a luwi. He drank iimhing 
bat water. 1 bave not the leaM doubt that hifc hohneiy and lemperanra, 
and tbe refalariiy of bif rej^imen. preatly coniribuifd loiarmpt kim from 
ikt im/hTnitiet of' old age.''— Dr. t'io«juet'K Private Lile ol Ijitayeiie'. 

^ **Ji. Oirard died, aged eighiy-tMO. He lived on the niiMt aimpla 
Ibod, irfainly eooked. For the la»t five \ eara be confined himseir aliogetbar 
to a vefotable diet, abtftaiiiing eiitireiy from anmial food, in coiiaequenca 
Of a liaUliijr to eryaipelaa."— Anitriican Paiiem. March, IcCIS 

H **TbmTe la a faahionable cnniplaiiiT in this country. Everybody has 
iyapcp sy . When I arrived at New- York, all the gentlemen made ax- 
CQsaM fbr tbdr wives not waiting on ine, aa ihey were auflenng (torn 
dyspspsy. I inquired of an old gentleman what ttaia waa. ' Why. 
iDS'sm. a genteel name Tor iiidigeation. We folkn in ihia country, and 
psnieularly the ladiea, eat too many ineala in the day, and tbey take no 
sisrcise except In tbeir rocking-chaim, and no wonder thay have imii* 

ion.* When I arrnred in ,1 exitenenccd tb.> truth of hla sh- 

ttlons, for refresbinenta are brought in at ten in tba morning, and g» 


nent ; they have been as strongly described as maiking Gei- 
many as well hh other countries.* 

Wc are apt to mistake the power of eating largely for ths 
utihty of the indulgence, and to rejoice in tliat degree of ip- 
petite which induces or enables the individual to make a pleii- 
tiful meal. In this respect constitutions difler, and the stats 
also of the same constitution at different times, and at ths 
different seasons, or under the various changes of the atmo* 
■pliere. Each must, in this respect, judge for himself as to ths 
tune and degree of the prudential forbearance ; but it is •«• 
viceable to know, that when enjoyment injures, self-gpveia- 
ment may restore the comfort. t The fatal effects of undos 
Quantity may, however, occur so rapidly as to give no time ki 
tne remedial corrective.^ 

The desire to eat is no guide as to the safety or salubrity 
of gratifying it, and yet the human stomach can, by habit, in 
some, be brought to bear an enormous quantity, especially in 
uncivilized life. The Esquimaux have been noticea for tluB,^ 

on till ten at nlfcht.**— Narrative of a Tour in the Uniied 8tatet,by aiidy. 
Mecrop. Mag , 18.1S, p. 100. The " particularly the ladies'* of the oM !«• 
tleman looks like the man painting the Ikm ineiead oT the Ikin delisMtiOf 
the mail. 

* Dr. Johneon'e opinion or the insalubrity of the German diet it tbflir 
Cables d'hdie » very decided. "8ir Francis Head ban remarked ihtf 
* the diMh which is nnc acid is sure to be oily. Bvery loathsome incradi* 
snt which the ihree kingdomn of nature can ftaniiah is crammed iate 
every poi and saucepan. They do not live and ihnve on their cocdury. 
They wither and die on it.* He describes much • f the eurtailmeni of lift 
anddetenomiiiMi uf liealth to their complicated cookery, iheir inofdnsie 
addiction to tobacco, to malpropre habits, and the quslily of Iheir drink.* 
—Dr. Johnnon on the BaihM of PfelTera. Metrop. Mm*. ISSft, p. SOX 

t Horace Wal;>olo's L«iier to Sir Horace Mann, in 17M. gives as !•• 
seance or thiit .- " Your father, who has been dying, and laaisd noiUif 
but water for ten dayn, the other day called Ibr nMwiheef, and is wsU; 
cured, I aup|)o*e. by this abaiiiKince, which convinces me that iniaiB|Mr 
snee had been his illneaa. Faating and mortiflcat ion will rssiore a fOiA 
eonsiiturion. but not correct a bad one.**— H. Walpole's Leuer to Sir H. 
Mann, vol. iii., p. 3. 

t On Mih December, 1833, "a remarkably flne fbll-grown boy.sgli 
sleven, dined with hia |iarents on mutton and vegetables, and drank 
some ale. On the same adernonn he went to his uncla'n. He fimnd ths 
fhmily at dinner on roant gooxe He took another meal of that, with aoni 
ale and sherry, and went home in high glee, trundling his hoop. But ia 
an hour aAer he wan in bed, violent pains in his Htomach. and alcknssi 
csme on. The medical men tried to relieve him. but he died thai nifht 
>B great agonies."— Coroner'a Inquest, in public Papers, Ath Jsnssry, 

$ CapttlQ Parry sbACsiimSa Vl«ia«M0i«ia ^dsi ttey taw an Bi^ 


er were far outflonc ny tho nativcn of Siberia.* Vet a 
Ihitrhnian |irt>8rtiU a fort of f'oii)|mnion picture in hit 
>f civilizc-d life. Tn a<icli habits wr M?t- litllo clao than 
ing Bitiiiial hvin({ only to cat.'t fridivjdnalM with an in- 
B craviiii; ap\ivur at linifH ainoii^ onriK-lvcH ; but no one 
•itatr to nliT such ai>|>arf'nt gluttony to real organic 
i. One of thin kind a|y|)eared in Ix)ndon a few years 
ho in now dcad.t Another has lately been put forwaxd 
notice by a public procedure.^ 

these extraordinary habits, whether from choict or 
', do not overthrow the general law on which the sys- 

our nature has iK-rn fonnfMl, that health, safety, and 
fe shall In* the usual reward of habitual moderation, with 
ynal almtinence. 

It with tmpuniiy fhwn ten lo twelve iiounils of aoim animal (bod 
tnnm nl a day, anil iHkn wiih it « gallon orimiii oil. 
Hi mfu^rtttd bjr iravrllfra that a Hibnnaii oflrii eafa in a day 
undaorMilMl Ibod; and AHiniral SMriirlieflTreporta ihai hoasw 
hai peo|ilf> rai, iinmeriialrly nfler hreakfa»t» twenty- flv« pounds 
4 t^n and thrRi- pounds of butler."— Dr. Caldwell on PiiyHical 

INI. p. W. 

hoai MX in th' mornlnc a alavM hriNiglit me a cup oTroflbe. Tbia 
rol AT ilin many mraln ihry lak** tn Ibe courar of tlie day. Al 
y hreakriiHi, and ii la a NUlMtaniiHl meal of «iisn, fl«b. iiicai, longiis, 
on bam. ht^ulM ibe uaiml ptrtaiioii of jinail im. Thia la Ibllowcd, 
n, by a iiflin or liinrlieon. At two, dinner ia aerved amalallng 
y arRll aorta of provmlofia. Al balf paM thnv. roflbr la handed 
arHb drIifiiNiH HWcHmraia. whirh ii la ibe riuMom to rat with ail- 
fsrliN. At MIX ilii-y aaaemMft lo tra : and al nine a fuod bol asiiper 
hair haf of ibe inrala wbiHi, in ilie rour««! ofilie day. a reap^cia- 
efe fluniiy Impoae upon ilMrntferlvea."— Wriah'a Voy. Id CliaiiltO' 
. t., p. 9U9. 

a w«a fitr man rallrd llandn. '* lie baa ealen al one altltnf 
ascfi of Inrjte oyairra,« wiiii a priifwrtMniaie iiuaiiliiy of hrf^ and 
mndy ami Witirr; but b^ wa^ iHif day ikuodrnly aiisikul wtih 
era. snd died in a Irw b<Mir« *' - PiiMir Paiirra. IImI AutfliM, IKIf. 
was «nmnioiiH liriore ih<> Mublk^x f'ouniv f'ourt lor pay* 
f hia pnividrr, wbo nuiihI hia daily aupply to be a lunch belbrs 
il, at hair ftrnt flvr. or flvf> cir arveii inufflna, wiib a |iini of hoC 
Kh ; al ri|bl, a br««kla-i of <:gff«, two raahers of liafon, waters 
and two hiit nilU : al r\v¥n, iwo bol prnny loaveaand pnarhod 
lunch : at onr. a aolid dinner : nt ibn;r, rolire and Inoai ; ai flvsu 
■averal buiierrd rrumpria ; at ciRbi, aix pound* «f poisioea ; at 
■I Irfl, four or flvr purk rbopa. witb a boiilr of wbinkey punch 
• had wiib bim inilnnk in ibe ni|bi. Tbe man was ordered !• 
■urn riaimrd — I'ub. Papera. l(Nb l-Vbruary. IHS7. Bol for aueh 
psvmesa ibe quantiiy would be acarrely rredible. 

rtaa rM4«n wimi Mt f>ir«M ihii •*Ihvp bi iwi" la Rngkai weail W aiBii 
wiHw ia •hit nMM'nr. A bmb iif nndtnt* ap^tMa »K| MA <kna< 


Our bodily life aiid nature can mibsist on very little when 
once accustomed to it. *" Fcvc» are stated to have been cured 
by mere absiinpncc,t and Dr. Marshal Hall haa so strongly 
urged a recoitrste to thin natural remedy in aeveral complaints, 
that I will add his sentiments in a note as well meriting yoor 
recollection. t A very active, intelligent man of the world, 
Sir Francis Head, now lieutenant-governor of Ujiper Cuwda, 
has also expressed his sentiments emphatically to a aimilar 

rirport. With these, as far as my ezpenence has extended, 
very much comcidc.^ The late i)r. Ureffory. of Edinbor^ 
was of opinion that most of those who could afford it ate twice 
as much as was really beneficial to them. 

It has been commonly thought that strong exercise requires 
strong food ; and yet some sportsmen, whose amusement is 
auliiciently laborious, have found such diet necessary.!! Nei- 

* " In irm dietl Pbiltp Louher, at one hundred and flva, in BhoiBiUeh' 
London, a Franch barher. H« drank nothing but wstsr, and au tdj 
oncea day."— Eastmi's Hum. Long., p. 109. 

t ** A German doctor, during iwenty-llva vearaP praetiee. has acwr 
Allied to cure Intermittent fever by strwily and literaily sianrinf his pa* 
tieiiis for three whole days. He allows them only a little wsier, sm, 
sAer the fant, accuatoma them to food again gradually.**— Liter. Gasetis, 
1835. p. M5. 

X AbMtinertce is a very valuable remedy in many of the more ehronk 
fbrma of duieaae— in diaordera of the stomach itself. To withdraw Ibod 
altogether for a time would beioemploy an actual and a powerflil remedy. 
It IS the mnet direct remedy (br plethora, and for diHeaw, or a Icodeoey 
to diMeaiie, in the head. It is the beM remedy fbr apoplexy, and far die- 
easea of the henrt and arteries, as Valsalva fbund, described by Mofg^' 
ni, 1. 9, ep. 17. a. SO He remarka, that ** Ur. J. Johnotoo has also wiU 
touched on thin subject.*'— Dr. Marshal Hall. 

^ **l firmly believe that almost every malady of che huiaan ArsaMii) 
efther by highways or byways, connected with the stomach. The WM 
of every other member are fbunded on your belly timber; and I Wirt 
own I never see a fhshionsble phvsicisn mysteriously nmoHltiSf thi 
pulse of his patient, but I ftel a desire to exclaim — Why not Idi iIm 
poor genilemaii ot once, ' Sir. you have eaten too much ; you've draak 
loo much, and yon have not taken exercise enough !' The buman ftflsf 
was not created imperfect. It in we ourselves who have unde it la 
There exiHts no donkey in creation so overladen as our slomadis.^- 
Bubbles fVom Nainau. 

I, '*The well-known Mr. I^ockley, whose extraordinary feats is the 
saddle are nniorious to all sportsmen, and who lasted iiast his eightieth 
year, when he wan accidentally killed by a M\ while riding aAcf hie 
hounds, performed his hard work chiefly on weak liquids, lea and negsi 
being the prevailing ones. His allowanee of wine seldom exeeedrd the 
second glass when not in compony with his Hiends, with whom be 
would indulgs to a ceni^n exxnivv. Ki ibnoe timss be was shy ofsntasil 
Ibod. IhivetoeafiWmsKji^Mfc^wiiaAf**! 

■ "iCaSaHMlin il MMMfa> niM* or nto ii IkMihl 

I atH^a^ Mum (M •U"'! f" :-..if.>i, u,."! i^.; »!« dlrl •- 

'T^iy«w;i ;» J «?l' -^^ii-™tMBtW»|«ilfc»y j 




much on meat. F^lesh diet prevails most in the two extreme 

ix>rtioiiti of human HDciety. the savace and the luxurious. To 
ive on ammal l>odicii, those which man hunts, or kills, or can 
ensnare, is ttic rudoMt state of human nature. The use of 
agricultural diot, and the practice of husbandry to raise it, are 
the first Htpps of tlir savaure to Itecome a civilized man. Both 
the conditions of the uncivilized, the hunting, and the pastoral 
states, live mainly on fl<>sh. The North American Indians 
were large exainplcM of the first, as the Caflfrcs in South Africa, 
and s4>ine of the Tartars, like the ancient Scythians in North- 
ern Asia, subsist on tliO herds of cattle, with the milk they 
extract from thoin. The introduction of com, and especially 
of wheat, was felt in ancient times to be such a blessing, that 
Divine honours were attached to the memory of the individ- 
uals to whom it was ascribed in both Cireece and Italy. The 
great majority of mankind have always subsisted on vegetable 
diet ; even ilic most warlike and vigorous nations.* In our 
own country wheat bread was formerly the luxury of the afflu- 
ent. Tnder the Tndors and before, rye and oats were the 
chief corn uscd;t and barley bread, under the Stuarts, was 
the common sustenance of the lower claA.Hes.t Nearly to our 
own times it was the staple food of Cornwall,^ as oats were 

* The habit of the Turk*, in their days of victory and valour, as to 
their foiHl, IS ihuH mentioned by Biisbeiiaiut: *'The Turks are so parai* 
nioiiiouB that ibey do not niudy iheir bellieN at all. Give them but bresd 
and Karlic, wtih a nort of M>ur miik, known in Galen's limes by the 
name of syllabub, and iliey Teed like farmers, and desire nothing more.* 
— Uunh. Travels. The hard and far riding couriers of Persia travel OD 
nuihinv more sioiid. One is thus described as with the uniml meal oflbt 
common ordera : '* We nettled ourselves on the borders of a rivulet, near 
a coniflcld. The courier look nlT his horse's bridle, and penniued it to 
rre<I on the new wliral. He then took out fYom the deep fbIdH of bis ri- 
ding- iroiiiwrs a iKirkct-haiiilkerrhief, in which were wrapped seveni 
lumps nf* cold boilt^l rice, and three or four Hatm of bread, whtrh he sprsid 
before uh, nnd addt^ to ihene nome sour curds, which he (lOurfNl Hpom s 
small bag at hiH snddle-bow. He drew out also half a dozen rawonkms, 
which we added lo ihe feast. We washed the whole down with wtttr 
from the rivulet."— Morier's Haja Baba, vol. i., p. 160 

r In 1596 ii appeam from Sir Edwnrd (;oke's bonsebold books thlt 
rye bread and oatmeal formed a conNjderable part of tlie diet ofsarvanti, 
in great fiunilies, in the southern counties of Knglsnd. In the reign tt 
Henry VIII., our chronicler. Harrison, mentions, that the geniry had 
wheat for their tables, but their household and poor neighbours had only 
rye. Iwrley, and oats. 

I •• In the grant of a monopoly by Charles I., in 16S6. barlev bread Is 
stated til be the usual food of ilio ordinary sort of people.*— Hist, of Mid. 
aud West Ch. 

$ Mr. Coode stated lo the Agricultural Committee In 18S3, thai to Us 

or THB WOSL». 951 

•VMi ill ToiUin!.* It -av vfua- ue KseemoB of GwBsellT. 
that wbeatCB bread eamt man ^vMsrkhr btjo vmt * Bot oar 
aneeoCon were m boppv wvthwn u we 'u« wr.b n h » fu- 
prefanblo to nr otiier : b« ao miBcrr vocid anw from lU 
abaeoce if it coM no^ be procured. We must zmk ooDiimiid 
hippinci with good eatxBg. nor nppoee tiax f^are dset. and 
anil qnantitaet or iohU mtmx» nhtc be or are ■ccompuued 
with wwt cbe dne— , or ercn w«a ducoinfort. Mr Butt, the 
pointer, wilom Mr. Boibe pominiwd. told me that be bred on 
ootnml nd water for iu cbeapDeaa. and iband it pleasant and 
aatiafying. Another gentleman abroad attained celebritT in 
the arta, whooe diet, as be stodiod. wa* onlv bread and water :t 
and Kean, the actor, who came nearest Gamck. avowed him- 
aelf to have been bapiiier in bis greatest porenj than in bis 
aobaeqoont abundance.^ ScaotT brine » tiierefore compati- 
ble with intellectual improvement and a great enjoyment of 
life. When ailmetit makes it most salubnous, I know, bj 

SMoHeeHon ibt Oonlsta p e awuiij almost inTsAabty ased bartsy : tal 
ttal tbls is ased very litllc aow, wbeat baviiif taken Us plaee. OUHr 
wlinssses laada siarilar dsdarations. 

* A reesM aatbor aays^**I>owD to the year IMO, the writer of this 
iSMMmbsrs tbai oaten bread was eommoiily eaten by the labourina 
daases of the West Riding in Yorkshire."- Hi«. Med. and West. (. b. 
Wksa 1 unveiled with a fhend oirer Scotland in I7H0, 1 round the corn- 
moo bread was oaieaks. This was nsnaily brought to the table at most 
sf the Inns until we sslted fbr wiieaten bread, wbilcb in some was not to 

t Mr. anitta, in 1760, in his traet on the Com Trade, sutos, that 
whaat bad then bseome more generally the fbod of the common peo|rie 
than It liad been in 1680 ; but, even then, not more than half the people 
sf Bilciaiid M on wheat. 

i Bitosst osys of Winkklman, so well known for his ** History of 
raatinii,* ** That able aeademieian, whose life Fontenelle has writisn, 
wUh an ioesoM of only iOO livien (about eight guineas), knew bow to 
■nisirvs his independeiiee. In order that he might continue his siudiss, 
Bsapsfisd d school in a village, and likewise pnivuled (br the subsisienos 
sf aa Inllnii and aged fhther. livku i-pon sskam and wa- 
Tsa. His mind was always at work, and he someiimes walksd ninsiy 
« a bondred milea to sse a statue.**— Brinaot's Life, p. IS. 

I ** Bdmwid Kean, In hie youth, was one of a corpa oTsirolJere. Ths 
sampaay had no regular salary, but divided ihe receipts among thsau 
Ksaii% wsskly shsre amounted, on an average, to three shillings and sis- 
pBoes, oot of which he had to find himself bed, board, washing, nimI 
cIslhlDf . sU the necesssries oT life, and almoat all the irappiaga dT ths 
sngs. TeC we have repeatedly heard Iiim declare, even in ihs senllh of 
bis soceess, that he wan a happikm man in those days, when he reeelved 
bot three shillings and sixpence weekly as the reward of his perlbm* 
aosaa. than hs waa when at the head of hie pniTesaton, and inlhs resslyl 
Of ikOMsands.**— Fraisrt Msgaiioc, IBU, p. 7S8 


eipenence, that it is no diminution of comfort, but is a great 
friend to mental activity. Want of any sostenance is a da- 
plorable evil ; but the use of the simplest, and a lessened pio* 
portion even of this, when indisposition would otherwise pi»* 
vail, are soon found to be as satisfactory as they are beneficial. 
The taste enjoys everything that it becomes accustomed to; 
and a conviction of the benefit of what is most servicesble, 
and a dread of the pain and danger which will firilow the in- 
dulgence we should avoid, will gradually fortify the mind with 
resolution to abstain from what would injure, if yielded to. 

Plentiful diet, habitually continued, has, in every age, been 
found disadvantageous after youth changes into manhood, and 
as manhood advances into ago.* Men of the world, as thef 
reflect on their own indulgences and the results, have acknowt 
edged this.t Our medical men have discerned it, and have 
diainterestcdiy counselled others to regulate their habits by 
wise caution and occasional forbearance.^ It was the expe- 
rience of the advantage which made periodical fastinff once so 
popular. Much of the derangement which afflicts Uie better 
classes of life, many of the unaccountable suicides which oc- 
cur among those who have every worldly comfort, many of 
our most painful diseases, most of our bilious and many oi our 

* The ancient author of Eyccleaiaatleus thee counsels upoo it :— 

** If ihou ail at a bouniiAil iab:e, be not greedy upon it. 

** Remember that a wicked eye is an evil tiling. BtreCcb not thlae 
Iwnd wtiereeoever it loolteib. Be discreet in every point. 

** Eat as it becnnneth a man those things which sre set beibra tbae, snd 
devour not, lent ihou be hated. 

'* Leave off first for nianiiera* sake, and be not unsatiable, leal tboa 
offend. When thou Bluest among many, reach not out thine hand Afst 
of all. 

** A very little is sufBcient fbr a man well nurtured; and ht/etcku 
not kie wind short upon hit bed. 

** Sound sleep cometh oT moderate eating. He rieetta early, and his 
wiis are with him. But the pain of watchmg, and choler, and pangs ef 
the bellv are with en uneatmbie man.**— Ecclee., c. 31, v. 18-Sa 

t l<ady lilessin^on deacribes Lord Byron to have said to her:— ^ I 
nainuin that half our maladies are produced by aceosioming oerarlves 
lo more niiatenance than i« required for the support of nature. We pat 
loo much oil into the lamp, and it biases and bums out ; but, if we oalf 
put enough to feed the flame, it burns brightly and steadily. We bate 
snmeient alloy in our comp«*Hitions, without reducing them still nearer to 
the bruie by overfeeding "—Lady Uleasingioo^s '* Jottrnal" in New 
Monthly Msg., 1833. p. 43. 

4 t>r. James Johnaou's " Economy of Health** eontaiiu much valoabto 
and Uilrtligent advice on ihla aubject. There sre ■laff many ossAil is* 
amtk9 in Mr. RobansouTa *• TnatVaa oal^iiir 

or THE WOftUh 

■ftttthrr, VIM firora tiie nnintmnittod contiiraitjr 
«f Ml hot 4JiiiMn or meat wippora, tod, not unfraquentiy, to 
■Mff fion the faibit of meat bremkfMts and meat limcheona. 
Tho ofloeto of ooeh farjr on moat individuaJa ; and some can 
fMbfy theiBealyaa aa they pleaae. without any perceptible dia- 
^ Bat aa thia ia not the general experience, aa yeara 
it cannot aafely be made the general rule. £ach, 
Tf moat judge and determine for himaelf. We may 
preeantioDa, but no one haa a right to dictate to an- 
to interfere with hia anblameable enjoymenta. We 
aU mum op with conatitutional peculiaritiee and diflerencee of 
habitat which require our aolf-regulationa to be matters of in- 
^indoal diacretion. 

But it ia not poihapa auificiently obaerved that the tpirita, 
the temper, the daily humour, and, in time, the predommant 
diipoaition, an considerably influenced, at many intervals, by 
Iha quantity or qualitv of our daily food. This was rcmail^ed 
ii aBcwiit daya,* ana boUi poeta and moraliata have deachbed 
Iha more joyoua feelinga which accompany a temperate and 
lighter djot.t Pcrliapa no greater bGnefaction haa, in the laat 
two centuriea, been conferred upon the world, than in causing 
iha civUiaod nations of Europe to become acquainted with tea, 
winle the Eastern ones were led to the use of their coffee and 
thuhei.t Tea haa released us from the heavy poutiona of 
our vahoua alea and beers in our morning and evening re- 
largely conthbuiea to remove that animalizing in- 

wfee, Itlw CslMis. wss OM of lbs most Inullig mi of tbs so- 

jsl SMkers. nunsrks-** l>M ibost wbndmyihai tlw dilRvMies 

aftflnsMSCMi randsr mmiw temperaU, (Mhtrs diMiilutr; aotiM ebsMs, 
ineoiiUiiciil ; soois coursfvoua. oibers cowardly ', some niMk, 
qasrffrlaofiM eoma to nie. Ijtt ibeiii follow my coiinaria as to 
■n4 4niifciHg, aiid I I roffiiac ilMrm ilisi tbay will gac grcsi balp 
„_foai lowarda moral pfailoaophy."— <>alen. Op. 
t l0t4 Hf9on also iioil««d lo l^y Blaaainfion -*' I fbink that ona of 
•s MMMMW why woawn arr, in feiwral, ao fnnch balfar iban iimm (for I 
daikMk ibay sra w>i. t*. >bai ibey do hoc indulge in gurmandiuiig at man 
duaai.reaaaqaonily.doool IslMiar undariheoomplicalcd horruraihai In- 
dtolfcwi ii wdacsa winch baa aucb mdrrmt/ul fWret on Ikt Umpn, ss I 
fesaa a«f* mUntMted aiU /d/.'*— N«w Mouibi) M4g.. p. 43. 

t "OAa la alws>a UMed in iha Eaal wiibiiui craam or sogar. A 
aawll saiK^pso, ibe aiia of an aMCUii. i« irfoead on Hie Are lUI ihe water 
taiU a MaMpoonfsi ol powdrrcd rofler U put into il, and auHbred to 
■■to a fcw abylliiMMia. It la ilicn iMwred, groiinda and all, iiiiu a cup 
Jasl as larft ss Iho saiiee|isn, and in itani aiair, so Uack. as ihH-k, sad 
aa sooi, ilw isfcoa with iobaceo.'X«)~l»ff. WalaVm SaMxwiri^V^ 


•Ibricty which even oar gentlemen a centurj ago 
thenwelvee by practising. It is much need by the ' 
tions, thouffh with additions as singular aa many of I 
customs, it has there, as with us and all, a socializii 
Both tea and coflfee are highly intellectual, aa well 
refreshments, if moderately used, and are ve^ favi 
friendly and intelligent conversation. They give a , 
citement to tbe syatem if not taken too larsely, which 
all our activitiM, without being followed by that ] 
depression which msny other stimulants occasion 
other plants are said to produce nervous emotions ol 
but none so harmlessly and so efficiently as the liqui 
from the leaves of the China tca.t It will be, tl 
public benefit if the growth of this can be natural 
where. Tobacco came into the Western Worid 
same period, and as a medicine ; and occasional 
adapted circumstances, appears to be very servicea 
. the large and extreme use of it is now found to be in 
the nervous system, causina a derangement of tb 
health and an abbreviation of human lifo.^ Thus, in 

* Among the Uzbeks, in the great Tartar plain, watered b' 
" nothing is done in ihitf country without tea, which is hand 
all lintes and hours, and aives a social character to confersi 
Is very agreesbls. Tlie Utbeks drink their tea with saltt snd 
mix it with lat ; after each person haa had one or two !■ 
smaller one is handed round, made in the usual manner, wi 
The leaves oT the pot are then divided among the party, ajod ( 
tobacco." — llumeii's Travels in Bokhara. 

T In the Toorkmuns* country, Captain Bumea also met ^ 
experienced iia animating eflRfCta:— ''Our food nowconaisii 
and tea ; we found the diet of bread tolerably nutritive, snd 
reflreahiiient Troin the tea, which we drank with it at all hour 
that abstinence Oom wine and spirits proved rather salutary 
wise. I doubt iTwe could have undergone the viuissitudss 
hsd we used such stimulants.**— lb. 

t About Fe?., in Morocco. '*The country growa in aha 
spring, s narcotic plant called kiff. It is dried, snd reduced 
powder. They boil it, with a good deal of butter, for twelve 
strain it. It seasons their victuals, or they mix it with sw» 
swallow it in pills. Others sm.ike its leaves. It is said, tht 
ever form taken, the elTect is certain. Its merit is that it doei 
ieaie, but raises iho spirits, and fills the imagination with 
ftncies.*'-The German Year of Liberation, 1813. 

$ Thla herb is used to pxcess m Germany. " No argument 

it. The propenaiiy ia declared by physicians to be one of the rrK 

causes or the German lendenc^ lo diseases of the lungs. Evi 

aatimied with IoVmlcoo. H«ivctt vi«riTRUv^'<n«aw^^>xA«.Vkl 

Uie oompiexkoo of a boi^]^ ciULcVia. vtwa i^m^mqx^ ^qm^ 

09 THE WORLD. 866 

enioyiiient and telf-governing reffulations are indis- 

peiwibie to lasting comfort and unrepented pleasure.* It is 
the great purpose of our Creator that we should acquire this 
■pontaneoiis desire, and power, and habit of self-mastery ; 
tad be has made it also one of his universal laws, that what- 
ever is the best for any one to do, and the most salutary for 
htm to use. always becomes, by his adopting and persevrring 
to practise it, aa pleasurable aa any other thmg that would be 
fntifyiiig, always most euduringly so, and free from the evil 
eenaequences 1^ which temporary enjoyments, that bring fu- 
ture erils so often and so generally, sadden human life. It 
may not be unuseful to you to subioin the experiments which 
have been made as to the various digestibility of the different 
aiticlM of our food4 

ttsir lying down, wtalcb lbs pssaaninr do in ihelr clothes, in inniimersble 
Insianeso. Ihe pips Is never oui of iheir tnouths. Yei the chief Uerman 
pfcysWiwlsts dsclsre itaac it sbortens life. They compute ihat, out of 
twnnty deaths of oisn between eighteen snd Ihirty-flve, ten orisiiisfe In 
As waste of Ihs eonoiiiuilon by wiioliiiif . The universal weakneiis of 
As Sfso, wlileta makso the German* « speciacled nation, ie sttribuied to 
Ito canns of iiervo«w debility "—The (ierman Year of J.ibeniiioii, 1813. 
• Thoro seeins reason to believe that lobscco msy slliiy hunfipr, and, 
Ibr a llms, even siiswer the purpoMea of miNiaiiiiiiir li'e when k>od is un- 
amaaMSL Haanie, in his ** Jonrney to the I'olar Sea,** ineiiiionM, that 
ks ihnnsnfly wss wiibout fiiud for five or alx daya, In the moat mcle- 
■SN woalhor. bat au|i|ionad tiie privation, without loainf bia health and 
Mirilsi, by oowking tobarco. and hi wetting hia inouib with a little know. 
no Tnran novar tske K with malt liquor or aiiiniuoua inixtunra, aa we 
and dM Gomsas do, but wiili their cnOhe : snd Dr. Walah bSH remsrked, 
Ifeal oa joomey, "when used with coflee and alter the Turkiah f lah* 
Ion, It Is siiigalarly gratenil lo the lante and refVeahing to the Hpirita, 
sannisinrlinf the ellecia of fatigue and cold, and apiieaMing the rmvinga 
aflinngir os I have oHen ex|ierienced.**- Doctor Walab'a Journey, p. 5. 
t Dr. Baaumont, 01 flie United 8iat«ra, having the ojiportunity of iniro- 
dnstng food into young (*anadian'» atouiach, and of withdrawing it as 
ks wiolifd. found tliot of the — 

■* PaaiNArvA.— Riea, boiled aofl. was perfectly converted Into chyle in 
eeo ko«r. flsgo, in an hour ami ih'ce quarttTM. Tapioca and barley, In 

pa feoem Bread, freah, in three lioum ; aiale, In two. 

■* Or VanSTABi.Ka — Poiaioea, ruaated, in two houm and a half; boiled, 

I tferso koeia. Paranipa and beana, in two tioura and a lialf. Tunnpa, 

boura and a baif. CarruCa, hoiied. in tliree bourn and a qiiartar. 

raw. in two biwra snd s half, hoiled, in four houra ; vinegsr 

..jiatad ita digeation. Bcf-i, three houm and three ouartera. 

••Or PiiriTi'. — A pi lee, aweet and npc, one honr and a half; mellow, 
MP* hoera ; sour sua bard, nearly Uiree. A mellow peach, In one hour 

•• Piaa AMD SHKi.irian.— Trout, boiled or ft-ied. oiw hour and a half. 
and boUnd, two bOHn. OyaMia.iiiiAi««nKA^^«Mfot<&m» 
ibrss bouis and a quansr *, eims4«^vi* Vmx% -^ 



%i $wHnu±uml Bitoryqftke World a r«cl SmH 

tmdknowUdgt.—Tke Uebrtw Ser i pi ur t t mn tlu 

M much <^ it 09 kaabten diaelosed to UM.—Tkeir endlom FflCwim 
•^Wkat 10M 4o9U in Judeoky tke Almighty mm* 4mu for tk§ IiM» 
Mire ami Benefit of alL—Tke Communieatiana ^ the Doiig !•« 
must always be Mxraculmu.—Tlu tnu Natttre of Mi — '— 

Mt dear Son, 
It hu already been intimated to yon that the history of 0« 
world is divisible into two distinct compartoients— 4be otk* 
oral and the supernatural. Each of these is as rod as thi 
jother, and they should alike be the snbjects of oar intefls^ 
«al sttention. No intelligent person would destro to itaaia 
in ignorance of either ; for the absence of either wiH Iwfs ai 
unavoidable vacuity in his mental store bj the defieuocy sf 

half. Bass, bsiled, three hoars. Flosnders, (Hed, tlwae boon aai a 
half. Salnwn, nlted and boiled, four boars. « ^ m_ 

" PouLTRt.— Turkey, roamed, two boars and a half: bsfle d, aw 
ninutea more. Wild gooee, roasted, iwo boars and a half Cfakfesa^ 
IHeassied, two hours and three qaarters. Fowls, boiled or rss ilwl, Mr 
boor*. Roasted ducks, fours hours ; and, if wild, half an boor sMfS. 

*• Bi'TciiKiis' MsAT.— Soused tripe, pigs' feet, boiled or fried, ooe hoar. 
Venison steak, boiled, one hoar and thirty-five minutes. Liver, eslTssr 
lamb s, two hours. Sucking pig, two hours and a half. Mulioo,braiM 
or boiled, throe hours; roasted: a quarter more. Beef, frcMh boiled sr 
fsasted, three hours; lightly salted and boiled, thirty-six miAOiesaMs: 
old hard, salted, four hours and a quarter. Pork steak, broiled, thMi 
hours Slid a quarter ; stewed, three hours ; lately salted and boiled, ftsr 
bourtf and a half; roasted, five hours and a quarter Veal, broiM, ftsr 
boars ; (Vied, half an hour more. 

** Eggs.— Raw, two boars ; rsasted, a quarter more, soft boUed, tSfV 
boars ; hard boiled or fVied. half an boar longer. 

** Milk. —Two hours. Custard, baked, two hooro and tbree qMrtM 
Batter and cheese, three hours and a half. Apple dnn^Ungs, thm 
boura. Suet.four hours and a half. Oil, soowwhai longer. Calvssibil 
jelly, half an hour." 

** Dr. Beaumoni*8 (hcts in many points confirm, in others diflbr ft«ai 
Dr. Paris, Dr. Prout, and Dr. Wilson Philips ; but they aU agrae that 
vsniaon is the most easily digested of mest ; white fowls mere aotbu 
brown : beef t^n vea\ \ bo\\«d xnA&t more than meat dressed any oilMr 
way ; and that oUy foo&Vs yat\Xfi>x\aaeVi \Tv<\vaft>\\>\%:' — K^ li on s t ow, IBH, 

p. ISO, 7, 

AS^ —.- 

" T«V*< 

:■ jj. 



. .. nat W 

«Wt '^'^'^/'w^ in l^" ^o; from t\>e u<ne * 

i^it.nts.ta;v« ^° ^^e o"*^:;' in a train o 
fie nuiP<e8» "V .hev "»»** . JV plans, all T 

or ras WORLD. 850 

Mw ; frithout Umm tb«re cmi l»0 iio diwign, or pliiii 
a. Such Uitnifi hftvo wlwuym referoiicii to ■oitM fur- 
I which i« to anM5 from them, for which tliisy are 
tad U> flAcctuaU} which tlwsy have Ifmn mUtpUsd and 
clkm. We know tliw to a certainty from our unva- 
lerusiire in our own and in all otlusr humiin produc- 
CranaMtuma. If we deMii^n, we deaitfii wmiething; 
I, It la io make or do HometiiiiiK which we conceiva 
jdan, aiMi for which we |iUn. All our pur|ioaea 
future reMulta in view, U>ward« which they are di- 
iid have all a proccM for ttieir execution. Mind, 
ii our Creator or in ourMilven, mukt act on tlieaa 
f and to tlie firoductton and iirornotion of wliatever 
, iDtenda, or reaolvea niion. Iiut whatever tlie iJivina 
aiKfiii, m«*an«, or efliMrtuatea, muat, aa contraatcd 
k man tut doe«, lie BUMfrhunuin — l>e what mardcind 
id cannot do ; and when the material atructure of 
I been formed, wliatever furtlier or extra agenciea or 
I are introduced into it or effected in it, muat be 
tat tlie eHtaliiiaheil courM of nature does or can occa- 
i la, It mukt In: «ii|M;rfiatural. 'Jlierufore, wliatever 
n our world after it* limt creation, and in human 
ter mankind were liron|{ht into exiatence, which 
Ml nor thir inaU:nal lawn o( nature could of tliem- 
:aaion, inunt In; the n'BultN and coiiiMM|uenreii of a 
an and ku|ii:rnaturiil aj(f;iK:v, and llii:relore of that 
9 ocdy ran exercise mjrli J lie deiM.'ri|ition of it will 
ipliun of wliat !• oi thi« cliaracter ; and tlte hintory 
ration* cannot hut In: a iiij|M*rnatural Inalory, or a 
wluit 11 •u|iernaturMl or iiu|ierhuman. Such « hia- 
muat Im! in tin; world, if llii* acliona of aiich a|{enry 
Bre rccordi-d ; In raunf, iinlr*«N tlie lieity ha« done 
; all in our kIoIh; or with hiN human race ■ince tlie 
f tlieir limt (Jri'atioii ; unlrHN from tliat time lie baa 
tlidrawn from tittmi and entirely alwndoned tliem, 
liave acted, in aonie rekfiect or otiier, in and with 
al vu\ human world whirh he lum created. All 
mm inunt lie ku|i«*niiitural •f(iriM:y, and all Ai(oney 
Lhe Buhjef:! of narration or hutory aa ntton and ae 
, occur* 'riirrn may be iki liiaiorian to oliMirve it 
; It info wfvrdi and |ilifeMHi of human laiiKuaira } but 
t b* a h»lvn ol it cafiabU of b«iii|( I4;c«»l«ui^ >& >X 


hftve Ukcn place. The facts, as they occur, jhw 

and sequences of its history to iis. Thej an 

eirmcnts and materials wliich have to be clotl 

phrase. They form the actual and the intellect 

such Rupcriiatural agencies, as the words which 

by any one to coinniunicate them to otherSi in t 

connexions with which they occurred, become ih 

written history. The events of any one life v 

of that life ; but while they remain solely in tb 

own consciousness and memory, they are bat i1 

history, known to no one else, yet as certainly < 

they were described in alphabetical charmcteze. 

ideal history of any one is meant to be made km 

who may live hereafter, or who did not see irfi 

the facts that were in the individual's ezperiene 

exist after that only in the individuars mind, tat 

in such conventional words as the society he liw 

as will awake in the minds of those who read A 

•s are in his own, and as he, from that, expressei 

formation. When this is done, the real and idi 

converted into visible and readable history ; 'u 

his death, becomes the only history extant in ' 

what he has so done and narrated. If he ever 

actual and intellectual history to writing, or 1 

others who give it a lettered shape, it cannot 

any one, but remains solely in his own mind, and 

that to whatever future locality this may be piM 

still the incidents have occurred, whether he dei 

or not. Their reality and their certainty are then 

from his description and independent of it. Hie I 

his words are only after appendages to the ectoel 

are but the vehicles of its communication to ott 

the circumstances which they are employed to dc 

Hence I would allege, that unless the Deit; 

and deserted his earth and human race the mei 

formed them, and has never noticed them einc^ 

have been his supernatural agency in it, uid then 

natural history of that agency to be narrated, to 

words, to be made known to others, according a 

or should not mean his human creatorea to be ae^ 

it. If he chose to act without mankind knowin 

«ntions, then he would not, of coime, caute anj 



m tn woEUi S61 

ifwIilhtM. B«t whtifftr ■fiiMjr bt M«n«d, 

mMmmHom Iw tbould mtkt of liiiiiMlf which 

It bt ip yiii rf of, H it obvioiw thtl h« would 

•MM prapor fMioono to bo tho hunuui iiifira- 

bi boBiHi wofdo, fiieh of bit opoiftUom tnd 

w btfhMid taitO B d to bo oubjoeto of huratn knowl* 

hi pHBMMiil pmovty of banuui Mtum. 

Ito tin donoy tOiid ■mi, md offbot of oil our woeodiiii 

I hifo boon to MioWf by tbo oontonuHOtion mm 

•f tfoiy port of mtani, of bonuui lifo, tnd of 

■Moipi thol OW wofM noTOf bM boon dotoftod by itv 

' wiiv Aom Iti bogHuiing, noyor moont to bo lo 

Thff bofo oiUbitod pbiw ond purpoMw oitend- 

1 tho moro oiootion wnd tbo poriod of Ha mtturiol 

Ito lowt bovo boon ihown to bo thoM of eon- 

■mij', if iwooMivo oporstbinii of o eourM of things 

_ ■ t oM f fl4iwCniom, uid of porpotutl TorittionK, kitpt 

wllhfai miilOi md bormonliod eonottntly into rogular 

Tho lopoot of tbo wbolo prewnti ovorywhora tho 

9m MiponiitondoiioO| difsotiont ond govonunont ■ of 

9f flMOUOnO* piOOOMi pfOgfBMMnf IOfMIOOin|f pUffpOMMIi 

OMtvipf OMo> Tbo nofol govofiNnont of tbo umttof 

Mo MonI tfoney in himiMi tllbini. Tbors etnnot bo 

■fWMMm witboat moni iffonevi for oil goiromment 

V Mid to mooning ■iid obiorvlng tgineY ; oiid all 

OftmwMiti wbotbor doeUrod or not, whothor anon or 

, taMwii or unknown, muat bo aupematural govem- 

Md MipoimUuol agoney ( It muat, aa auch, have a au- 

■1 Malory ottonding it t and whon thia ia narratitd for 

or futwro infomuition, in tho worda of human lan- 

gMMM. h will bo a aupomatunU hiatory of aujlamatural ovAnta, 

mmfmm wMoh bavo boon dona by aopomatural agency, and 

m by Him from whom akme auch oporationa can pro- 

Thio will bo olwaya diatinet ftom tbo ciril hiatory of 

M Daily aboald moko known to mMikind ill that ho 
m iMiikBi or aoya, it would bo felly to oipeet. Ilia ae- 
, hotaig oKroya tboae of a power inviaiblo to mortal orgaiia 
if 4i^ iM M^^w be in themoalfeo pefBeived by ua ; tlmy 
flHlfli opiotoHy doacribed lo ua for our cognisance of thatn i 
mA hihig if thlo hnmiiarial md brtoUoottiol ebaraotor, onlf 
^ irfiaMhoaMirfEo* ti hi MiAihMfwn%o «»««ft«W«^ 



or will lie put into a form that we can understand. All ths 
•upematural history which we can have of him and his sgency 
will be that which he selects and determines to be the fub> 
iects of our knowlcdf^e. When he resolves on such thiogi 
beuig a yotiion of our intellectual information, he chooses ind 
causes the peraons he deems fittest to be the human orguu 
and instruments of describing and recording them ; and t^ie, 
in pursuance of such his will, and assisted l^ his iDfliienccs 
so far as these arc needed, then narrate them truly in their 
written compositions to be the pcq)etual knowledge and in- 
struction of our social and individual world. 

To suppose that the Deity meant his human creatures to 
know nothing concerning him, or his intentions, or wishes, 
but to be always totally ignorant of his existence, will, or pur* 
poses, is incompatible with the idea and belief of an intelligent 
Creator, of his l)encvoIent nature, of his superintending ad- 
ministration, and of his moral government. But what is in- 
consistent with these must bo untrue, and therefore we znaT 
deem it to be erroneous not to conclude that he has both de- 
sired and deHigned to be known by his human race. But, if 
so, then ^'c may be sure that he has made such manifestations 
and communications of himself and of his feelings, and wishes 
and intentions, as would give them just ideas of him, and 
attach them to him. Whatever precepts and instructions it 
was neccHHary to impart to them for their benefit such a Being 
would not witlihold, nor ever discontinue that superintend- 
ence and preserving care which their welfare would require. 

But to have thus acted, and not have such agency and in- 
ter]>ositions narrated in a written history, and thereby recorded 
for the information of all his human race, would be incouMst- 
ent with hin own pnri)oseti, as well as with the wisdom and 
benevolence of his nature, and with the philanthropy which 
such attentions display. He has chosen, since the deluge, 
to make his human race a series of short generations. This 
fact alone would make a written history of these special agen- 
cies and connnunications necessary which he desired thrin to 
know. If man had been one continuous and immortal beini;, 
he would liavc been alwayn his own historiati.and have needeii 
no other. He would have himself l>elu>ld all tliat occurred, 
and would not have re<}uircd annals or transmitted accounts 
of what in any ac;c had taken place. But, living only a limited 
number of years?, each sie\xota.\.\otv ^ve<& viA. ^Ks^tta away with 

07 THS WORLD. 868 

knowMipft it haN rmeivrd ; mul ili« »iwcitH\in^ K«». 
I whirh iiriMi rM|iiir«* Ut (wvi* writtfii hiNtohctii of what 
<i to ttirir iimlfiCfMMini, or will tin i^nuniiii of it. 'I*he 

of all ihit liivitm inifrfiofiitioriti \9nc1mw1it ihr^n-fora, 
il to tlift hiifiian kiiowliflf^o of thia by thopMt wlio livo 
iurrrt«*difiK intmnU ; aiui, thcrc*forit, our maiioii aaaurmi 
, a« rcrtaiii aa tliiTf havi* Ih*i'ii Hfirrial o|N<ratJona and 
ufw of t^M* I)f*ily to liiM hnirian ran; at any prft«;ndiiif( 
I rnriaiii la il ttMt In* iiniNt hav«* raiia«d ttM'iii to Im* rff> 

fnr mir iiifiiriiiaiiiiti rotircrnitiK titmn, aiul iniiat kiavo 
arif that aiitlMfiilir hiatorirN of tlii'm ahmjlil alwaya ha 
aiiiri*, llMt wit may Ihh'oiihi truly arriiiainli^ with thnin. 

rmronliriK hmtory iiiiiat \w 111 thi* ilHirHw HrrifiturM, 
a la iiofif 111 iiiiNlftii'n ; for no ottH'r arM'it*iit wntiiitfa 
worM tN'fiin* our Naviour*N tinif on^liiUfl to ^ivo tho 

of the Diviiii! iiianiffNiatioiiN atio rovc*latjoria rxc^A 
MMikm. Thi'v carry ihia iliNtuiriiou iiiai'imnihly with 

'I'ticrii la iMilhiiiK I'lait lik<' ihfiii ; notliiiiK Haii of thia 
no otlM'r work, i*if(liti'i'ii huiRlrftl yrara olil, narnitea 
•tioii ol ihii worUl, till* firat Niatit aiul fintt a((fa of man, 
,Uf|i% lhf> ilivimoii ami iii'|Miratiiin of luankinil into dia- 
nd diV4*ra4'ly ai*lihii|( nationa, ihn Mtllfmnnt of this Jaw- 
:eHt<ira ni Ktiypl, iUf. Iilxiration aiMl rmnoyal of thair 
ty from that country, and thn Diviiif* <»|>rrationa and 
iiiiratiofiN whifh ihrii and aubMwpifntiy tcNik fdarit in 
tnan world hi xUrmf. wi* liuvf a twrum of tlin au|N'mat- 
TfiirifN of ilii* 1 hilly, and of inNlniriiona and iirifritpts 
UM, and of tiiiiiii* iiitfrfi'ri'iif'fii anii rnvflationa whirh h« 
to 4'ihihit Ifi im Hul nolhniK likn thi*ai* ia to Im found 
RH* III wiuil hail I'oini! down to ua from thn anriiint 
in< Wf may, llif-riforf!, alwaya tako up thirar with an 
rtual riTiaiiiiy that Wf havii in t)ii*ni thi! ailthnnlic 
,unii of ihi< l)iviiif' dfalinK* with mankind, or ftlai) that 
a no iiiMiiiry fd lhfiii< in i<tiiiti*nfi< ; whirh would \m tan- 
iit to lionr huviii^r fMTtirri'd— a Hii|i|HMition in ahaoluto 
dirt ion with tlm fa«'i« of an inti?lli|{fnt crratioii and an 
lent i 'realor. 

im tlirmi ^^t^ li-nrii thai il iina liffii Iiih |ilafi to raiim up 
artifiiiar imiion to lit- thf milijri'l of hm ininirtliatn {(ov- 
int, iltM-ipJiiif, mill inninif'lioii ; to ri-fMyr hia rnminuni- 
la and ri-viUitoiiii ; to diiMTilM' tliriif in writlan hiatoriM 
kicuincnia, for tho knowMgc of t\\ fAVm wAkma 


ages, and lo preacrve auch recoida tbrourii all the afconMi ind 

viciMicudea. and deTastationa of lime and rerohitioin, ao that 
tiiev mignt never be lost to mankind, but *l«n>T> nmain ai 
lite true and autnentK accounta of wbat the Deity haa tpb- 
ciaily done and uugfat. and haa dcaired hu human nee to know. 
Toe Jewuh peopie have been the natioa that vraa fixmad and 
used tor lius purpose. They have been the depowtoriea and 
preservers of the supemaiiual hiatoiy of the worid: and to 
them we are inde'Dted for all that «re know oi it ontil our SaT- 
lour came On them he exercised his immediate govcmnanl, 
and manii'ested toe priiKiples and lawa on which at coodncted 
It, as ihe cootmgeoces arose which called theae into actiaii. 
By his dealings, and commands, and exhortatiooa, and lebnkei, 
and councils to ihem. he haa illustrated the sratem and ralei 
on which he guides and carries <m erexrwbne his proridcntiil 
admzDiscratioa of human affura. All that he p e iiu imad and 
inculcated in Judea is a monitory re pre se ntation to na of the 
laws and principles of his univeiaal government of fanman M- 
ture in all its populations. He choae to make them and thair 
hiscoxy the examples and elucidations of the raka, and plau, 
and purposes on which he conducU his soperintcndenee and 
government of human nature, in all ita atagea and poaitiona, 
although nowhere, except in Judea, was his prodocii^ "g^ocy 
made to be sensorially perceptible and specifically avowed. 

What has elsewhere been carried on inviaiUj to moital 
eye was in this country, at such times as he thou^tf proper, 
made manifest to human consciousness, and, in tl^ langnige 
of that people, declared and explained. In their emandpa- 
tion from their Egyptian slavery, the power and operations of 
tiie real Deity, the only and all-ruhi^ Ommpotent, were dis- 
played to (heir sight and hearing. Iney were Unght by their 
senses as well as by precepts. Their mind and heart vrare 
appealed to, that, tnrough them, and from what waa done and 
uttered to them, the reason and the feeUngs of the human 
race, wherever those incidents should become known, mi^ 
be correspondenily enliffatened and affected. 

For one of the first deductions of our understanding froo 
reading the history of these transactions between this natiOB 
and the Almighty will be, that there ia but one and the aane 
God in our world and in the universe. He exiau and gor- 
ons alike in all aees and places. His moral government molt 
taerefon eveiywheze be founded and condocted on the 

07 THE WORLD. 865 

pffinelpUe. H« etimot but bt the sAina Being in every age 
end oountiy, end elwsye ect, feel, end think contimiously end 
eoQfrooueljr like himtelf. Hih nature is ae immutable as his 
•temity* end, therefore, in all the morel and intellectual prin- 
eidee oif hie deelinge with the Hubrow nation, we soo thu 
nlee and |>rinciplea on which lie governs all the sectioiui and 
pmeraftiona of hie human race ; the foelings and intGntiomi 
which be hae concerning them; and the conduct and Um 
obedience which he requires and eipcc.ts from all. 
' Bot, ee we reed the various books which comiKMc tho 
ncied volume, we find in many parts, and specially in the 
huer portion, which contains tho writings of the profiiirts, 
thel the Divine topics enumcratiMl extend beyond tlio J r wish 
Mtaon, and reieto to tho wliolo huiiiaii rac« at one period or 
anoUwr, end, at length, to all wlio shall comprise tlio ulterior 

C rations who are yet to succeed our own. Wo find tho 
nies declared which liave iKKsn assigned to tlie kitigdoms 
that have figured in the world iN^forc our time, as well as to 
those which ere yet to arise. Heiicfl it is incontostible, tlwt 
what was done, and then taught and writtifii in Judea, was 
iMant to relate to all maiikiiul, siul to Ihi tor tlieir information 
aa well ae for the knowliidgo of the |Mtople to whom ihey 
were immediately addresstHl. Tho proviib'utial drama, thus 
eihibitcd and acted in its successive scenes to the Jewish 
■ation, wee mlended to l>o ss instructive to us as t«> them. 
In all tho inci<leiits and promulgations of his will, whirh thero 
from time to time were rll't«tuat4'd, the Deity spesks to all 
who may read them, as well as to thoso wlio beheld or heanl 
thorn By these he reproMMits hiiniielf as he is, as he acts 
and feele, and what he meaiw niul desires, and is esusing, snd 
will yet produce, to every age and nation tliat will niske it- 
eolf acouainted with tliem^ writings, and from them learn to 
know him. The histtirical record transmits the sacre<l \iot- 
lauture of Ood, and of his will, ami pur|MMes, and moral gov- 
onunent, and |»rovideiitial agency* to every people u|K)ii earth 
aaoog wlioin this inifstimable volume sliail oe introduced. 

On all those Divine subjects of tliought and action, the 
Hebrew Scriptures are sacred ami autlieiitic oracles to us. 
We have no oth<!r source of rerlaiiity, or even of information, 
dwut tlume ever interest iiig loiiies up to the {>eno<l where 
they temnnate. Alter them, tne ('linstian writings of the 
•vangeliflte end apostlos, collected and cwnpnaeni \ti vVua\^«« 



TMUBMBt, carrf on the DnriiM eomimmicatioiM to qif oi 
complete the body of the Divine ecience, which, in its mo- 
mentous Tslue to us, tnnscends all other knowledse as mneb 
as eternity surpasses the brief space of our human life. 

In the combing Tolumo of both Jewish and Christiao Senp- 
turcs, we have the whole of the grand truths aa to the DlTioo 
nature, agencies, laws, meaning, counsels, commands, snd 
puxposes which have hitherto been revealed to us. Without 
these books we should be in utter darkness on all those sub- 
lime, attractive, awful, wondrous, and mysterious subjects with 
which our present welfare, and iiiture hiopea and fears, and iU 
that we can desire or expect hereafter, are essentially, and 
inseparably, and unextinguishably associsted. For these rea- 
sons I regard them as the most precious possessions which 
in this world I can hold. They contain the charters of my 
life and well-being. They are the letters-patent of etsmity 
to us. They present to us the covenanted statutes of our im- 
mortal happiness, or of the hc^less loss of it. In them ths 
path of felicity and glory for ever is distinctly set before ue. 
In them I learn to know who and what my Creator and Sav- 
iour are ; on what principles they govern their moral and in- 
tellectual world ; wnat they require of me and promise me ; 
what they have done for me and for ill ; what they propoee 
and are preparing, both in this world and in the next ; what 
rank human nature holds in their estimation, and to what 
destinies they are conducting it ; and what and where will be 
its final allocation. Nothing else can give me this inesti- 
mablo information. To reject it, or to dislike the form in 
which it comes to us, or to desire that it had come in some 
other way, and to disregard this because it is not somethii^ 
else, would be such an absurdity in me, such a childish hu- 
mour, and so contrary to what my judgment dictates, and to 
the conduct I ought to pursue, that 1 cannot withhold my 
belief and confidence in the intellectual treasure which is here 
made the available property of us all. I would not exchange 
this conviction for the empire of the world. That would Be 
fugitive and temporary to me. But the Scripture certainties 
and promised blessings will abide with me, if I can gain them, 
for ever and ever Even now they satisfy and enlighten my 
reason ; they sooth and delight my feelings ; give me Divine 
reaJitiea to think of, and spred an irradiation on the scenery 
of fature time, which makes dea.\.Yi\rox ^a ^^tisL qC a Tegjkm 


artditf— « nleiit conrejraoce to an ercor-eniaigiiig 
Raad and ttiidjr jroar Bible with this impra—ion, 
I these Tiewa, and on these reasonings ; and, the Ion- 
live, the more yoo will appreciate and consult it ; and 
fwery year of yont earthly life, troth, and wisdom, and 
■ ftom it. 

aware, becaose, when I was young, I felt it myself, 
VB is, at first, a kind of indisposition in the mind to 
It a miracukras historjr can be tme. We see no such 
lariqg our own life, and it seems strange that there 
Ji thmgs in former time. But so, for the same reason, 
id to me as strange and as hard to believe that such a 
< all-conqoering and irresistible as Nebochadneisar, 
lenly rise up, and defeat and subdue every nation he 
, ; when, lo ! as I was meditating on these things, an 
a young lieutenant of artillery, whose very nsme had 
heard of before, blazed suddenly before us, and, in 
four months, more unexpectedly still, became the eon- 
f Italy, vanquished army after army as if he was some 
agician, moving and acting everywhere as if with 
ml power. Nothing was more extraordinary or 
more miraculous, without being really so, to those 
re alive in 1796 and attending to political eventa, 
I extraordinary achievements of Nspoleon Bonaparto 
prii^ and summer of that year. I shsll never iorgeC 
inding impression they msde. I could hardly believe 
ants, however officisl, which I was almost daily read- 
■rtainly, taking in all the circumatances, nothing Uke 
ccurr^, in the same space of time, in such an age 
itry, against such adversaries, and with such results, 
J before. Events and things are not, therefore, nn- 
incredible because they are new, strange, extraordi- 
Mrently unaccountable, or unlike those with which we 
liar. Impressions of that sort I perceived to be im- 
ile, and tnat they arose from my ignorance, vrith a 
»f cowardice of mind, in disliking to accredit what 
Mibted or objected to. The spirit arose of examining 
l^ng for myself, and of acting firmly on the rcsulta, 
idopting and adhering to what, on fair and enlaiged 
I found to be the truth. 

investigations which I then puisoed conducted mm to 
chisioDs 1 have expreaaed. IwywiirtUi i\ u p w-l ^^ 


perceived to be the Dccessuy And natanl companion <^ a 
provuleniial superintendence and moral government of the 
worid. and of us planned creation by an intelligent Creator. 
Under such circum^unces, its absence would be the incredi- 
ble thin«2. not Its presence and operation. Natural agenciea 
would be always employed to do what natural caoaes can ef- 
fect ; but supematux^ agencies alone can perform whatever 
is requisite or expedient to be done beyond the ordinary caasea 
of things. All Divine revelations must be of this nature. The 
trees, toe rocks, the clouds, the winds, or the animals cannot 
talk to me oi' God, or make known to me his will. The son 
has no articulate voice, nor is the moon a legislator. The 
fabric of nature can show me the marks and tokens of his 
creative mind and power, and of the goodness and kindness 
which directed their operations. But beyond this testimoi^ 
to his existence and agency in their formation they can give 
me no intelligence about him ; that must be conveyed to us 
from himself, and the means and circumstances of that cm- 
veyance must always be supernatural and nuraculous. Mirac- 
ulous manifestations of himself, miraculous conmianications 
of his mind, and will, and laws, and purposes, must therefore 
have uken place in ancient times, in order that we should be 
acquainted with what he desires us to know. We can leam 
this in no other manner. Hence it is one of his grandest 
laws in his human world, that when his plans and purposes 
require preternatural interposition of his power, it shall always 
be exerted ; but, with the unusual occasion, the unusual agency 
ceases, and the extraordinary result no longer occurs. While 
it acts, it always corresponds with the reason for its occur- 
rence, and with the superhuman impulse which can alone pro- 
duce it. Such interferences are not wanted in the established 
course and usual sequences of nature, and are no part of the 
general plan of its regular phenomena. They come into it, 
uke the comets into our solar area, only when they have spe- 
cific purposes to fulfil, different from the daily state of things, 
and which the ordinary agencies and movements are incom- 
petent to effect. It would, then, be as unwise in the govern- 
ing intelligence not to introduce and commission such opera- 
tions to cause what he intends, as it would be unnecessary, 
and therefore not beneficial, to apply this at any other time. 
Hence no miracles are done for sport or display. None ap- 
pear like a juggler's tricks or an impostor^s knavery. It wif 

or THI WORLD. 369 

«i dm ■riaeipk thai oar Saviour refund to wMte tny, merely 
10 gjnlUtf Hnod or the PtMuru««». All his subcnuitural upcZ' 
•ttom wore done with a moral purpOM aud fur a moral t-jid, 
tad goidod bjr an aecuiatA jijidgm«nt. He did riot efi«:ct 
theao by violating the aubirifting law« of nature, but by (:rilar- 
gmf ibo agency of auch a« were in operation, or by introdu- 
cmg aoMOff theae other* whifch were tlien donnant or of gr<;ater 
power. Hjeep your mind from admitting the deluding phraae 
thai aoy mtraeles recorded m the 8cnpture« are violatioriH of 
the lawa of nature. l*bere can be no miracle but what in 
p e ifa i m ed by the powen of the Almighty ; arid wliat \ui efli:ctf , 
or aothorisea oChen in bia name arid a« hm act to eiieciuate, 
ia never a violation of hi* natural laws. It is eitlier sn ii>- 
CIUM of the action of aorw; existing law or mesns ; a bring- 
ia§ inlo VMiUe operation some latent, or more diNtant or mn- 
aacsBt law, or a new result from the introduction into tho 
partKdlar locality of some superior law. All these arc i:vf:rjtH 
whieb neither the aaual mecfianism of nature nor human fxrw- 
«r can occasion. No one part of nature can have any other 

reaaenta or resulta than it has been ap(jointrHl to liave. 
extra power must come into it to eflect from it an nxtru. 
Thus, the tree caiinoi uprrNrt itMilf, nor throw off Uh 
bifk or branches, nor saw itself into plank n, wtr cofribini: thanti 
JMo the hull of a ship or the floors of a dwell if ig-houhc. An- 
ocher power must thus ojierate upon it for any of thf;iic pur- 
In these, human mind, will, and agency munt work 
it with an intending puqiopic, and thus n«;w-sha[ie and 

it. But wtiere the Divine will intends to scconiplihh, in 
anv department of his nature, or on any of its sutislanrcN or 
individuals, wliat the establislu-d ordr:r of things or lh(; tikill 
of nan cannot eflfert, he sjiec tally actuaUrfi the moving ]iitwt:r 
•ad material things which are alresdv there or (:lh«:wh(:r(r in 
tiertion, to act with a new force ami in a new direction Un 
dw mpectfic coinfiletion of the MHicidr end he has in view, and 
dMn a miracle lakes place. Thus, to make a path for his In- 
nfllHies through the Ked Sea, he caused ** a strr>ng east wind 
all that night"* to r^jjerato ujMn the waUsra till tfiey were di- 
vided and driven up, as inUi a wall, on ea^.'h side, leaving a 
middlr of dry ground during i)n: tirne of his peoiile's pasMg*^. 
WbOB they were safe, the extraordinary action of the suspend- 

• Xietos,e. iiv.,v.Sl. 


ing wind was made to cease, " and the aca returned to her 
strength when the jnorning appcued */'* its waters sank dowa 
to their usual level, and all their natural laws came into im- 
mediate operation ; and this natural actiwi <^ these natunl 
laws was quite sufficient to overwhelm the pursuing HiiruA 
and all his luwts. No miraculous impulse or «aergy was then 
necessary ; " the depths covered them ; they saiS unto the 
bottom as a stone. "t 

Thus, all the miracles of God are but an increased action 
or a new direction given to existing natural laws, which none 
but he can impart to them ; or, if it be mcMre expedient, the 
local pr€»«ence and application of a more distant law, which, 
till thus commanded, was operating elsewhere. This local 
application, in particular places, of more remote laws of nir 
ture, is a part of its established plan. The seaman behold* 
^i8 in every storm that shakes him. He sees the distant law 
of nature rise up visibly from the edse of his horizcm in a 
small black cloud. No such is about liim as he is serenely 
gliding on the peaceful wave. But the law that was ebe- 
whcre, the fcartul agency that can convulse the ocean when it 
comes over it, soon approaches, and throws into tremendous 
agitation the floods which it can master while it is acting upon 
them. At length it departs from that locality, and travels 
again into a distant region, to {nroduce similar effects there. 
All rains are of this description. They bring from other parts 
laws and agencies which were abiding there, either above or 
beyond, ana also the material substance which they actuate 
into immediate neighbourhood and contact with the district 
where they fall. 

\Vlien natural causes move and act only as it has been or- 
dained and provided in the appointed plan and course <^ na- 
ture that they shall move and act, their operation is not mirac- 
ulous. The miracle begins when that effect begins which 
the established mechanism of nature cannot produce. This 
was effcctf^l when Elijah, in competition with the priests of 
Baal, left the decision of the moral contest as to the reality of 
tlio Jehovah whom he proclaimed to the displayed will of his 
awful Master. A local direction was invisibly given by the 
Supreme Invisible, whom all things obey, to a sufficient body 
of electric fluid not at that moment there in an accumulated 

* KxodM, e. xiT., ▼.«!,». \ 'to-»*. v«^'^ V 

or THI WORLD. S71 

; »nd Um ftwy ainMin riunA iiMUfiUjr frmn tlw ptfl« 
! It WM in q«i««;«fic« <yr diffuuMfi, and wu 4«rt4»4 down 
wAmtie* Uf Uw Almifftity mutdaUt ttfttm Umt iJUr wfikdl 

4MPniniiik«Mm«4 Ut inmriM. * H«rr« wm no Isw of n«f «rt 
tod ; but « r<Mting «nd « dwUnt otm wm lyrought from 
vr idiK*, Mid put into «ijch lui «n«r|nr und colkrtivo forco 
onif/li*^i«^ tti« fnUrrid<^ puqwM. By doinK thm, it ni«iii« 
S ttM: r«:«lit7 oi l\itt iMiif \fy \i% yr^smtntji «nd rip«r«ifon, 
M «/riijr ^K: f-f/iiid fefi i'Aikimtt lU lor.aiity, and no imm«di- 
wid «;/«irific felly njfpljr it. 'Hm! p«9r/fil« f«lt i}iln, and «»• 
id rf/riTirtion of it from tli<i d«!^idiritf r<!wiilt t 'fhia 
lit iriti-lliffilfl<! t/f uji l;y w(i»t hMi/ft^nt in tiMt o^ralKmn of 

fntc.]h|fr<:w In t^MMM! grand naval and military itym^ 
whi'-ri «rf Vf «!f/'itin(( in liiM/zry, ar« inatafwcM of thia 
,nnmi»!r of law* //f natiir«! fr'^n *nns inffum to another Ivy 
I %yft'.itfy It w«« thud tliat N^lif/n rarriMi tlv; tf«in«n- 
•w« of riat'ir*;, whicli lii« iihip* of war coritairiMl in tli«ir 
«rit «>«t^:, from lll^ t-JtHMin wlii/:h li«; l«ad lM»«m guardmff, 

t»i^ w)ir/|<! Iir'adih of tliA MMlit«!rrarM;«n, into tlf« flair 
wkir, t// ;/'it tlif:m tli/;rft ifiU> tliat U-.rnfn: tw.iuHt wliirh 
WMk tiif «ii««rnd«tii«:y aii/l jMW<;r '/f th«; Kr«^i#'h rfrpglilir, 
r«t i-iitt-kt^ Wtti^ till tlH'ri, irrframtiblf! llona|i«rt«! Ho 
itra/rrdiria/y (fffMrral, at a fiitijr<; day, trannfMTMl, with • 
y almrwt iff»«y{iiall«^, hi* military law* </f nature, inttru" 
, af»d Mffttff*, if out th<'ir r*:%ltui( atate at Hf/iilogne and 
wr^, to ov«Trwrtf'lm v/ d«^;i*iv«rly the aat/fnt^lieo Mark 
I a«id M«-fjnirij{Mi The diffi-r'-iK-e l»etwe«^i theae offer*" 
iwl tt^ llfvme mir«rle% we liave lieen al|ffdin(( t/# la^ 
tafi l<a« kitli)M-tr-d »f»me of the Uw« of nature to Irta f^iw* 
I rarj ove a/M fef^j/iy ttiem to a r-erlain extent, ami in tucb 
la trieK' , h^tt oo furtlfrr . aii/l wtMt man arid iiatur^ ran 
tliMfiM lv«-« I* no mira<-l«' U i« when lawa of naturo 
lid ari^l dir«-''ief| t// do wliat a auf^rtiuinaff and t'lfierriat' 
frwr Miifi inti-lliy-n/'e <-«n akrtie mffve and ifuidk ttiem 
rtiiate, tiiat ttM! mir««'ij|oti« fflienoofrMin afipeara, andf 
warm;;, ln'ar* m if« reault, aa it were, tlia iriMrnfition 
t, t^iat " 'n»e kjieMal w/wer (/f tlie I>eity i« afienally d«>- 
a " III (rier^'liy marla inr'mtemaldy wliat tha laraelitaa 

Cmfa, f ivtit . * M 

ik^ wt.»fi cii III* |i«'^u Mw n. ibnr frM «n itiatr AaM, aM flwir 

flM J-*f4, H> !• ia« 0*a iha ljm4. Ma la iWa tta4---W. 


feltuidezpreMed— "The Lord! Hi u the God." Hea 

and will do, at all timea, what he ■hell deem proper. H 
cooBults no mortal beinff as to the period, place, or mumcr < 
his interpositions. He forms his own plsiis, exnemes his ow 
puiposes, and introduces his interferences bj hii own 
will and judgment, whenever he thinks them 
chooses to apply them. 


SUM mi. Pnvaismee^PagmmiamiH tktJIftk enOwnt tftur tk« ltah« 
— /Cc DtUUrimu tgtcU tmd S*i/'-vtrp €tu a i im,--'Uumm>t Cmutm « 
tmued^ and could not subvert U.— Divine Interpoeittan^ iw mm. InMec 
umi Proeeee, eoeential both for Retifkme end Moral TWlften end A 


The supernatural agencj which was exerted in the prodn 
tion of the deluge, ai^ of the terrestrial alterations and ne 
formations of surface which accompanied it, has been alieac 
stated in the former parts of our coirespondence.* Whi 
the waters had been withdrawn from such parts of the ear 
as were to be, at that time, inhabited by the renewed race i 
their numbers increased, Noah and his family descended fro 
the ark, and began the cultivation of the ground from vAut 
they were to subsist. The Deity communicated himself fol 
to them, and gave them his commands, and promised the 
his protection and blessings. t But, as soon as the new ge 
orations arose, he deemed it pn^per to exert another intorf 
rence in their aifairs, and this was to produce that divirii 
and separation of their general body and social aggregatii 
into distinct portions of peculation ; and to urge these to sc 
tie iqpart from each other, in cnrder to grow up into independe 
tribes and nations, mostly, or for a long time, unconnecti 
with each other, as we noticed in the former letters-^ Amoi 
the consequences of this dispersion was that sreat diversi 
of habits, qualities, actions, and attainmoits which in time dJ 

* Bee Vol. n.. Letter XXII. t Gm., e. is. 

^Sse Vol U.,LetisraXZn.snd XXIV. ' 

or THI WORL]>* STt 


^BfadmA ttmUani iiit# two rerw owtfiflted ccwiiiioui llii 
cmliaed «iid ibm vmeMtimtd. Both these states of societjr 
hK9<B hem elsD flMitioiied to yen, sod sn oatline wss dnwa 
of the prindpsl BstiMM of sntiqiiHy which becsme prominent 
in the worii lor their eiriliaiig imptoremenu sad intsUectiisi 

No further iuteraositions of Divine sgency occurred in the 
histofy of menkinn from the time of this dimeision for s po» 
riod of 8S6 jeets. Daring tiist interrsl, the oomsn rsce were 
feft to midtiplj snd set in the sevenl locslities of their popu- 
latione, sccoidinff to their natnrsl laws snd circmnstsnces. 
The resioiis of the esrth which they were then occupying sp* 
peer to nave been those which lie between the Mediterrsnean, 
the Niie, the Euphntcs, snd the northern mountains of Asia, 
ttdjwincipeUy in Syria, in ito lazgeat sense, and in Esypt 

Tne most maaiksble feature at this sge of the world, which 
M Oe e in all these populations, and became the general chanc« 
tor of the hunan mmd in that stsge of its growth, was a dis» 
I3be to die actual go ve rnment of iSe real God of nature, and % 
deviaiioii into that theory of Deity, and into those practices of 
leli^MMis worship which we commoniy call pagsmsm or faea* 
flifni«Tt As Noah and his sons had a clear revelation from 
God of himself, spedslly to them, it is difficult, from the ab- 
snce of detailed history on this point, to account for the ori- 
ni and universal adoption of such fatal mistakes ; except that 
3» moral obedience required by our Creator was then, and 
faM a^Mnm since been» unpalatame, inconvenient, and un}»ac« 
L To reconcile self-will snd self'-gratification with the 
tf reasoa and reproving memory, doubts and disbelief 
. circulated and cherished as to the existing ideas about 
; and a different hypothesis was invented by some, and 
idopled by all, that he either was not in being at all, or was 
Bol what he had been represented to be. Other ideas of him 
were Btsited snd encouraged, until the impression became 
fBsnd that such a Being, if he existed, had no concern with 
our woild, but that this contained many gods instead of onSf 
ad of a different kind and character frwn what he had ap« 

r red to be. The opinion also arose that these were or coom 
rendered visible to human sense, and breast to dwell 
SBong iHT"^"^, and could be gratified and propitiated by hui* 

• Vol. IL, Letter XXV« 
Vol. in.— 1 1 

animals, ana lived m them, and therefore placed 
templea as the subjects of *:b worship. Bat tb 
tenaency was to make human figures of wood oi 
to suppose that, in theK, when placed in consc< 
sionSf the divinities they preferred and fancied usu 
When this custom was established, idolatry was a 
y theism, and the combination of these two systei 
Tarieties of tiieoriert and imaginations, became tl 
gion which mankind, as they enlarged, would reta, 
stand. These inventions excluded and supersed 
Deity in the human mind. Mankind determined U 
gods for themselves, and ss like themselves as posi 
admit and worship no others than such as they tl 
and framed, and made pleasant to tbeir own A 
familiar to their daily habits, and with passions, tasti 
and senses like tbeir own. They made their god 
or likeness of man, instead of raising themselves 
they had been designed to be — the image and liki 
only real God. It would lead me beyond my boui 
into the detail and progress of these absurdities, 
them to the specific causes from which they ori|; 
by which they were modified into all tbeir natural v 
is sufficient to state these main outlines to you, ai 
yoa to remark that the delusion has been so infatu 

or THB WORLD. 876 

Hj bMii WfMM ind diMHmtruit«Nj m it wrtt, thft wholn hu- 
mui popubtion wmM at thm diiy \m%f \H*eu itumttnMi m |Kily- 
ihtiMn ind idoUtrjrf iti noma Unmn or ottier, with «li thuir (m r- 
Vffrtin|{t difttortinK, and AalnMn^ rMiulU. Eyttry imtion whh 
till CyhriNtiiuiity |N*iii*trat<*d iiiUj it, mtd woiild tw mo to thin 

hour if that had not iNfitii iirrmiul^atiMl Thin m a riumt fi- 

lary hut urHjiinittioriaV 
durtioii of (yhriMtianity t»y iU «ricif;iit t(fa<:h(:rM and rniiMionaricM, 

ln/>rdiriary hut urHjimMtionahlii fart. Noihiiig hut thn ititro- 

tnd iia frvftntiial mtahhahififrfit in tlH»M! rountrusa whirh tn- 
rf;iv«:il and r«rtairi«d it, roiild or would havi; ri;ik:iii:d thi* world 
from I hi* int«;lli:f:tuid df!;(radati t and (;f»mi|iiion. For, with- 
out thia, Jiidaiairn wouM havi: again aunk into the all-aurround- 
ing hfattn'riimii, atnl no MohanmM:d would havi; apiMfari'd. 
Philriao|jhy would not havn in tint li*aat un\trt»^fii niankind in 
ihia T*rm)n-ri ; hcraiiait wi; mm hy it a 'writirif(N, which hav« tunun 
down to iia, that it waa only inriilratinK aihiTiam, ami a c<iii- 
tenifit of all ntliKion on th** onf hand ; or, on tho oth«:r, lik«; 
Antfntinua, I'lotiniia, Jamhlirhua, I'oqiliyry, Ijhanioa, Julian, 
■lid Symmarhua, waa atriving to uphold t'w. favounl4' fiagan- 
iam Iry rN*w rrrin<nn«iita or afhliliona, aiMl hy atnvwif( to mror- 
porati* with it, for ita aupiiort, tiii' rn-w anfl morn (;nh|{fiUrnfd 
Una and rraarnnnga whicii tfH'r«?aM*d kt¥>wlo<l|{f* waa rrf:atin|{. 
We a«-(r, fnini thn fti|ff?ri(:nr«; of our own iiuutm, now, that 
Ummm! aainc rftaulta would miin<fdiat«<ly ocriir if f/hriatuinity 
wirrR to 1m! ftt|»iinKffd KnliKtitcnfl Franri: liaa alntwn to ua 
that thf atniff^ation and atiolilfon of Chrialianity woulil km 
tainly Mhiwf^ tiy a f^TrM-ral ath<'iani, inif'rminKh'd with nfw 
fomw of |Hdyth«!iarn and nian-invi<ntrd d<fitii!a. Human Hka- 
■Off, alwaya a varyinir, v«;raalil«, individual ronifiourul of tlm 
think iiifi; firim-iplf of th<* human »oid, and of thi! tluiunanda of 
notiona of all aorln whu'h It imhihita, forma, rUnn^v.*, ailopt*, 
•lid rHaina in tlir aurrfaaiv*; [HTioila of Ita human lih% would 
bo mad«T iIik |i«7rafmal deity of «^<rry oni;. Hi; would know 
Plld auhmif tonf>ofhi*r ; and, from tlMtabini*. l\ti; r«;ault would 
ht littlr <*hM' than ihf* individual dfifying hima«!lf. ** I fiotl ; 
you Ood." aanl tin* N«!W /raland rh^f to tlitfi muHiionary who 
waa addrfiaaini; hmi ; and ihia muat alwaya h«i tlM» caai; wh«!r«: 
th« tpi^ |)«*fty ia di*nifHl or for^aktrii Ka«rh man tliiia lMyom«n 
the n*»A to hfinai-if, or will maki* aurh a |{«m1 «a tn-at auita arul 
plMMsa hia fanrii*a ami inclinalHina, or aa othara rorriiMil him 
puMirly to tvorahip ; and will neither rccognia* itor like any 


TIms senenl adoption and Mtabiiriment of paganiii ww 
u complete a revolt of the human mind from its Almlgthtf 
Sovereigii as the Satanic rebellion ia atated to have beoi in 
hia angelic creations. As aome of these roae in insuxiectioB 
■gainst hia goremment, and threw off their alkviance and at- 
tachment to him, so the human spirit as decidedly receded 
from him and forsook him, and aet up other thin^ inhis stead. 
They preferred the molten calf, and the idol which they could 
aee, and shape, and treat as they pleased, to that iofviable, 
and moral, and intelligent God, whose very perfections disin- 
clined them at that time to him. They would not admiro 
what they would not exert the aelf-^vemmont to reaemUe. 
They dreaded what they would not imitate, and they soudit 
to shun and to forget what they disliked and feared. Yet ue 
imorese of DiTinity was so strong in aU nature around t|yeiB, 
ana in ita influence on thems^ves, that they could not live in 
satisfaction to tbemaelvea without aome aobs&fcute. They coali 
not but be religious, although they would not be rightly mk 
Hence, when they abandoned him, they could not liye witboot 
some gods, and therefore appeased their natural yearnings for 
the supernatural by attachinff themselves to deities of their own 
devising and fabiication. It is this monstrous disaffection to 
the real Lord of Nature which has always constituted the gre&t 
sin of mankind ; the desertion of their CreatcMr and only Divine 
Benefactor ; the disregard of his existence and directions ; the 
alienation of the heart and mind from him ; the ungrateful for- 
getfulncsa or denial of him ; the daily and ffeneral indif&reQce 
to him ; while br him every comfcxt, and Measure, and b«iefit 
have been provided and are continually given which any human 
creature is enjoying. This is the aggravated, and still too 
gmeral sin, of every nation on the earth. 

This abandonment counteracted and defeated the great plan 
and purpose of the Deity in the formation of our race. The 

einciple of our creation was, that mankind riiould know thdr 
aker, and be always in alliance, and friendship, and submis- 
sion, and attachment to him. It was his wish and intention 
that they should study his works, learn his will, receive his 
counsels and commands, inibil>e the ideas he should impart, 
form their own thoughts, and adfipt their feeling to these, 
desire to please him, and live in the constant spirit of a£kc* 
tion, and gratitude, and duty to him. On these principles he 
would have been theix constant id«\A^ ^Vcoti^ and personal 

or THC WORLD. 877 

He would have been alwmys initructing, enligbt- 
_ and enlarging their individual niindii by sUewuii of 
knonrledge and acceMions of improveuieot, according ait each 
baramn more fitted to receive anid uiie them. 

The pagan revolution of their iniiid broke up thia ayateui of 
homao nappinesa. It dettironed the Deitv from liia goveni- 
ment of aocietv, and deprived mankind of the benefits and im- 
pnnreioenta wmch would have followed from it. hibtead of 
laaociating themaelves with hii wiadom and blesaingif, they 
enaiaved themaetvea to fal8e creations of tiieir own brain, 
which, being nothinga, could do tlieni no good, but with which 
Ifaey aooD connected corrupting and cruel hupertftiiiontt, which 
bnNiffkl mental darkneaa, inmioral debaaement, intimidation, 
and frequent auffering upon them. 

The aystem of paganism makes man everywliere hi8 own 
aelf-tormenior. It disabled the ancient tuitions from forming 
right conceptiona of nature and of its operations, and iixed 
in their minda the most fallacious misconceptions of it. It 
turned everything into gods and goddet»ses ; sun, moon, i$tars, 
Bouotaina, rivers, woods, trees, flowers, beasts, birds, hsh, 
leptileSf and insects ; all were set up and worshipped as dei- 
tiea by the most enlightened populations that robe lo any emi- 
nence and improvement. 'I hus mau became his own worst 
enemy by this unfortunate revolt from his real (iod. 

He choae instead that which is the perpetual antagonist and 
auppreasor of all knowledge and bcicuce ; for as pagamsm 
cannot keep its hold on Itie understanding, if it become cn- 
il^ileoed with true ideas, and exercised in reaboiimg nglilly, 
U baa always, when once esuUished, prevenU'd and perwcrutc d 
intellectual improveineiit. From this cause, even at Alliens, 
It put Socrates to death, coiniielled Plato to be silent, and 
made Anstotle an exiic Irom its cullivaied but superstitious 
aoeicty. If it o;ii.'rale<l to these results in lluit intellectual 
City, wliat btiU iitore deleterious effects it must lui\e produced 
and perpetuated elsewhere ! 

lu the fifth century alter the deluge, the human mind liad 
apontaneously placed itself in this position, and consigned it- 
aelf, with dotennim.-d and persevering belf-deterioralion, to all 
ita evil conbe<|ueiR'es. which came rapidly and pennaiiciiLly 
upon them. 

We may do our ancient predeceators the justice of believii^ 
iboy were not aware of the folly, the cnoi, aiMi \hA vok 



qnity of dm eztnordinarjr conduct ; becaoM, whativor im^ 
have been the case with the firat originaton, jot, when falao 
theories are once adopted and acted upon, and inatitniioiis and 
esUbtishments raised and fixed in K>ciety according to them, 
the young generation grow up under their influence, are tao^ 
to respect and accredit them, have no better knowledge, and 
cannot get wisw information. The moment what is fdse be- 
comes popular, or is made the practice, the law and the sacred 
light in any country, the truth, on all that it affiecta, is ban- 
iuied from that population, llie right and true on such sub- 
jects are discountenanced as mischief and enor. The truth, 
if admitted, must subvert so much and injure so many, that it 
is as zealously forbidden and suppressed as if it were a calam- 
ity or a pestilence. Hence, when what is wrong has gained 
possession of the existing mind, its ignorance must be m pro- 
portion to the amount of the mistake. In that ignorance, iq 
these errors, and among all their bad feeling and evil conse- 
quences, the young must grow up, and, as uiey mature, they 
will take the jpHmce of their fathers, and be as strenuous op' 
posers and enemies to all that is wiser uid better as their per- 
verted ancestors were. They will live and act amid inteUect- 
ual mists and darkness, which they will be unable to dinerae ; 
to which they will become accustomed ; which they will even 
learn to venerate, and value, and uphold ; from which they 
will not desire to extricate themselves; and to which they 
will adapt their gcsncral thoughts and habits, and consequently 
become what such errors and evils will contribute, by their 
daily practice and unabated continuance, to cause them to be. 
It is thus that paganism has always propagated and perpet- 
uated itself, and never has fallen in any country until the ex- 
ternal invasion of some other system, from some other locali- 
ties, has attacked and overthrown it. Hence the populations 
of the world, from the fifth century tStet the deluge, coming 
into their earthly being amid pagan establishments and systema 
framed by their progenitors, were trained from their childhood 
to revere and accredit what enslaved and degnded them. 
They could therefore know at first nothing better, and, bf 
habit at last, would neither feel nor believe that what they 
were aeenttomed to was erroneous. Such a state and prac- 
tice would unfit as well as indispose them for any different 
ideas or institutions, and therefore they would transmit tu- 
ihoriUtively to their descendants what they had received fvm 

or TUB WORLD. 379 

iMr pwmUfl. ITuit p«|tBiiiMn iiavitr dtad of lUMlf in uny UihI, 
uid onlv naiioiiKl ruin ur •■lir|Miiuii, wtiiih AtMwyoA InHb 
Um MUMliihmmta iii Whtiih it wim rniiriiMifitiNl sikI thd hmIi- 
vidiftl miiHU wliirti rtmrialiMi mul uiiliclil il, riNiki «i|iiiri||a 
auf form oi it fmm miy <.'«>iiittry, or from thr world «t i«ri(«i, 
M far M human ranw*« o|i«irsti^. Thn iNirvrmion, iinil ilm 
4i*|irsvBlion mihI •Uvi'rjr of tlm hiinMn muMl to it* iulfi{jiifl aii' 
pifniltimiii, l»r«!am«i tttnn rfMn|i|fli*, iinil ttiMr roritiniiiiiM'o ac 
cutmI 'IVi Viiry l«w< i>f liuifwn tiattirti ftnil tlw |«Kt«lttlion of 
IhHMn MirMity llii-ti uftrd lo imiiiiniit biiH prc(M«rvn tln'm 

In thifl •tttt« of thinf(N all n-nirily iiihI I'lwnKti tHM'iuiki tio|»r- 
Um, unA mtiinlly iui|Hi««ilflc, wiilumt t)iirMi«t ini^MMition. 
HindoovtMi, mtui ('hina, ami ThilN-t, and all Ihn lliKMhiat 
kin|dnmii of A ma, «imI all Oif ulalia ol Afrira iN^yiMul Uui 
Atlas (!him trwl thn (fri«at Ih-fri, ur*- tiviiU-w-nn to na Imiw 
MgsnMHn f»rrprlualiHi ilarlf, anil la iMilh unalilr aiul uiiwil- 
Lnf lo sllrr It raniuit fuUi/Uivu or rtM-nly iiaclf It nnriir 
Ims ami HAVC^ «tiH ( .'hriatian iiiinda arr alrivinK now to nitri>- 
^iMa f *lirt«tianily in mnny |iait« , l»iit itn^ arr ihti olla|)rintf 
of a DiiriiKi intnriifmilion tlM*niM'lvca, aiMl I'arry lliii maulta ana 
uy ratKma of a l)ivin<* aKMM'y with Uwtu ; Imt tltirrn i-iniM 
not liavfi btwn sny (-hnaiiMfiily in lhi< world witluMit a Dtvino 
liilarfiif«<nrc(, nor ro«ild anviltni|( Inil |ia((aniani Imvh Inn-h tliii 
ndlfion of ifiankind alicr it liaii ronlaonnaliil llinir firini- 
llNrn aorirly, unlraa Itir |)rity had ri*««dvrd lo niakn a k|irMal 
Inlarpoaltkni, and lo fnMinifiM-n a ailifnif ainl jinM-raa cd Ih- 
vina afforii'y ada|ilrd to nii'ft iIm* firfimialanf-f** aiwl Ikf* rvil, 
whirlli from that linii', wotild Im* fonliiiiii^l and iuiiiti|ilird Mritli 
Iha ronllniilty and inidti|iiiraiion id tlif human Kmrrafwiita 

Whifn ihiM ililflifrtiial rrrttr lutd Iw-riiuir «w Kitirrai, l^tKrn 
WM fUi way lo filiniruiali il ininiMliatflv or rniin-lv l»ii try 
anoCh^ ti|lir|Mliftii ui Ihf liuman rai-f , hut thia would havfi 
M wwivi' d th«* annihilation of huniaii nat urt*, ami havr rftnovMl 
an onlfr tH iN'inj^a out of th** tfrand i*ni|iirf' of thii nni- 
; f«ir aa wt rfurwal id mankind mold lii' liniuKlit intn 
undrr miirr laviiurahlp i-irf'iiiiiataii«*ra than Adam 
in hia l*arailiM*, aiNl ihf fhildn*n and drarmdaMta of Noah 
, With lh«* ilp«olai<-«l world anitifid thfm, aa a trroicn- 
mmium^nt of tin* Hlr«-ia(d diMitN'riiiK and dia|d<*aaiii(r t^i* 
iMlyt another rrfalion of mankind wonhl havr only in-fii 
ancr —Nli'd hy ainHhrr afpnr of am ami nrror, whwh no dfalrur- 
iIm «r praeading dfondon, and no yiaca^ <m \imA!nic\>ni«»^ 


or erm bene<Lctionft. would prerent from onung. It wu 
Do«r obvio j» mat tliere wu something in human nature itself^ 
and npecuily in tne eariy stage of lu existence, and in the 
generations rrsuliing from tbat, which made it certain thsf sin 
and error wojki be lor a long time the companions of human 
bem2 : and mat iheso could not be prevented if mankind wen 
to nave the l:oerty of choosing and acting for themselves. 
As fponianeoQs liemgs. thmking and doing from their own de- 
sires and reM>lut:on>, the renewed world became what it was, 
and so wouid any further renewals if the living race were 
destroyed. To become of that improved nature which in its 
own free- willing and freeW-acting* character would obey, re- 
vere, and resemble their Divine Maker, and do, and think, 
and feel as he directed, and always as they ou^t, was not 
practicabic by the tirst generations. The gracious wisdom ot 
the Creator perceived tbat this sublime condition of mankind 
must be the ultenor result of a great process of gradual tuition, 
gradual experience, gradual knowledge, and gradoally-fonned 
judgment and self-goremment. He saw aiM knew that the 
pertection which he desired and could produce in his human 
nature must be the effect of progressive attainments and pro- 
gressive improvements ; that it could not arise in the first 
populations of mankind, but would be long impeded and re- 
tarded by the sins, and errors, and ignorance, and deviations 
of those generstions who must arise before the desired end 
could be brought about. £vil must be suffered to emerge, 
but be combated as it arose, and allowed to battle also with 
itself till it produced its own extermination. It is always 
thus perishing, though, as yet, still reviving in some degree oi 
other. Its recurrences and revivals in new shapes, as the old 
ones were destroyed, must, therefore, be submitted to, and a 
series of means be devised and kept constantly in operation 
which would be always pursuing and suppressing it. Tliese 
remedial agencies would thereby be always eradicating and 
diminishing it ; and, amid these struggles, would, in their 
beneficial operation on the human miiidand character, be al- 
ways advancing the regeneNition, and be increasing the im- 
provement of the human spirit. But such a process must be 
one of an intellectual kind, gradual, gentle, persevering, pa- 
tient, and suited, from time to time, to the state and circum- 
stances of every generation. Violence could destroy, but 
would not educate and eniig|hV«iL U c^oxild not lead mankind 

or nis woELD. 381 

to Ihb MtfMfanyioii Hid co mia u a l telf-i 
wen a tc <M ii y to nodnce a ligfat-nundcd being, hafaitaallj 
acting with nttitaat of coodnct. We mast think rightly 
More wo cui act i%ltelT> '^ 1**™ ^^^ know what is right 
b afa re 1^1^ tboiMliCa wiQ arise in oar minds or the right ac- 
tion bo petftnaod. Timntonj instead of again obliteratiitf 
aftodiM man from the earth, the Deity proceeded to insu- 
tolo ana cany on a kind and intelligent pUn and process for 
lia MOgraaaiTe aeliontion. Thia was necessary not only aa 
to tbe rd%ion of the human race, bat also as to its morality. 

Tlw abaHaction of the mind from God, and its devotion to 
dw chii nag a o which the lanciea of the leaders and founders of 
ikm oarfieat nationa invented aa his substitutes, not only pre- 
eladad tnie pia^and rational worship, but also intercepted 
nd prerontod the motalisation of the world. Man has to 
JUam to be moral, aa he haa to learn to be skilful in any art or 
•eqwantod with any acience ; but true morality, like true re- 
Upan, aanat odginate from the Deity, and be at first derived 
froB Ub inatracting pieceipts. It wiU not and does not aiiae 
IB il^ Cindi and ejn^ence m its first commencement, nor will 
it MDonlly prevail or be practised firom any other source. It 
ii na who moat first teach mankind what they are to do, and 
irlMt they are to be to please him ; to become what he desires, 
and to ftilfil Ua plans and purposes in our being. None can 
faww hia mind and vrill but lumself, except as he reveals it. 
Ho moat tell to his human creatures what the moral rules, 
lad bahita, and qualities, and feelings are which he desires 
tkom to oeqnire and act upon. But this cannot be done or 
will be naneaely done unless they will receive the requisite 
fannrledfle and counsels from him ; obey them, when given, 
baeaaaebe enjoins them ; and make them the guides of their 
iwaanniiifl thou^t and daily conduct. But when paganism 
^Miinmi poaaession of the mind, all moral benefit and influ- 
aoM from hia tuition were annulled as this counteraction pre- 
vailed. Hla commands and admonitions became unheeded 
ao^aeglaeted when he was superseded ; and mankind chose to 
aet aa they pleased, independent of his rules and restrictions, 
and without any regard or reference to them or to himself. 

The conaequences are palpable in the history of every nation 
in the worid. When the human population ceased to learn 
Monlity from the Creator, they could not or would not deduce 
aod ealibUfh it for themseives. It is true, that wa are so 


coiwtituted as to have moral setisibilities and moral capalnlil 
which often act instinctively ; but instinct is not principle, 
ia an impulse a habit, nor is feeling the reasoning jodgOM 
but, without principle, reasoning, habit, and judgment) t] 
cannot be morality. This must be taught, and learned, 
mctised before it can be acquired or retained. Man i 
framed as to be impressible and excitable by it, and to 
often the appeals which are made to him for it ; but he is : 
susceptible to every bad impulse and incitation, and also pi 
to gratify the instant desire or emotion as it arises. He 
not and he docs not, therefore, willingly submit himself to 
moral rules and restrictions, and does not seek to trace then 
to know them, or desire to be governed by them. I ti 
now of the general world, in all ages and countries *, for tl 
are some individuals, at all times and in all places, who 
ti\'ate their moral sensibiUties, who study moral princq: 
who love moral qualities, and who train themselves to m 
habits ; but these are the noble exceptions and anomalie 
society, which have become innumerable since Christia 
was disseminated, and especially in our cultivated age, 
which were very rare before that predominated. What 
man nature naturally is we see in the uncivilized nation 
the world ; and in none of them is morality cither a stud 
part of their knowledge, an object of their cultivation or des 
a rule, or a practice. Each acts as he pleases, and obeyi 
law but what he likes, and makes his passions his laws 
guide. The same spirit and conduct pervade civilized soc 
m all pagan coun^es. Law and custom are nearly the < 
sources of all the morals they know or care for, except tl 
influences which the natural affections occasion ; and as tl 
are feelings and not principles, they produce no steady m 
rectitude of mind, nor are ever reasoned or acted upoi 
such. The usual morals of all nations, that do not de 
them from the reliirious tuition which they believe to be 
will of God, are no more than obedience to their civil la 
the practice of customary manners, and the observance of 
rites and superstitions which their priesthood enjoins. ' 
Egyptians had no other, nor the Greeks before Socrates 
peared. Some of their more intellectual men had redu 
many points of their experience to the short axioms of j 
dence which sayings and pioveiba contain. But for even 
tbe/ were signalized above \be i«ix qH ^n^v&v^ ^& >^ «e 

m Till WUIII.D* 3b3 

man of ^hmt m Vftt Omm w«rr<' but tb#! iiruf<! «f»4 
pr»mtBd mtiMtkm tA «lil<: HiAn 'HiitM! wnri: not Uui/hi i/r uuuim 
f«|«i of cotidiirt, fMir teuUtrt't-ii «» rii'iriil Uw* or oli(i|/iiLi«iii« 

fl wiM h(ieriil»» Mrti#i lir|fftri Ofir |/rii<:ii<'«! of rRHvuriin;/ out 
■Mral rukm «iid uf ti^'ulrnUhni inuti.t\A»^ N.tiowla of iri«rri, 
llMnlluig and Uen'.-tiifig </ti Oii« jfUn mkI tnh^frit, «rf«««: from 
Imh ; IhjI t/» \tll\t: u^/*:fd wiih tziwU oUnr, i-tUti-.r tn tt.i: rij|«i 
or M iht! MttiftfAti, Llait ittfy w^r** rofiiuiuftlly < ofntiiiiirii/ «:«< h 
Mliwf cm wMh ; aivd itiij« rKi oliliKmor) ffM/mlily mh* or f ouM 
i* aaUljlMtMeil for Uii: rr;(iiliiCi«Mi of UtkUtun i utAu*\ lr> »ijf h 

rriiUt:iMM . hMT wrii« miythififf tf^jtttWA «» ••if.h liui wh*l 
law* »l thrir i:it) or mIiiU: t-tijoifK'ii ; nil <:l«i: wn* ir»«livifl« 
«fti cbM«.« and faiMrjf, arMl ifi(/«-nioij» iit«« utfrioti* mih) fMr'.iMn 
dtyit— , »«r)r r«r«!ly ififlo<-ri'-iii|/ tfi«; f'ori(lij«'i. Aliihi4f|i:« 
dwrtttd ii<»w liulr tir ««■« rrior«li£4:(l tiy HiHtmif.m, uui\ An«io|fh- 
•MM iralviaUw to u» tfiw li*.r|is M<«<:rJiU-« Mm* ri-vfri-'l or < «rt:«l 
1m Mm a MW/ral i*4«-i«fr , •• iU*-. i** l« «rii| rt^nmrkm of 'f tm* yt\- 
l4aa ffff**: Iwvif liUlf: tttofitUty w«« |irju.iiM«l tiy lh«r AUi«-iii«fi«. 
TIm dltffrrAtM:** l»t:twrt;ii Oif: |f-rltjr*;« of Htf |ifiiJoci|iti«-r« iiiifi 
llMrtr roftdiirt i« a ff^-rif*:!!!*! muhji-* 1 of Mtir*; of Ui«.ir 4ii< i*-rjt 
MMfa a<id otltfrr Mrrit^rt, fn/fu Af t«to|ih«ii«;« to l,muu 'I Un 
UcUir lirarida tlmtn all aa liyji^f :rii«-*, «i:fi«uali«U, ft4tii ft:rR| noil 

tl» ncft mwUk« fff «• rri*:«riinf# to «ay Uuit moral law* ami 
•nfiri|fl«ia rariMrt Ih- divfrrriMl or tlmUtit^ti \ty itii: liurniMi oiiriH 
W« aiNi \ty Um frtntii-ti loiiVfrtatioiia of ho* rafe-a, the f 'olii- 
ICA «ff llato. (Im Kifiiia of Arialoi|«r »tA Sui/itt*/.\mn. thr loat 
WOfk <rf faiMtiiia, tlnf Olfif la of f ii' ftro, Ihii K««aya of ^^ri.ffii, 
liw Mf-Hilatffrtia of Afiroiufiua, Ltif Mora la of Kfiif t« Lur, ar*<l 
oUlMef Uiiika of ih<r ari« iMjfa, aa ^f\l aa lijr iii«ia<r of ih<- If iiifl'i<i« 
Mid i^ititi^mf, iLtA hy fi<«ifi<-ro'ia ffi</<lK.o Htiual Mrii*-r* ol f^ii- 
fO|ia, lti4t inaoy iMliViiluiila <li-«ir«r 'o rraBori on t|i«r aiilfjn I, 
and fail think arid writ*: adiniralrly it\Mt*it it Dut tlit-et- vari* 
•i«lli«/f«, atUifiiJirti thf/ ai/ri-c iri arvi-ral |i<iirir«, yri li.ffrr 
«i*rli <#ftM*r Ml ifiaoy inoriT Wi aUo kiM^ >)ut iiif-n of 
, lahii rt: j't't f Jlifiaiiaiiiiv. ti«v«r iir|/td aiKl atiU uri/*- i^ir- 
• Bad ayatMfia, aii«l priii«-i|ilira of rot Ain't aiib%f-r*iv«! of 
IIm MMat tr«*«:riiial riil«-a, «ii<l < oiii luaiofia, ari<l fjoalitift*, aial 
babtta thai lia»«: hitli«-f>o fir«:fi d'-t-fii^d viriuoua aiiil Hiry 
rUifli to Im aa rii(tii aa ih'/ai- v^ti/f aiifi|f<ift Ihrrn 'I ii^ roof.*!- 
Ky, ijMrafora, whirli aurwla oit hMiian r^aaoiiintf or on Mnfian 


rlinitrrmi ptMions, kumoiin, feelings, and modify intavMlf 
VMully mre. 

We need to learn from monl taitkm three thinge — ham to 
pleeeeGod; how to act rightly towvds each other ; how to use 
our own tenaes, powera, quahtiea» limba, deaireay and facnhiei 
as we ooffht, for our own preaent and futnxe comfiMt and weU* 
beinff. We shall noc be with each other longer than we are 
togMer in this world, but we ihall be in society with some 
beings or other in the next. We shall be there also ooiselves ; 
and the same God will be the God of future time yiho is the 
pres e nt Deity. Our moral tuition, to be complete, must theie- 
me always relate to both states of our beinff, and fit us for 
that which is to come as well as for that in which we are now 
placed. But this riew — the true and certain view of the ease 
—at once shows us that our moral teacher most be God ; for 
who but he knows or can inform ua what qualities, rules, hab- 
its, snd conduct will suit his future world and our position in 
it ? No morality is sufficient which suits this world only ; for 
we may not be here a day, a month, a year, or ten years lon- 
ger ; nor can we command or ensure our stay here one hour 
or one moment. Our present life is never in our own power 
to continue, though we may abhdee it ; therefore, whateTer 
system trains us for this world only is notoriously defective. 
It will leave the great range of our being quite unprovided for. 
The morality which does not educate us for that as well as 
for our present uncertain duration is imperfect and deceptive. 
It is deceptive if it goes no farther, unless it teaches us ndiere 
we may obtain what it does not afford ; because, without this 
confession of its insufficiency, and the direction of us to that 
which will supply us with what we so essentially noed ; with- 
out this, it assumes the aspect of a completeness of which it 
is entirely destitute. 

For these reasons, there can bo no true, or con^i^^e, or 
obliffatory, or duly-influential, or all-embracing m<Hralizati(Mi of 
the human mind which does not come from our Creator and 
is not inculcated by him. All else will be but habit, custom, 
inclination, temper, humour, feeling, caution, fear, imitatioDy 
or chance with the great body of mankind, and even more 
commonly with our individual selves, than we like to beliefs 
or may choose to admit.* 

* WUh iJianiostreasoDtag iB«a,iDflnaL\kMBteA«ui 

OP Till WORLD. 885 

But ■n Divine tuition md improvement were loit to the hu- 
men world ee lOon u pegeniiim He perated it from its God ; 
end henee the procete for the recovery end melioration of Uie 
iMmaii mind, which then hoctme neceasery, waa wanted aa 
much for the moral iUamination and guidance aa for the re- 
figioae metniction of human nature. 


JfMWntf unabU to libtrai9 thtmulvtt/ycm tMr Pagan HupfrttitimiB 
wfNm AtM»m.'-Tk» g0neral Dupo$ttian to dUeredit Upeei/le K«v- 
Hmhoma,^Di»iMa Agntep kaa bten indiapvtuabl* fo rtteiM Uankind 
fnm tMM9 Mnort and Ptnwwna. 

My DBA! SrnNir, 
Hie precedinff facta and romarka load ua to the concluaion 
that the renewea race of mankind, if thoy had been left wholly 
lo Uiemaelvea, would have become, aa thoy did generally be- 
COOM wherever thinking and acting aolcly on their own will 
tad iacUnationa, a pagan and unmoralixcd population, groiialy 
Mpentkioua or atheiatical, aelftali, violent, cruel, fantaNticai, 
tad corrupt. Such waa the general result. Some wore more 
ignorant and animalixod tlian others ; bnitish in most of their 
hdMU ; addicted to war and revenge ; indiflferent to human 
hhwdfhri ; peraecuting, attacking, and deceiving carh other ; 
phindoring and murdiTing, or indolent, stupid, and d<>baRod. 
TImnm were the too fre<|ucnt features of the ancient popula- 
tion, with pleaaing mixtures of better (jualities in some ; and 
auch our contemporaries too much inchne to be, in those ro- 
of our present world where paganism, or the abnegation 

III be Individual argumset, ladltidnal spsmlaikia, and Individual Inl^ 
•MM. wHieb eibsffs may eonoar In or disputs, and wbleb will always ba 
• anl^cl ef Ingsnloos dtscasslo n . Tbs atisrks laldy nMds en Dr. Pality, 

Me ef ear w i sssi morsllsia, ars sslatlnfl svldsoes ef ibis fbd. If bs be 
to o M iswe nt s srs wronit : if ibrlr notions aie mors Josc, bs bM 
•• N will always bs with all buman sjrsisms of morslliy. Ifih 
ralMs, nrging only ibsir rsssonlngs, ars Imsllseivsl ftladlsiors, 
vsly comboilng Mob oibsr bs fe rs lbs Mbllc sys, nsqnsmly gsln- 
pofsry TtflforlsB, but ntnat an aeknowkdfsd or ooomandinfl sot* 
r. Osnalaiy and raal sbUgailM wUl aiisnd wtaa fwcsyifc vb4 

Vol. UI^Ke 


or ignonnce of the retl Deity ezitts ; tod where poljtheisde 
and idoUtrmu or atheistical superstitions have taken lus place. 
It seemii a kind of verbal contradiction to talk of atheistical 
superstitions, as atheism professes to abolish all superstition ; 
but it is not only true that atheism, in all parts of the world, 
has superstitions peculiar to itself, but there is an atheistical 
superstition actually established in the earth, with all the arti- 
ficial rites and costumes of a national hierarchy and worship. 
This is the Buddhist paganism, in which no deity is taught or 
believed ; where the founder of it, Buddha, is revered himself; 
and in which demons are accredited and upheld as evil beings, 
governing or atHicting mankind, and to whom sacred ceremo- 
nies of fear or hope sre nationally performed. This exists in 
Ceylon, Siam, and in other regions on the eastern seas.* 
Atheism in France had the goddess of Reason. 

That mankind are unable or unwilling to liberate themselves 
from such absurdities, such abominations, and such slavery, 
is a fact which experience forces upon our notice. The con- 
tinued existence of such a system as the Siamese and Cey- 
lonese paganism proves it ; for the priests of this have no 
small share of understanding, and cultivated acuteness, and 
worldly knowledge ; and both they and their votaries have 
stoutly resisted all change and improvement. They are still 
actively opposing the enlightening exertions and example of 
their Christian masters, t The Japanese, though in many re- 
spects a very cultivated people, fiercely maintain their poly- 
theistic idolatry ; have destroyed what Christians once were 
made there, and sternly, with watchful and deadly policy, pro- 

* Mr. OutsnlafT, in Msy, 1831, had lived thiee years In Biam : bs 
Ikonm '* All relisions are tolerated in Siam, but Buddhism is the raUgioa 
of the stale, and all the pUMie institutions are Ibr the promotion of this 
saperstiiion. Buddhliim is atheiiun, according to the creed which one of 
the Siamese hishpiiests trave me. Their highest degree of hsppisess 
eonsiBis in annihilation— the greatest enjoyment is in indolence— tbrir 
sole hope in founded on endlem transmigrations— they sre Annly sasnred 
tbst,hy degrees, in the course of some thousands of years, they will eosM 
to be a kini:.** — GutzslafTS Journal, p. SO. 

t A missionary in Ceylon states, " Matura is the place where Boddhim 
most flourishes— its stronghold. The principal wealth of the district is 
devoted lo Buddhism. Its priesthood, more than 700 in number, is se- 
tive : skilf\il and active enemies ; almost every village of importance his 
its priest We have a refined, metsphysical system to oppose, upbdd 
by men of considerable oriental learning and great acuteness, who atoo 
make gnat professionn of sancUt^ ."— Miss. Beg., 1836, p. 159. Bnt,BA* 
der our govsmment, ChhstlanViy V* \M|\Tai\i« vo vt^A tml Umts. 

or TIIK WOKLD. 887 

hibil lb* inlnrinrilon ut all Ih-iiit ■jnlrnii and knawlisdna 
(hwi then nunnlraus inil iiilii-rilnl hiifhnilwii. Tbii Hnr- 
m«e KOrunmrnt hu |inihihiti-d ( Ihriirtiuiity aiid wtriiml ila 
taaehn*.* IV wliolc uf Affin, imilh of Ihn Allia and Urn 
iirrmi Uniirt. in in III" Hmo (lit* of mind uid btrhng. Tim 
ml Itailji Hlbpn iinivnrulljr (uniilirn, unknuwn, ■inl iineiml 
fin; and lltn laint uiiiiitrlkviiiil and iifiiannl jHgantiinii, iii 
Tarruua fbrina. biit rquallf abaurd, ami hi unniR parti aaimiii- 
nary awl [idiuutan. aru reBiriiitPl]> rrtainrd.t 'I1tp Polynrtnii 
laUnda iif Ihr NuiMh Kra,aMl llw Knalcuntinratnf Aualralia, 
wm in iIh' ainHiMUi! until lltr I'lmalian uilaaiunaniia tMtnl 

taUMtnal dqnantran ibc cliararlit and ramfianiua uf I) 

• Mr.BI«M.ili**DinmaailMlaurrai An,Haua.>'Tlwli>«-*(■ 
^ WawiiH haaalwwBliHMirirDaniralulybiiMilF. TraiinMlMlM 
IbfUMn aia In pnaili iki (oipia m u boai hndia, Tbr aalvrFi Iih 
laM lakHiir IB (kf kVk non^ Ikr mi|iir>. <ln IM Mirrb, ll<U,( 

WaaacHikin imainiJ ■wnlii. ' Why haii iiaa nnniiBilM lajdciirr 
■Tn^Aiaa ikikwiwMiaorilirHrnMlMiiil,' ■ llirr r«i m]> ikM Um 
MIflaa (T Ik* kliu, kM lilorra, kta mMh, »< kli iMd M klH^ 

k »i i m «|a af Ik* lwla(2«l HfitFj. Ib> pml> mnliiiKa^' IM> ; aad 
Um aa«Ma4 ar (Md >^ M ■■ law aU Ibr WMia aad yMik iLia raUdan.- 
' lla y ■ w U aat preiaT la aar aa nnWl ; Jl la Itia wlrtia f Iki kint, kla 

BHlMb, (.HrlUMDajr M> »» tiu(kl la Ihaaa, anK Ika Buinaaa, Mix ■ 
iM«aiaallmi,rH*i(aikabHikaiiArail i)inaTarrav<T' Tkrir Ml- 
0M BHiMklam. 
tuiiala Marryii aifa, " I amr aM Mill a BiraMi. afl r?aa ■ M, 


.' liili«Hy,ai.daiktnaalli*<Wd(Iaa« 

Ni,:.n aarnOw. 

>i..i|>a|irr, in Falinan. IDM. aMiUadad 

rftl'l!'"!''""" "' Ify'.'""! 

.,!,..>. har 4aMiiMa.aa<r|«ikllMla( Vv 


, wKi, .» 1, a>Milr. illnS... Mr riHWa* 


ito*ka«aarika rWaf ■«■ 

rn,u» ^"^ 


ciTiliied and the ignorant only. la this icapect, these only 
nsemble the most cultivated regions of the world, which the 
sunshine of Christianity has not illumiDed. Sach were the 
Hindoo populations — a hundred millions of human beings — 
although the first order of their state was the religioas and 
educated class, and although they abounded with coQegef and 
authors of hterative science, aiui exhibit much contiorenial 
ingenuity on what theT have manufactured.* Such an itill 
the more informed and more ancienily-ciTiiixed Chinese. If 
any nstion could reason or enlighten itself out of such pagan 
darkness and bondage, and freo itself iirom their fetteri, and 
enoTB, and evils, tlus great people, a third of all mankind, 
ought assuredly to do so ; for their noblest claaa is the intel- 
lectua and literary order of their society. Men acquire their 
highest dignity of mandarins by their study of letters and 
knowledge, and according to their proficiency in their national 
writings ; yet here paganism reigns unshaken and supreme, 
although s Chinese Socrates did appear among them m their 
Con-fu-tsee or Confucius, and though many of their aotbon 
eipress admirably some moral tnithsf. But the goremment 
aikd leaders of this immense and comparatively ratioosl and 
enlightened nation not only determinedly uphold their national 
paganism and all its evils, but, after a knowledge of what is 
better, and even a reading of the books that teach it, prohibit 
the introduction of the sacred improvement ; and tlus veiy 
last year, 1836, has begun a new and inflexible perseeutioa 
and rejection of the offered Christianity. t Thus all the culti* 

* To wbal extravagant ideas tbeir iUso theories lead ibeir edneated 
men, two inaianeea ebow:— In April, 18S4, a mJasioaary wriies flron 
Benaree, their chief seat of leaminf— " Another pundit came au to bm, 
sxclaimiuc, * God ia in me, I am God.' ** So, in the Aucnat fbUowisf, 
two pundita approached him ; ** one came bawling out, * I am God, I am 
God.* ' Well, then, yoa are an extraordinary man/ ' Yea, God ia in me, 
I am God, and ao are you/ ' I>o you thinlt that I also am God r * Yea, 
yoa are CM, every one ia God.* "— Bf iaa. Res., 1835, p. 41&-S0. Thia ia 
the pantbeiam of Bpiuoxa, which aoroe of the German unbelievara aie 
tasening their pupile; ao nearly are paganiam and atheiam allied. 

t ** In the Chineee ataie religion, the material universe ia worahlppad 

as a whole and in detail. Subordinate thereto, they have goda celeaiial 

and terreainal, and goda infernal. When the emperor, aa highprieai, 

worahipa heaven, he weara robea of azure colour, in allui>ion to iha akj; 

when be worahipe earth, hia robea are vellow, to repreaeni iu eUiy- 

When the aun ia the object, hia dreaa ia red : and fbr the moon, be wean 

a paJe wAiie.**— Ohineae Repoaitory, printed at Canton. 

/ 'The emperor is called 'The don u(ieL«aL<««a* He is the bfgfaprlart 

of the amtion, and the only medium of coiiauQn&Bsa&n^'«i[j>sQBL^^M^f««««f 

or TIIK WORLD. 389 

^tod MtiofW of thu jinnun twidrrn urorlH, an w^tl •« t^ir niHur 
■n«l mom ignorant, havf arrayffl thrrnaflvm ii((«in«t tlii< rial 
f«i4 and hi* rnvr-Utinn* »« inurU aiMl «• r<*«(f|iit<-lY «« tlir an- 
ri^nt |ia|faniam« lii't, and *• all uwuktut\ 'lo w^imi ri-li{fi</ii 
dofHi not int^rraf Thfy prr f«'r t||#<jr iiwii frrorv anrj liHliir« in 
kia tuitMm — to all l>ivrn«; truth 

Vmm tlfa^ fiafrifijea, now full lirforr our fY'-aif^hl, wf v*"!' 
Uiat hurnan nature, whrn it liaa tliu* ori'd alifiiatMl it«rM from 
thr truf! Il^itv, ami ailo{»l<f) it* own IhIim* irnn (final ion iimtfa'l, 
ranwit or will rifif rrili|;lii«'n, r^ftify, nr iiM-JiorMtf* it«i'H. 'I'Uv 
Mm«i fart and rrrtainty «|f|H-fir«'fl in cvfry |iHrt aiKl in I'vi-ry 
»gm tti tlif! anriffit woriil K(ry|»t wa* m thr i<«rli«-«t iiini-< at 
UkR htnA ni tlir human rii«-i' in iiriR, in arm*, ami in all the nri 
*iKii wfiirh waa th<-n known . anil h<*r f-|iii f or«l«-r wa* tin; 
MffiralMl, IImi aarfrdoliil, fli< only literary rla«« Jlul lii-r at 
iainm*!nta |irfircrit thr f«t«)iliiihiri«-fii «n<l <oniiiiiiity of tlm 
OTfMMMat aiifirratition ' H*i i4r from it that uu \t*-nit\r uu <-arth 
narf groaafT The iiaMitinK* arKl M-iiljilurca in It'-r t<-iri(ili-a ami 
pa[v:«Hi, atill rnrnainirif; in th^ir ruin*, fxhihil thia to iia Jliil 
ahi' »ver a)»an<lon thrrn of hi r own mi ror<l ' .Nfvrr , ahf a'l- 
h^rrrf fifrtinanoiialy to tliciii from afff to Uffi-, aiMl ami'l all 
bar national rhanica of flyiinarif* anfl forfi^^n ■ulijii'-tMiiiii, till 
th«> (frafliial prrvalrnrf of f'hrtatMiiity ovrrthri-w th«-m l>id g 
thtmmr.p, i\m )»art;nl of the fino art*, of laatc, of litcrwturf, of 
oraiory, of plnWHifffihy, of thf *\tmi\4, nimI of nil |*(H'try, alMihah 
hut paKaniam* atMi nloU from hi^r own rlioif*- afid rnliirhtf-iifil 
mind f Not at all ; a^K- u^ihi M •vcryfliinK. wHh atMin- moili 
firatiofia, Ui atrfn(/fh«-n thfni, i-v«n wluli' ahi- muat Imvi- t\e 
a|iia«*H tlirin Alh'iafii mafli- Jarii^*- rnnvrraiona in lifr |Hi|fiila 
tHNM, n«|i«*rially after K|iif-iiriia ; and IIm' niimtn-ra in<-ri-a««'il 
who fli«li«>linvr<| mifl ilirMl«-<l thf national •ujf* ratMionu ; hut 
no ono almlialHfd thrni or ili-airH fo <lo «o St Paul found 
Uwfli in ihia atat<*, aiifl waa O|i|»oaffl hy thcin in the fUyof the 
diffunMin of tlMir intr||i-«-tiial iiiiainin''nt * llul othi-r 

kaivMi; 1114 aniy \m awl bta Arymitfrn nnv utr^r huntMgr ■< th# rtmtl ud 
ftaavM."' (nua Ump . Jannary. |H» A« INM rUmM, ib^ ini|Mrial 4m tm 
■frt»a< la Raglanil wbirii hnnUimn ^mmnmd in ilia aufMr*i>r Ny lli' prnfiaraf 
flW llw aopy^aaaMWi nf t hriair<ntiy, aiMl frir lli« aHiiHf* 'H fitrtign >MHiha 
MvMigliaal Ilia 4iimiiii(Hia 1 raiiMlaiwfi* fif lh« MrriirfiirM afi4 a««l»iii*iiCa 
a# Iba l-liriaiiafi rMligi«ii h«4 tf ii a^ni bun 

* Wban calM imUit* Ih* Ar»«ip«i|ua. tm lb* rhari* fif b«ini "a aallar 
iMIk af atranga Kuda.** Hi* ftf^* i nf bia a4miralibi aiMnaM waa. " 
rkav haariaflba rmurraaliafiaf iba4aai.aBNMiiiiwkaA.«M4«aVM 
'W0 mm Aaar Mm i^aMi «r iMa malioff ;" Wl aa fvw w«i% \aft* 


cities become more ntional 1 So far firom it, thit at 
Lysin they cboie to comider the two Christian apostles to 
be Jupiter and Mercury coming to visit them, and stoned 
them because ttiey refused to be lo worshipped.* The pagan 
system was upheld by common consent ; by the belief of the 
f^at mass ; by its couTeinence or gratification to all, and for 
its political uses. This was fully displayed in the polished 
city of Ephesus, the chief ornament of Asia Minor. t The 
same questions and the same answers attach equally to the 
Roman idolatry and superstitions. Its great and enUghteoed 
men, though in the latter ages disbelieving what they main- 
tained, and most of them acUicted to atheistical theories, yet 
chose to be the hiffhpriesu and augurs of the paganism they 
scofied and laughed at with each other ; and long bitterly and 
perseveringly opposed and persecuted the Christian tearhpis 
that sought to emancipate the world from such enors and 
bondage. Their ablest emperors msintained their pfgitn"*!* 

IS ezanuse or smbraee his DiTlne Icssooh, ihst be soon ^ft'*ti flsai 
lli«B."Aets zTii., v. 18-34. *' His spirit was stirred wiiliin him when 
be esw the city wholly giTen to idolatry ."—Tb., t. 16. 

* Acts, e xlT., V. S-flU. When Psol hsd cured the eripide, the iwblie 
cry was, ** The gods are come down lo us in the likeness of mes.* 
** Then the prieet oT Jupiter, which was before their city, broufht oxen 
* and f arlanoB into the fates, and would have done sacrillce with the 
people." The apostles rent their cloihve with horror at the hnpieiy, end 
sloaaently exhorted them to " tarn from their vanities unto the linng 
CkM, which made heaven and eanh, and the ses, and all tbinfs that are 
therein ;** bat " with these sayinffs they scarce restrained the people, 
that they hsd not done sseriflce umo them ;" end as soon os some Jews 
bad spoke, ** the pnpstaee,** having stoned Paul, " drew him oat of thi 
cUy, supposing he bad been dead."*— lb. 

f ;?ee the interesting account in Acts, e. xlx., ▼. 93-41. Though 9L 
Paul was two yuors teaching there his sacred truths, yet the efltet, sa be 
bsfan to nwke sonw oooversioos, was a popular turanlt, as soon as it 
wsri publicly known thst they tanght ** that they he no gods which an 
made with bands." ** When they heard these sayings, they were fhll of 
wrath, and cried out, * Great is Diana of the Epheoians ** when a 
flriendly orator would have interfered, " all with one voieo, abool lbs 
qnee of two honra, cried out, * Great is Diana of the Ephesians !* " And 
BOW did the public suthoriiies sppeane this uproar? Knowing the 
Imperial Jealousy uf all clainonra and seditions, they reminded the peofh 
that ** We are in danger to be called In question for this day's uprosr,' 
and only quieted thom by iheir officer aanurinr tlie mob that their idol 
and their idolatry were in no danger. " Ye m«n of Ephesus ! what maa 
is there that knoweth not that the city of the Ephesians is a worehipper 
eflbe frest goddess Diana, and of ihe image which foil down fhim Jopi- 
ter. Stemgt then, that Out tliinff* caoinat be noken agauulf y os^ 
«9 b9 quki, and 10 do Dotblag Tsstai^ «-\^.,^.U,^ 


!• Um iMt, and M dM Iho Ronmn npnntn.* Nothing; bnt Ihn 
hnpfirial pow<*r, winidod Ity HovrriMi^iiii who had rxiMiuiMMl 
ChnMianity, rmiM ovrrrotnr thr civil anil |)olitiral hontility.f 
It IB cl««r ihat, if mir Siiviniir had not iRU^ht Iiih l)ivn)c Nyii- 
trm and H|irrad it anion^ mankind, the nnricnt pHKaniNnm 
wmild havp atill lirrn th<* n'M^ionn and thr atatr mtahliahnirnlH 
of thv rivilixrd world in ita woiitrm iM)vrnM)rntirii ; tho bar- 
Iwrotia trihra would havr «M]iiallv rrtnini»d ilicira ; ath(>iiiiii 
miffht have dratroyrd thr hflirf, hut would havo rrtRirii><l tho 
•yatrm and ihr prnrtirr. 

Happily for ua, llir (*ontinoiil of Kuropr and nurown roun- 
tiy are in a difTrrrnt atalr. hut whv an* llii'v ao I What hua 
overthrown tlM> anrirnl NU]N>niniion ' What Iihn rcrnllcfl th<> 
Inimati mind to ita (lod ! What haa alMtliNlmd tint alirnaiion 
from hiin in myriadu and niillionn of hia hninnn Inmii(;ii, hi the 
bat cii^htrrn rnn(nn«>N of thnr pxihtrnci', wIumi nothini; niiild 
prrvrnt or rnrr it lirfon* ' Kvrrv tMii* may auk thr «{U4'fitinn 
for htmarif, and for hunai'lf invrpli^air the liirin nnd pmvidr 
the anawrr. That it waa ni>t plidoHophv itr aiiv improvrmrnt 
of mind, the rontiniianrr of all t'lr pa^HiiiNma in rvrrv roun- 
Irr, till ('hnatianity pnthHiiiiintiMl in it, and tlirir rnnlmiianrr 
•till in thoar civiIikimI I'liunlnrii into which il ia not yrt ad- 
mitlrd, fully pnivc. thnr philoMiiphrrn upheld ihii pa- 
gfaniama they d<>fi|Hacd, and rraiatcd, aiHi drprrcatinl, and dr- 
ndinl, (h<» Krrat ('hriHtiun n-frcnoraiion of human naturr, thu 
oiialinK writtnsa or NiMtlimi'tiiN of CcInun, Antoninua, IMiny, 
Ploliniia, laiiihlichua. lNir|ihvruH, l«ihaniuii, riiiloalratua, I«ii- 
cian, Julian, and many othcra doiiinnNtratr. to all who will 
Rtad thrm ; nor could it iNt'olhrrww. If man will not do- 
nve hia ri'litfion fnnn (mnI, hut will niakr it tur liiiiiM<'lf. ho 
miMt eitlirr live Without any, or ]\v muNi aiip|K)rt, and rhcri«li, 
■nd pracliar what hr riMiom'H to invi-nt. 

Thr mft*n*ncr, ihcfi'lorc, which fnuii tlirar factn prfaara u|M)n 
oar mind la. that Divink aokncv, mid Divink aorncv ainnd, 
eould have n*acur<l mankiiul fn>in ihcNc chimpraa and aimiird- 
; and tlwt tliia muat havr In>«ii in oporalion ao aurcca- 

* Hirjr Impaiad Itirlr avf|t>iinffa fVnm thr Ocahlr lnva>liina in iha an- 
— ragawi m l or riinaltaniiv. miil iHiiikMM*! cmmi of tlHi Murrpmnra of 
CaiMianllna in rf^lnra thr allNr nf Virinry anil Ihr pagan wiirahip 

t It war not nil ilm mg ii iif ThrmlMiua ihal pMaal"'" w"" ^'"y v*" 
■aTa< nam ilw Roman Mii|4r«. It araa adhorad lo hy iMam^ aM* wa%^A 
tta IM^ mil II waa Mada illagal aoA a «tth|itt al ^johaiyA i t aiaa Hm ao 


amkt to eradicate all their ancMBt kvnw, which were hoMing 
"^•^^"^ u captivity beiora our Saviour came ; and, bj their 
reowTal, hae nude the Eoropean cootinent ao pre-emmently 
inteUectoal as compared with the other quazteta of the globe. 
Tbat homan agency would not of itaeif have efiectoated 
thie menial revolutiOD and enlightening pragxeaaion of hunan 
natoie, leenia to be further evidenced to na by wlwt hae hap- 
pened within our own peraonal experience ; Ua havenot thoae 
ainda which, m our own timea, have diabelieved and lejected 
ChnatianitT. been Ubourmg aa ateadily, and aa eameatly, and, 
when they nave the power, aa fiercely and aa anrekntin^y to 
deetroy it, as Anioninua, Diocleaian, or Julian did ! Have not 
manv of the most eduimted and intellectual men of France, 
and i'rusaia, and Germany, and even in our own ialand, loagbt 
and endeavoured to aboliah the belief in God and all revetled 
religion, and all religion whatsoever ! Do acientific attain- 
menta, or exceUence m arte, or btenture, or knowledge ; do 
gemos and talent preserve the mind from thia deteiiontion 
and hoatility ! Are they not even xealooaly acting to do 
again what paganism in old times did — to separate the human 
mind from its Creator, to abohsh all belief and idea of him, and 
to destroy both his influence and his memoiy in the human 
world 1 

The struggle which the oroositimi of the human mind to 
dunng the laat century, in the leading Christian nations of 

revealed religion is still maJung, and began so strenuously, 

Europe ; and the successes which it has at various intervals 
dunng this period obtained, compel me to conclude, that if a 
Divine agency, though invisiUe in that form to us, as it is al- 
ways in nature, had not been counteracting such effects by 
causing incidents and human instruments to arise competoit 
to check the advancing evil and to preserve the endangered 
truth, the hostilities waged against it would have subverted it. 
In the year 17d0, the three reitfning sovereigns of Russia, 
Plrussia, and Austria, and severu of the minor German gov- 
ernments, were inimical to Christianity in their minds and pro- 
jects, and spread the unbelieving spirit extensively around 
them. The court and nobility/the literary class, the middle 
ranks, and even many of the higher clergy in France,* had 

* Dr. Priettlvy mentioned, tbat on bv» ^Mt to Paris Just belbn tlw 
mat Bevolaijon took pUca, \ie Ained Va % vvk3 -^i^ol^ «mm ef the 


tdoatad Ih* MiM adrwM Miitinienti, and w«rt becoming 
itiwug to overthrow what their eiicettoni had clusmluui ; iiot 
Cho mtM mtKNiel form of it, but the eubeUntJaJ reality iteelf. 
Odo BUfhiy eptfit of wariara a|{aifu»t the Chrmtian fmth was 
takiof poeeei i iun of the Kurociean world in the latter part of 
$bm Uat eeoiury ; and geniua, fancy, acience, and lot turn were 
otforiy eo^peratmg to give it ditfution and efficacy. The 
thonnw which were then etrongly urged, that all the fviU in 
Cho world bad flowed mainly from religion and govenimem, 
•nd were to be removed only bv the tupprifaAion of both, 
gwally iacfeaeed the danger by enlisting tlie peraoual interests 
of wnlfind m favour of the assault. Great numbers in all 
oOMrtnee of mtelligent, as well as active-muided tni;ii, desired 
lo Oy the oipenment of the change. France took the lead ui 
it. 8he overthrew her government and her religion ; 
with viMparing violence, put many contrary speculations 
pnctwe, which her reason, her passions, and her iinagi- 
ntioa aufl g oeted to her unfettered and excited populauon. 
coUedon other nations to imitate her example ; and, by 

Iho long triumph of her arms, put (>luistianiiy into a penl 
which It had not experienced before from tlie era of its estab- 
bahoMOt. l*he Dhtiah nation was made tlie great bulwark to 
aavo It from the destruction tliat was overwlielming it. Its 
sovereign, George 111., waa austaiiiod in his belief and firm 
■dhemico to it, when tlie otlier rulers of Kurope were alien- 
otod irom it ; and tlie French nation was suffered to rage and 
act io it choae, till the enonniues and calamities that issued 
agitations produced a general perception, in our 
country, of Uie misery and cnme which the dowidaU 
of relifioa would bnng upon every cbse. 

In tnese events tlie Uiviiu* agency is discernible through its 
channels and instrumentalities, and appears also again 
to us in extending now the navai power and die- 
iiiit colofiuationa of the Hritiidi nation among the still pagan 
popoktions of ihe world ; and m makuig its high>minded and 
Mtofptiaiog inhabitanta active everywhere m disseminating the 

pralaies of Prsnrs. The eoaversstlen fhom tbs oilisrs 
iuarti ea Cferwiisiiuy ir asusrai. whwk iIm 4e«tor ssslo y ly tfsltadsd ; 
wksa «■# sf ilM dig iituriM. wub su vxprsssioe of gro«t surpriM, ea* 
slaiieei, ** MMtmssr vpaska ss if Im rsalljr boliovsd II.' TIm lei pf —sf " " 
SB Prtartlsy** mnd wts, f^om aU hs saw aa4 hsaii, llMl Wa MMC n 
- 110" 


Christian faith, with all the cirilizmtiona and improrvments with 
which they themsolres accompany it. In what they are now 
doine ; in what they achieved for the benefit of all, in the last 
grand contest for the independence of nations uid for the 
public happiness ; and in the prospects opening to*us, as time 
eitends its onward flight, we may see a renfication of the 
prophetic declaration, applicable to all nations that will so feel 
and act. and of late peculiarly true as to the British Islands. 
** The people that do know their God shall be strong and do 

My purpose in making these remarks is to lead you to per- 
ceive that, as far as human agency, as actiTO and enlightened 
intellect, as superior science, as great and varied knowledge, 
ms literary exertions of all sorts, and as an unsleeping xealand 
anexamplcd activity, aided by warlike victories, scarcely par- 
alleled before in their number, rapiditf, and territorial extent, 
could have overthrown the only true religion in the worid, there 
has been full reason to suppose that it must have been sub- 
verted by their attacks. Human causes akme, if no other 
had assisted, would not have rescued it. The right inference, 
therefore, seems to be, that Divine u;ency, ^ the human 
means vdiich it put in action and gui£d, was necessary to 

C serve what it had inculcated and established ; and that it 
been operating effectually to that end. 
We may estimate the danger, and from that appreciate 
justly the need of such influence, by learning that tlM attacks 
on revesled truth have been so far successful as to anreliffion- 
ixe nearly a moiety of the French population ; for it has been 
calculated that this portion of them are in the unbelieving 
atate.t The prospect seems not to be much better amid the 

* Daniel, c. xi., ▼. 38. 

t M. Ttubaudvaa siMed to his " History of tbo Oonnsels of Francs" a 
siaUatical •ommary of raJiftoo in lbs Franeh smpirt at that tins whsa 
U Includsd Belgium sod lbs dapartments ofths Rhlos :— 
Catholieo who followed the coneiituiionsi priests 7,500,000 

Cstholics who followed the reflectory prieets . 7,000,000 

Psreono bom of Csiholie parents, biit followliif oo 

mode of worship, either tbroofb indiflkrenee oroa 

seeouni of the iaiemipckm and perseeatioa of rs- 

Ufion over a great part of the eoantry ISJXNLOOO 

Persons belonging to no religloa whaisver, by their 

maiiDer of ihinUng and acting .... 4,000,000 
firoisstams offarioui commuoitisa. Jaws Stc 3,000,000 


or THE WORLD. 395 

pimml l«ffisIaton of our kiimmun in North Amrricft.* Jt it 
Ini0 that Napoleon ])<)na|Mrte n'-mtahhiihnl a ('alhohr. hin- 
rairhy in Kmnre ; but thm whn not IwraiiM* lio wan at tar hud 
lo Christianity, Init inrrrly for l\u* |K>hliral hmrfita h» hojK-d 
to derive from it. Hp avowrd thm to hm vontidi'ritial ruiin- 
■ellor. TheoretiraUy, h« wan iu>l an atlii'iat ; but, hkr niaiiy 
who alM a row a gnnrral thi'iam, hi« had th«f ttanu* av<TNiiiri to 
rpvcoled truthii, to ail mrordr<i conununirationa fnini tlir Drily 
which they cntertani, and front whirh iMxanimn at fimt oriKin- 
atrd.t llMNie fartN, rombinrd with \\w writiiixii of mi Ur^n 
abortion of the (ff«fmian rlrriryi v^ho tiavc tn>at«il l\w Srrii>- 
turao u mere mytha ami fahica in all thrir narrationn of the 

"The inHh te, thai, u In nvnwnni* paiialMa all ov«rih« rmintry ih«*ra 
hai bean no ntllgiou* wonihip perfurim4 (or many yrara, rrliglfwii hIam 

very murh wrakniinl in Um iiitmlii of IIm pn>pln." Thib. 
La Conaalai, vol II., n lOtt. 

• II waa alalnd In Novfmbrr litrt riNM). at a pvbllr inn>ilnf al War- 
rtefttM, Ibal In a lale ** Nrw-York OlMrrwr" il waa mrnllonml, ihal out 
aflwe hundred ami nliMiy-onn mrfiilMini i»r ihe CongrrM in iha iriiiiMl 
SlalM. aniv twrnly-imfi wer** f *hri«llanii (n) 

t Aflpr tuf bailln of Marrnpi, h* inviifNl ihi* pnpr li> mnttv Into nrfo* 
tlailBae en Iha aahjprl oT rfliglun In Franra. During Ihwi^ ha conaulml 
witk aataral of hia alalf niunarlluni. Ona of tlH>Mti had a riNivi*niatloii, 
wirirh TbihaMdrau, in hia " Mfinoira,** Ihna Amrrihtm fhmi him 

** AOar ihdr dinnrr at Malmalai>n, itiit Aral ron«nl look hliii aliinti info 
UH peril, and lad Iba mnvrniaiinn tu Ihr aulijn*! or MigUHi llr a|Mko 
al aema ionglh agalnat ihr varkma ayainna of |ihiloanphrra, daiam, nal- 
Wal rvligUm, Jrr., ami drclarpd ihi*m lo Iw nothing hut Mrnlogy. • |4a* 
Ian ** Iw addH , ' 1 waa walking almnt Ihla anhlary apot laal MuiMlay 
evening Rvi*ry thing waa ailmt aroend in«*, wiirn ih« aound of tho 
cleck of tiM chiirrh at KiiH at oiiri> ainirk my rar. I frll alNNigly af- 
Ihrtrd. Hurh la I ho |Niwi>r »( Aral imiHVMiiona and uf rdiiradun I ih^n 
aeld to myarir, What inflni'iirr ilmw tlnng* mn«t ha«f u|mhi «im|ilr and 
Ctedeleua prraotia |.«i your phi lowiphrniaiiawrr thai Tlirrr ninal lir 
a rallghNi Mir ih« pMtffUr ; Iml tlila rrligMNi muM lif> In Ihf hamla »f g»T- 
ommpa'- At prrorat finy rmigraiit lilw|io|ia Irad thn rkrgy ol Fraiirr. 
We meal df^roy Ihia influmn' ; and fur ihia ih« avtburiiy ofthr po|M! m 
leqatrpd Propir will aay that I am a |NipiNl. I waa a Mohainmwlan in 
Bfypi, and I nhail In* birr a Caiholir, tor iIk good of ibo imifilii. / do 
■of M»rt*f in rrttgioHM. but Ihr tdm iiT a liml " 'Vhrr raiaing hia handa 
l e weria baevra, ho atrlaimnl, * Who. ihm, madfi all * U '* " 

Ito IhaMa In Ihaory only, and worldly pdittriana rm xin. Thry aiimil 
■ Deity in nanw, but will rvmvi* no pmf|ii« or ruhgioua luotrurtioaa 
binit and auppurl any aolHy lor it a popular rflkct. 

to) or nww llw wti>9f irf ilM #aiMRP«l l»l o«m> liiMiiiH Mm IhIin miiWI, whn Ii Mr. 
T^HHO !■• ■««Wifei4, •* III wkirh Iw wtt ifimvist I a im Ml m»rml>^n rafarnrf V^ 
pr JJ^rtly Mil ■•* mmM ■•nw IuhmHI mtf ■ < lirM«iiH. ■lilHMtt, m m thm BtHiei uHla 
mmH h4 aihar l«g«laii«« U^lixa. *hm f liriMia*iiy «f atrri nii* prnftw**!* «mm mmI 
•••I -bi laM af ■ ri«i4 •%aMaliMl laawfy Tlw wiiifc la lb* %m» kM lo aeolMii* 
tmmk4»% H^t^uikf »■/«!/«— pail wa.«J-o M. 


IMybia intarferences, lead us to feel strongiy that the 
nance of Christianity, as to its human support, has re 
stiU nata principally on the British poputationa, and i 
are the present agenu and instrumenu used and dii 
pceaerve and diffuse it.* Otliers may deem religion n 
for its state benefits ; but a political patronage of it, 
the sincere belief, would not long perpetuate it.t 

These circumstances illustrate to us the state an 
of the hnman mind in the anterior ages, when it i 
itself from ita Creator, and invented and adopted it 
isms instead ; the same disinclination to any specifi' 
revelation and the depreciation or rejection of what '. 
delivered. Thus the primitive descendants of N( 
pat aaide what had been communicated to him and hi 
aa millions now dislike and relinquish the sacred recoi 
we possess. The principle seems to be the same 
cases. Wlien the atheist or skeptic abandons and c 
from his mind the real God, or disbelieves his eziatei 
man becomes in his conception, and would so be if h 
were tme, the greatest known being in the univera 
then stands at the head of nature instead of Grod : i 
this feelinff, the Buddhist system gives him this su 
to all the divinities which others are worhsipping.t 

* Yet It is conceded ihal America equals, if she does not si 
olber nations in missionary effon.—Am. Ed. 

t A( some inomenui Napoleon fell that an actual religion was 
wanted by mankind Tor its moral utilities -Romeihiug more tht 
teal deism. ** Oh 4ib June, 1800, just before the batile of Mi 
wrote from Milan to lii« two consular colleagues at Paris — * Le 
Ists of Paris say what ibey please, I shall attend lo-morrov 
formance of the " Te l>euin,"in the cathedral.' He went to i 
state, and the next day he summoned the parochial clergy of 9 
loMihem tliai he would protect the Roman Catholic religion ; 8 
any state of society, no man can be virtuous and rquiiable with 
lag whence be comes and whither he is to go. Mere reason can 
ideas on the subject. Without religion we must be groping et 
in ths dark. There can be no good morality without religion. 
without religion ivexiioseii lo'hil the shocks of the most violent 
and fklls a prey to the internal discord which must litfdilibly p 
min.'"— Thibaud>au's Consulat, vol. i., Pieces J ustif. 

t The Sanscrit professor, Mr. Wils'm, in his lecture on Bu 
the Ashmuleaii Society at Oxfbrd, remarked, that the Buddhi 
Inealeated the belief in the superitir nature of man, made perfe 
that qftkt gods, and on this account ihey neglected and depre 
Braoaiinical divinities. Their great figur; In all their wor 
Boddha, tbe author of their system, who is still revered in Chii 
4rt, 8iam, Thibet, and Tartary. Mr. Hodgson, in his paper 


^rinc^ile 9(faMBj opcntes. Revditms from th« tnprenit 
mpiie m to fonn and regakte our mind and condiiet accoid- 
ing to their disclooiiras, coomels, and precepts. Bat to meh 
Bootrol and goremment the great majority of m^wfcfaui haTO 
been in every ace repugnant ; and as by disbelief they set rid 
of their idea of Sie obli^ition, their desire of the independence, 
iml of actinc la they please, is a ationg indocement to di^ 
oadit what uey dislike. Even theism has the same tendency 
fcem similar impre s sions ; for it is obrions, that if no system 
km been specially revealed and enj<Hned, all religions ideas 
Old practice, and moral self-regolatifma must, like the psgaa 
Uoli and wonhip, be the mere mattera of individual judgment, 
Hting, fancy, choice, and speculatioii, none of more authority 
Ami anoUier, and those of others never prefened by any one 

M these focts and views confirm the impression, that, at 
fer as the human mind alone has scted axid would operate, 
pgiiiiam, atheism, and a disbelief of specific revelations havo 
Ml and would continue to be the exclusive possessors of 
Im social world, and that nothing but Divine interference 
lid tgoncy has rescued mankind from them. This happy 
Ntnlt has been effected hj that peculiar i»rocess which the 
DiriM wisdom has devised and kq»t in operation ; and to the 
Donaideration of that we will now direct our next attention. 


ht 2H»iM Proceu/or Uu oompUU f^urmatian qfManknU aproMMce- 
iHt and vrognuht otUtJbruemandnttMlattkt Creation fo mis. 
^T%nrNtaur€ made to beimpnMMiwUk thi§ Fatw.— T^/s^prtw* 
'■-^'- U htd steoyt to acquire. 

Mt dbar Son, 
The leading feature of the jnocess which has been adopted 
If tiM Deity in hie intellectual agency and revelations has 
iMA their pmoGBsasivs nature, working out good in every 

■inn to Ifopaul, read to the IU»yal Asiatic Soels^, dMolM tt 10^^ 
%9im^ntd»,mmuiikomKtAkym In moials sad pbttosopUs 

■ IWtglHi» 

Vol,, in.— L I 


genermtion, Init piodiicing krg«r wnA richer efiiecU is caeh 
■eriiM of the evotvin;^ ugen ; ftnd operating onward to a gnod 
or ultenor coinplcrtiun, which has not yet been attained ; iMt 
to which it is Hteadily advancing hnniaa nature and the final 
popiilation of our globe. 

That a {irogrewiive course of improrement has been pur- 
sued with mankind, we perceive by what haa actually occuned. 
On looking back to the earliest ages of society, ud on con- 
trasting theHc with the world now around us, and by studying 
the state of the intermediate periods, we see that there hu 
been a gradationary improvement, a successive progression 
of human nature in all things, from the deluge to our present 
day. It is most palpable to the common eye in our sciences, 
our manufactures, our general knowledge, and our nmltifsrioui 
literature. On these there can be no doubt or mii^'F** 
Compare Egypt and Phoniicia with Greece— Greece with the 
Koinan empire in its most advanced state-"«ll these nations 
with our own country and Europe as the sixteenth centozy 
closed ; and our predecessors all over the world at that tims 
with what we and the country around us now are : compara 
all these successively with each other, and the progressive 
series will be as clearly visible to us as the succession of the 
dawn, the morning, and noontide is to our bodily eye, in every 
daythat occurs to us. 

The progression is not less manifest in religion and gov- 
ernment — in legislation and morals, and in all the conve- 
niences of life — in taste, judgment, polity, and philosophy — in 
civilization and refinement of mind, in manners, in elef^uice, 
in courtesy, in philanthropy, in general civilization, and in 
individual benevolence. The more minute and extended our 
knowledge becomes, both of past nations and of our contem- 
poraries, the more cleariy we shall discern the im pro ve m ents 
which have been effectuating in human nature, and also the 
fact that they have been gradually attained ; mdual botli in 
the succcHsivn acquiHitionn, and also in the diffusion of them 
among the various and multiplying populations of the globe. 
Every individual is in himself a progrGssivc being of this 
sort, and is, in his own personal experience, an illustration of 
the profjressive advancement of his nature, in the series of 
the generations which have preceded him, and in the separate 
nations by which he is surrounded. 
What has taken place in hxmseU Vas taken place in his 

OP THB woau>. 399 

■pecies tt kzge, to tbal I conaider no fact u more certain in 
tua hiatory <n mir world than this progreaaive advance of 
hmnan nature to ita preaent enlarged and meliorated condi- 
tion. It ia alao aa manifeat that Una iraproving proceaa haa 
not atopped, but ia atill going on in an accelerated ratio, and 
nidi reaolta more n^idTy evolving than earth haa hitherto 
Mield. What haa b^n discovered in the Egyptian paintinga 
b no execi^n to theae renuu^ : they ahow ua th^B degree 
ef errilization which the renewed world revived from ita an- 
tediluvian reminiecencea. What Egypt had aoon paaaed into 
Greece, and waa there enlarged. That thia progreaaion vraa 
faraaeen by oar Creator, and intended by him to take place, 
tnd waa a part of hia original plan of our being, ia not only to 
ht inferred from the fact of its occurrence and from hia ad- 
■itted (unniacience, but it likewise resta still more satisfac- 
torily on hia own revelation of the fact. Our Saviour haa de- 
ebnd, that hia future kingdom of heavenly felicity waa put 
irto piepantion at the foundation of the world. His aposUea 
aentioned that the scheme of our redemption waa the mya- 
twy planned before mankind were created.* Our Lord*a 
idfent upon earth waa alluded to in the Divine address to 
AMbam, and in the prediction which the dying Jacob waa 
iapirod to utter. The last periods of our human world are 
expreaaly delineated by both Isaiah and Daniel, and also 
Mtieed and aketched by others of the prophets, and in aome 
of the paalma. These circumstances show that the plana 
lod proceaa of the Deity in the formation of human nature 
bfi been proapective and progressive from its commence- 
ment ; dieir appointed ends have been designed to be those 
wUch would not be accompliahed till the latter periods of the 
iaunan world. These predicted results have not yet been 
iaflf attdned ; but several of the intervening, and immediate, 
ond conducive effects have been brought about. 

We have, therefore, aufficient evidence to warrant the as- 
oertion, that the formation of human nature to ita intended 
eompletion and final excellence has been foreseen, and intend- 
ed to be a progreaaive and successively enlarging and enrich- 
ing improvement. The plana and proceaa of the Deity with 

• Tbeaa paasagas were quoted and referred to in the eighth letter of 
te aMOod volome of this history, p. 100. They occur in Matt, xxr., v. 
M: 1 Cor. U., V. 7 : Rom. xvl., r. 35 ; Bph. iU., ▼. 9; 1 Tim. L, v. 9 J 
%k L, V. 4» 11 ; THoa i., v. %; St. FMer I., c. i., v,ia 


ramet to it mnit, thereliora, b« of a profnonvc natiirt, and 
with A gradual operation ; prodaeing aock mmailipti iwiilti 
fron time to time aa wen meant in each genantion to IbUov 
£rom them ; but acting ateadilj onward, to afiactnate thiii 
gander purpoaes and more perfect cieationa. 

We are bring now in the thifty-eifffath eentoiy of tbeopsa- 
tion of this process, or nearly ao ; and in what the world now ia 
collectively aa a whole, and most athkinffly in aoaaa of its most 
prominent countries, we see the admirwM effscta which have 
thua far been produced ; and we are enabled to discern tbst 
othen far more brilliant and ennoUing are coming into birtk, 
and will be the possession and inheritance of our yet distant 

From thia contemplation of what haa been designed ind 
of what haa been effected, and of what ia still poiaaiiqf fay 
that E^ne agency which alone can accompliah the piaii oss s 
of Divine foresight, let us now advance to a further coosidsr- 
ation of the course and princ^>lea fay and on which whit hm 
been done has been effectoated. 

If the human mind has been thua improved, man hsa basn 
and is an improvable being. Improvability must then be a 
quality of his essential nature, and he haa been created to be 
of this character. He has not been created a perfect b«ng 
at his first creation, but as a being that was to become such 
at a future period, and to be continually advancing to it, by a 
progiessivo series of moral meliorations and mental enlaige* 
menta, until his nature should st last attain the assigned 
completion. If man had been created to be perfect at the 
time of his creation, there could have been no subsequent 
improvement, and no reason for it ; nor could he have boon 
improvable. All change of what is complete could only be 
lor the worse. He would, if he had ever been in a fiill- 
forroed state, have been definitely what he was at once, and 
so have remained for ever. From that condition he neither 
could nor would have advanced or altered. But it ia mani- 
fest that he has been and is an altering being ; and therefim 
he was never intended to be such a fix^ and completed being 
at the commencement of his existence, and has not yet be- 
come of this final and stable character. 

The very system of his birth precludes the possibility of 

#Dch perfection. What Adam was we do not distinctly know, 

tbouffi we may assume thai Yu& waa aa comi^lete and pofeeC 


ts a' fint-made being of the human species could be ; but 
vdiat Adam was none of his posterity could be. 

For as to them it was made the law, which has never al* 
teredy that they should be bom in a bal^ state, and therefore 
totally ignorant of all things ; feeble, lielpless, and with all 
piits of their body only a portion of their intended size. No 
m^t is in any respect a complete or perfect human beinff 
ather in frame or intellect : and all manldnd being aj^inted 
to be Ikkh as babes, none were meant to be perfect at their 
birth ; but aH come into life on the principle that they shall 
be in^proTable into what they ou^t to be, as far as they are 
lUe to adyance in their worldly life, and under the circum- 
stancea which would individually accompany it. 

The consequence of this unvaried law as to our nativity is, 
that evexy one is bom, and now as much as all were 4000 
yean ago, an imperfect beinff — imperfect in all respects when 
they begin their human lite, but continuously improvable 
fiom the first moment they breathe and see. They are meant 
to acquire ail that they are deficient in at their nativity as 
so<m and as largely as their country, era, and surrounding 
•odety, education, custom, and means of self-formation allow. 

Improvability is therefore the law and designation of our 
created nature; and to improve is its perpetual tendency, 
and should be regarded as its perpetual duty; for it was 
manifestly made improvable, in order that it might improve. 
It was bom incomplete with the express purpose that, as it 
lived, it should gradually attain the completion of what it 
was capable of. The full formation of our body and limbs 
our Creator has taken into his'^own care, and, by the plan and 
law of onr frame, has always secured the performance of that 
eflbct. Under these the body grows of itself, without our 
agancy or consciousness, into what it is td be for its tempos 
XUT earthly life. 

out the improvement and completion of our mind or soul 
he haa put into our own power, and required us to attend to 
and promote it. In this he only aids, and provides the meana 
and materials for us to make use of, but ho leaves it to our- 
setvea to seek and apply them, and to acquire the additional 
qualitiea and excellences which we ought to posscsa Heve- 
atioii teaches and urges us to attain the largest portion of 
thaoa that the position of our social life admits of ; and also 
to make the required improvement the pn(icipl<S the aim, the 

40S THI tAClSD HirroRT 

iMding habit of onr livet. It iniimatea that, In Mopo rtw a t« 
the dej^e of attainable completeneaa with which we dia, 
hia fatuie faTOura will be adminiatered to oa. 

But what arc the improTemenu which we have to acqmn^ 
anl what are the aids which he auppliea to ua in the attain* 
BMnt, and what are the meana and matirialB of imptDvenient 
which he haa pronded for ua 1 

Bon in toul ignorance of all things, we dearly have to 
antnire the knowledge of all that we oa^ to know. Bora 
atheista from that iiniorance, we have to leem hia eziatence 
and relationa to ua, and all that he haa communicated concern- 
ing hunaelf, hia creations, our fellow-creatures, and ourselvei, 
and the counsels and commands which he has ezpieaaed on 
all these suhjecu. Bom with quick aenaibilitiea, we hsTt to 
train these to the right moral feelinffa. Excitable fay ereiy- 
thing and to everything, and with limba capable of eroy 
kind of motion and action, we have to perceire how we os^ 
to use all our faculties and powers, to what we ahonld dinct 
and apply them, and from what we ahould restrain then. 
We have to learn all the rules and attain all the habita of setf* 
regulation throughout our whole earthly life, ao that, as each 
occasion arises, we may not do to others or to ourselves what 
will be injurious or offensive, and that we may do in every 
circumstance what we ought. 

Our own well-being is put into our own care, ss weQ aa the 
welfare of thoae with whom we may be aocially connected; 
and we have to learn to know what we ought to do or avoid 
for our own aakea, aa likewise to live friendly or in pesce 
with others. We are bom with a fine intellectual capacity ; 
but which at first is vague, unformed, and general power ; and 
we have to form and exercise this into correct observatiaB 
and perc^tion, juat reasoning, and right judgment. We 
come into the world without any opinions at all, and we hate 
to acquire right opiniona on aH things of which we ahall be- 
come conscious, and on which we sluU have to think and act 
We have all theae things to learn, and to learn for ouraelvea 
in the best way we can, from teachers, from example, from 
customs, and precepts ; by observation, imitation, compariaoD, 
reading, thinking, judging, and acting, until we become spon- 
taneously, and in our instructed and imfuxjved nature, and by 
piactisea habit, and by immediate and voluntary aelf-govezn- 
OMS^ «ii Chtt i!M ought to be, do ill that we onghl at enm^ tine 


to doy tod know aU that we ought to know, in order to have the 
continiial rectitude of mind, feeling, desire, wiU, and conduct 

Now, aa every child has to learn and to acquire all these 
inqpiOTementa in our present families, so had evexy one of 
the generations which have preceded us upon our common 
each. If they had made their full measure of these improve- 
ments, we should have come into a rich inheritance of them. 
Bat they have left so laree a proportion of them unattained, that 
koman nature is still full of deficiencies, which it is advancing 
anwaid to supply, and which every individual now living has 
to lessen in himself, as far as he may have the opportunity or 
the ability. 

But the chief basis of all these in every age is knowledge 
— that knowledge which we all ought personally to acquire ; 
because without it we can never be, or think, or act as we 
ahoold do. Just as the child cannot act or judge properly 
without it, neither can the man. 

In proportion as any are deficient m what they ought to 
know, they are so far still in their baby state. They have 
tibeir bom ignorance and darkness about uem, and must think 
and act correspondently with that destitution. 

But this knowledge must, like every other improvement, 
be a ffradual acquisition : what is most immediately essential 
aliouid be first attained ; what becomes necessary in due sue- 
session afterward should be sought for in the proper course 
and order ; and if this were reeuTarly and fitly done, and the 
actions made conformable to the progress, the human mind 
would grow up steadily to all its required qualities and ex- 
celleoces, as the body does under the guardian and guiding 
laws which form it, and as the stately tree advances with un- 
intttrapted certainty and expanding efficiency ; never vacil- 
Iflling or inconsistent, but reaching in due time its ordained 
perfection, and retaining it unchanged as long as it is its 
settled nature to last. 

But who must be the first teacher, and what the first knowl- 
#4g!B to acquire t In our late epocha of the world, we have 
Itnams of knowledge of all sorts flowing about us and to us 
thousand currents, and bringing with them all sorts of 
good and bad, the workmanship or efifusions of our 
lessors and of ourselves. The primeval ages had non^ 
if thia. They had everything to find out or kam, and th^ 
coidd have no instroctar but nature, wbkh is paasife aad 


dumb, and wis alwavt to b« dbterred, studied, intMp 
and understood ; and thbib Cbbatob, who began to 
and meant to teach them, but from whom mankind so 
turned, and with such determined and persisti]^ alien 
that from him they would learn nothing. This com] 
him to choose his own means and process for their im{ 
ment and benefit against their wilt ; and to lead boms 
ture, notwithstanding its aversion to the teacher, to the 
g res s ive and ulterior completeness which he meant it .to a 
To these means and process let us now direct our tiioc 


A Delinealiom ef that Part of the Divine Process wJuek was < 
Im the Formation^ RsUMiskmerU, and Instrnetian qf the Jemis 


The process adopted by the Deity for the benefit of hi 
man race, after their defection and alienation from hi 
displayed to us in the Hebrew Scriptures, from the met 
of his address to Abraham to the last enunciation of hii 
andpurposes by the prophet Malachi. 

The I)ivine communications to mankind closed witl 
prophecy in that period of the world, and no further Divii 
terposition or supernatural agency was perceptibly ei 
on our earth until the appointed time of our Saviour's 

A new series of Divine agency then commenced, n 
the Christian Scriptures narrate to us. They disclose s 
and extended process of the Divine wisdom as then pi 
action, which has since been in constant intellectual open 
and under whose continued agency we are now living, 
see not the directing hand nor the influencing power b^ 
material organs of vision. But the mind that duly at 
the effects which arise may trace and discern them, anc 
find daily delight in contemplating their widely-augme 


Hm mImhm of Um pfocMs wu U> Mlect one indiviiiuftl from 
iIm fovoking world, and to train him and hia immediate do- 
■c— danta into a full and intimato knowled|{« of the Deity aa 
a |Mi io n al Ood ; intoreatod with hia human world, deairoua to 
laoeh and dotarminad to auperintend and ^f em it ; and, by 
a aaria a of incidenu in their own biographiea, to make them 
Mpaoffially aoquainted with their Creator, with the principlea 
on which he ahould gOYom human life, and with the nilea, 
and idoaa, and feelinga on which ho required them to act to- 
waida him and towarda each other. From the family thus 
matructod he planned to raiae a nation with whom he sliouUl 
deal, and whom he ahould continue to teach and guide in the 
•ame immediate manner ; and, in the varioua eventa which 
would occur in their national and individual conduct, to make 
aueb eucceaaive manifeatationa of himielf, of hia (jowcr and 
agoney, of hia mind and will, of hia plana and purpoMCM, of 
hia eoanaala and precepta, and of hia general and particular 
govamment of the world, aa would infuae into Uie human 
■ind, fay due degreea, a true knowledge of him, and right 
i doaa and feeling concerning him. By tlieao the moral iu- 
toUoetnal formation of human nature would be gradually ad- 
vaaeod, at ftrat in Judea, and afterward in the reat of the 
world, by the conaequencea that would follow, aa Uieee tranaac- 
liona and larebuiona became known elaewliere, and aa further 
oparationa of tba Divine agency in the world ahould introduce 
Inrtliar knowled|^ and larger eiSecta. Thua the trutha which 
tha raat of mankind were peraiatingly refuaing would be grad- 
natty brought to them through this peculiar channel, to be en- 
jojroa by Jl when they ehould, in the courae of time, become 
willing and more fit to receive it. 

Abraham waa the peraon aelocted to be the subject of the 
aomnancament of this grand proceaa. He was separated from 
hia kinalblk and fellow-cititena in order to live at a distance 
horn tham* and waa informed by the Deity that his posterity 
ihoiild be raiaed into a great nation. * A momentous appeiidsge 
annaiad, that all mankind would receive a peculiar blM- 

sT ihy aoaatry, and ftam 
land ibai I will stew 

,___es and rs«rard of Ws 

Hsaes wk was iImi addsd : " Aad I will aialwsriliss a graai imiimi : 
I will Mass ibss, sad aHkaihy aaaM gnai, and ilw« sbak bs i 
" xU., V. I,& 

• tlH Lsfd said aale Abrsham, •* Osi iliss «N sTll 
fby kladrad, aad Awn iby Itehw^ kouss, aalo a Is 
ttsa.* TMs was ihs c ow m sed. TIm ■snssqsss c s 


ring from them.* He wms made to go into Ezypt for his im- 
proremcmt, and for benefit u to property ; and to moye iron 
place to place that be might not settle, by a fixed residence 
into an assimilation with any existing population, and also tc 
divest him of his erroneous ideas, vad to wean him from hii 
former pagan and other habita. That his mind muht be ad- 
equatoly improved before he became a father of the nevi 
race that were to be the peculiar people of the Divine tuition, 
twenty-five years elapsed before tne promised child was given 
to him.t In the mean time he had another, who was Stng- 
nated to be the ancestor of the important Arab nation. t 

To establish in his mind a full idea and lasting impresskn 
that the Deity was a personal Gk)d, and meant to act as sud 
to the human world, and desired to be so ccmsidered, it wai 
necessary that the Divine nature should enter into a certain 
degree of familiar intercourse with Abraham and his first de* 
scendant, because this only would produce the intended effect 
There is and always has been among mankind a great indis- 
porition and unwillingness to conceive or believe in the actual 
personality of the I%ity. The general notion, both among 
men of science and others, is rather that of an abstract power ; 
of some undefinable and vague mightiness reducMe to no Sa- 
tinet idea — an omnipotent something existing everywhere, yel 
in no locality — an inconmrehensive agency, without any indi- 
viduality — a theoretical Deity, but no personal being ; nor ai 
having a decided moral and intellectual character, with feeling, 
thought, reasoning, and will, analogous to what i^pear of thu 
description in human nature, though infinitely superior in 
quality and degree. Such notions make him little more than 
a name, and neither interest the human heart nor lead the hu- 
man mind to the conception and belief of an intelligible and 
individual reality. The idea and feeling of a personal God 
were therefore produced permanently in Abraham and in hii 
grandson Jacob, by those condescending appearances and in- 

* " And in thee shall all the families of the earth be Messed."-^.... 
xil., ▼. 3. This great promise was more fVilly elucidated by a sabseqoent 
declaration to him, that it extended to some descendant of bis race. ** In 
thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed," c. xlii., r. 1& In 
these words It was repeatinl to his son Isaac, c. xxvi., ▼. 4. 

t He was cslled Orom his native country at seventy-flve, and iMae 
was bom when be was a hundred.— Oen. xxi., v. 5. 

t Gen. xvil., v. SO. See the second vol. of this history, Letter XXYL, 

Of TUI WORLD. 407 

toi c oor— ■ wkirb ar« rftronied in Uub llook of f «ftri««ia. ItiMM 
Woiitftit Uift Utitjr wilkin Ihrir MrruKfriiil |f«:r«:«;|Hw/ri, aiid tjct- 

vtfpiA, tndteftMtf, mmI ilMfiririu.iil iJititjr o/ tkn: K^-in-jhl world. 
fl u ht» rftcorilftd rfMiii(«iitiUi<MM aiKJ tmrMMtKiiui whirh kivm 
t^ fulifeftt imI HKMl iffi|/rf!Miv« ifii-«» of hm ffn/ml, ifil«;lk< tu^l 
KtiAfp awl got«:niifii{ ri:«Jii)r. In tti«:«<: b«: klwfty« MffffTkrv, 
af^sakti, und kU m « pfrrwffinl Ifiinif, with if.t^liuifnt tUiuf/KU, 
■nrf facullUM of whirk Iw tw* riMilc oijr« « fliiii iiki:rM:M miuI 
munm ntntum ', kmt with wliw:h, itioiiKh m lti*t iiif«:rif#ri(y in 
wMrb ftJl rritftlfsd kK!in|{« rnu»l ftlw^y* tw;, witb rfK^rd to wlwt 
n hua IS infinite uxA ]^.ti»stx, tt\ir% tinvo ^ rttuy^tnttMHny m rui 
InM. fiur Mfiiril wim brnal^itrfJ int«i our uuhImX frkmi: (n/rn 
hinwirlf. Mtfi tti#rr«:(ori:, in lt« «»ai:ntiJil mulitif*, mu«l »lw«y« 
Mftalia of ki» IhvirMi imturr, kiiii wm ilf:f:Ur<:«l Mid iiubknl ti« 
M • bunun ituMut tA it . * 

ffi ikima ^•■nl \mw.\\t\*-n Alirnliani wim i-diir«iMl hy '«f»d 

M bllh. III <#lfi:dMrllf-ir, Jliul ih ft kfiowMl/K of IIm: »i timl «U«Tn- 

iwn of Um Hii|fri:fiift to kuriuiii tjntAHi.i^ kinl of lii« di^pkn^ur*: 
M Um MMir*! VKM, Abrnluifn Wii« tkuKhl kful «:i«rrriM:d luUt 
A balMtf of ibft nwlity Mid Irui iwiurf; of Ooft \ mu\ <d ki« |ir'iv- 
tAtstWM vA moral f(ot«:niin<:nC, nod of hw irxi-rtj'd fort-»i|{lit, 
•mI Utnuutu |#l«fi» Mild |#iirp<#«<:» for ifri-jil Jin«i di^tknt o(fj«Tt« 
M ihr human wortl ; Mid of hi» Vf<riu;ily and d«Tt«:rrnin*iion Ui 
fwUil wbiU b« ifromiiMrd mmJ to Jirrfffn|ili«h wkat tn; fort- told 
Tbn CmUi of Alirniuim kiwi <:iiMiit«:d to an ifn|fliric ri'luririi 
and e«infidirf|{ aaaurMiri: fftitlifr Ihviittz dM:Ur«iKMia »fifl|irMlir. 
iMwiy and waa always ar.rorn|rfiiiii:d with wiUirif/, ri;ady, miU- 
nuUliMrt Mid imifM-di«t«r i>)i<:di**ru «• In lhi« Alnttliain fliffrr<-d 
from Aifain, and «liOKir«:«l hy itut flilli-rf-rirf » |/r«-ai trn(iro>i- 
in human natura. AkralMrn h^ard tti^; Miufiiiiation of 

• TiMtagliMlac «r Ihia apwial iniftfrMifM of ib« f'rv«far wiih bi« 
aRm«r«( la wlWca IM Ml4l«ll«lkr4 hlinwrir m i h» rclMkf««tki|i of a |iKfa«#fial 
IM i« liifl mAprt^A Mrrvaitc and hia (KMicrif >, i« iiius ilr«rritrtrf 

•* HTlMl Abmn wa« nitiHy )««r« fil«1 aiid nin*;, thm fyiril api^arH 
MM Aafaai«aM aaid ant* faiin, *l «ii -me Ai.MictHiv CJoii Walk 
biiHiB ■•• 9mA ba ibfia ynfUri. And I will niika ny rju^mitMui batwvrn 
■a and Itaw, aM will malnifly iliaa «ie»«4tAC1jr 

•• And AfcraM Ml npm ftia far*, and fiwl lalkH wlih him, aayinf, 
• A* iir NM, fcahiilit my Mivmani i« wna ihaa, and ibou ahali b* a faUMir 
•f Maay aauoaa, and hirir* "halt mm* mil «# iii«« And t wiri mfaiiri^h 
■if aanaawi a«f wma m« a«id ibjr and aA«r ilf-' in Ibair gmmfiuittm Uti 
aa avavlMtiaff rvvananc. lo ee « fj^i* Mni« iImn and m iby *•*>} aAar 
M«"'-lian. 1*11, V. 1-7 


Uw Divine commrnds with a Mnerering reaolutioii to ob«jr 
them. Mud always performed what was enjoined. 

Obedience was with him always associated with his be- 
lief, uA in this his conduct is an example to all The apoe- 
tle says, " Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto 
him M>r righteousness.'** He therefore exhibited both the 
Divine effect and the true nature of religious iaith. The Di- 
Tine effect, in the Scriptural doctrine, that fiuth ie the juatify- 
ing principle of man with God ; and the true nature of the 
faiih whicn is so, by showins na that it must alwaya be the 
Iaith which obeys while it brieves. 

Abraham's belief was counted to him for lighteoosneaa, be- 
cause he always acted upon it, and waa moat emphatically 
blessed for doing so in the most severe trial of hia obedience 
to which he could have been subjected. t 

The third great principle was inculcated by the destmctioD of 
Sodom and Gomorrah, because they were " wicked and ain- 
ners before the Lord exceedingly.^ It was so inmortant in 
the Divine plsns as to human nature that he should be known 
to require moral virtue from mankind, and that vice was of* 
fensive to him, and would be visited by penal oonseqnencea, 
that the Deity chose to make a personal annunciation to Abim- 
ham of the catastroi^ he was about to produce, and hia rea- 
son for inflictinff it.{ 

Ho made this communication expressly because he knew 
that Abraham would teach bis family the lessons he received. II 
That the moral cause might be fully understood, and that its 
occurrence might create no diminution of the certainty of the 

* Romans vi., ▼. S. 

t This waa In tbe probatloaary oommand to offiur his son as a blU1l^ 
oOhrins on Moant Moiiah. Abraham obeyed with si^y raaoltttioa and 
naif nation, and, when the Deity interested the coosumraatUm of tbt 
saerUtee, he attached hia immediate benediction to tbe obedieace. ** Ba- 
CAuaa Tuou Hxar dons this thins and haat not withheld thy son, thlae 
only aoo, I will bleoa thee, and wUl moltlply thy seed as the stars of 
iMaven, and in thy aeed ehaU aU the nations of the earth be blessed, sa- 


t lb., e zili., T. 13. 

$ *« And the Lord said, Shall I hide ftom Abraham that thinf which I 
do: seeinf that Abraham shall sarely become a great and michtv nation, 
and all the nations of he earth shall be Messed in hiffl?"^Ib.,e. xvttL, 

V. 17, IB. 

tl ''For I know him, that he wiU command his chUdraa and bla hooia- 
hold after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord to do taades and 
Judfineat."— lb., v. 10. 

■ of (M, Ml tf Uf lM« Mm» 

Mudn «lUi Mm M lk> NbHt. 
■I to MMNl Am ■! wm BM MriUv, Mid lU lb mil pof 

fc^m3tUt^•n6 M MeeoM ■! ib BMflMtag, idd iW 

"iM* tfentam ano nn> ina «l^ Wilt Iliiii (la. (I'Kmftin^gM. 
«w Mif iiH wicd^ I r«Mnniii»<»inrn(hM"uM«Haik* 
«r ^ unH IM*Mb «Mn>f (bJihh iiriinUicrlua Ih ibaM|>n|l» 


(•■iMnflw "M.- I «t,.r 

■mi —< | IMW M phiLmUgBpy. TMWdwd ta r^pty : 

• "Mill 11 .It ■• I I 1 |- hiliil iilifit 

S|Mil«MttMMn|>Mtt*«tM*luktf»wl Aaiuiit, 
nSraMiM»«i*lo*.tWllM)*Mn)'N.> UnkMt^lMMi: 

^asilwiiS'rsss; — 

*^ ffMMi B Wi u td hi fcraripf • pMp)* IroB Abnbui'a 
lll]r.Md*riMriBf k In Egjrpt, MM, wbM Ui nomUn 
■hMmIIt IncnwiJ to bund u IndnmdMrt mIImi, of 
Mm It fttM HiwIJmUmi to UiM civHiMd, vid Dim pr*- 

■HHilirf UmAmb, tw m' — - 

b Md e«m|u(. AWurwiiiM«ni wdof 

«MMy WM DfMMtod to *m In oar IM MiiMpMidMict.t 
I M Mhin «BM k bm, M Mir •bMm.Tta^ lh« 
■fci' MMdC; (ETSwdiN, ilM IMtjr dl^jrtd hlMtlf to 
b *■ m^mSc Ml Nllng ioiWflB of avMy (liaiM «d 

" * I af BMOM wU wUell (W iMa ta CMMMtol III 

i»nd«^ •onuMMiilii MHbt A* rtmt ih* 

allw tMMadow (ImUImI potnr i Uw m In tU 
teHUMMw dMib wm Mda to opanto M Im 
HU AlthalbralwMWMtUpatogiNnriwwnukB 
i>tothwtt,winaiw«W8Bw»fflid totataMnwnta 


of ■offering to them, tiMt die dehuion of fiuicyiiig tbcmi to bo 
dnrinitiea might bo diotinttwl 

The next poitioa of the DiTine pUn wm to load them into 
tiie Arebien desert, end there to rereal himaelf in tremendoiu 
maieety to the whole people mt Mount Sinai, end by apenonal 
end ewful voice intelligible to them, to procleim m foar greet 
precepts as to their conduct to him, and the six others on the 
main subjects of the conduct of mankind towards eech other 
fHiich constitute the decalogue. He then made himself their 
immediate sotereign, estaUuhed the form of their ciiil gov- 
emment subordinate to him, appointed all the ciTil and social 
laws which wen to be their public legislation and private 
morals, and likewise instituted tnat mode of worriiip by which 
they were to address themselves to him. This be made to 
consist of two great dirisions— eupnlication and thanlogiT- 
ing. He formed their public rites of that nature as to cause 
th«m to present themselves to him as offending creatures, 
needing his fo^veness, and petitioning for it, and offering 
sacri^es of living animals as an atoning medium by idiich 
ther were to obtain it. He required them to recollect cootin- 
ually that he was their preserver and benelactor, and to ex- 
press their gratitude to him by their offerings and verbal ado- 

It was also made his grand moral command that they 
ahould cherish the feeling of affection to him in its utmost ar- 
dour. The ]Nrinciple of their actions and feelings towards 
each other and all human kind was made to be tlut halritual 
benevolence and philanthropy which would resemble and 
equal their own regard for themselves.* Under tins system 
he established them in the provinces of Palestine or Canaan, 
displaying in their settlement another exan^de, for their ad- 
monition, of the calamities which he brought on nations when 
they became universally impious and wicked. 

He made their own happiness and national proaperity de- 
pendant on their obedience to him. This principle of hu de- 
termined sdministration of their state, and of every other, was 
announced in his name by Moses to the Israelitish natkm on 
Tarious occasions, and most emphatically in his last addreaa to 
theuL He had told them that by steadily cherishing uid 

* Ttw last fbur books of cbe Psmatsoeh havs preseiisii to as tlis Ml 
4staU of all thasa drcumatancea. 

I, AM 

^■mI mm insMto fev flivt viMii wv wotU 

l|ntaUi^,V»lMwdtaNlMtMl !«*(■.• • 
i^dMfand tolhn,*Mtf thnwooUtln 
MMora niM wMwa of iMt God, tt «H Ihi INvteinMn. 
MrtoNnritbanHbitiManliarpMabt l»«ulubMnbt 
*•*• in tti ethn ntkiMartlM mtb a> bonant ml eWabri- 
^1 Mril0nMk*ilMn«miDiBtbi tbaummlMnMitrianv 

Ttta akDlid daMiitr ha axboftod thMB DM la loM. Jb 
w^mtti Hi ■w uiMiLi] of it,t witb Motinml hlumi frsqi 
A* AhdffalT K u wnlg ii m wmj MitUj eonliMt nid w» 
Mrilr, If A«r woold b« bitfaM Id thair Mtorhmwit >nl dan 
b liH.4 But if thajr dniatad into tba MOtni^ csadDGt ; tf 
ttiy wosld not otMura tha lam and inatitMicaai dot ob^ 
ft* MMBBnda, DDt BDlliTala tba tnia wanlup of tbair ipMraeu 
hg Md U|libliH Ood, Umd Datienal aOletioDa, lbca%n 
■MMB^ aad a •Si" ^- -•-■' '-'-" -^ 

___ tebabQ tl 

■id fan tUa canaa,! thair c^tal and othar fbtfitad 

SdlM aaMnl«4lH[ la ikt alfM ar tki satHK whM ikM kw afl 
•■■ BiMMn. w4 nWD lar, lualr lati inai mUh la ■ wtaa aX aa- 
«DMM«a| ■M(la.<— DHL, a. Kn >. >. C 

^TrElSpiMk anaiM ikai lUa iar W te Ma »Malte ^Mfta. a* 
ti W» liMliii 111. ia< aantot itw H w kmyiU ya imM*. 
■ma; fil«a«k*ik*i Bwa tmatmAU. utM«tM katadiaal^ 
kiariaLHila aaaw. ■* la tiaiia r ; aa< *■ ihaa mt>m M a Wiji 
■MpaHM Om LiH UffSal. ai ka Mk •*ri>a.>-lk,«. a>*l, >. iflX 
T* M« R iMI iMaa w rata, ir aaa akak kMrta UlgMMy aaw 
aa aali n f— l^a i>T C-C la iliir w in* w * aU Ma w«aD» 
■MM«MMl I aHHa/ltaa IMi aar, thM Ika Lar4 mj Sal wuL NT 
T«*. ••'• Ko- »"v. .,.., ..T.o«"fT.,. ...,ii.- "AndallMfla 

Waa»aHgr lar boar, uaitelWIiofiAr (nwM, uaihTrrmiMiii* 
ttrnlt : 1M ItCTw ■< thi Ha*. ai»« tlw ito» l» nf Uijr rtiwp I BlaM) 

MMaaH'—Hi'.! u'IIiI'tV?' 


citiM w«e to be besieged end taken,* mud tfaej were to W 
dnven from their nmtive land, end extenuated to a amaO mnn- 
ber,t and to bo dinpened all over the world, bat find leaC, 
comlbrt, peace, and ■ottleinent nowhere. t 

Another great principle, alao announced by tbe Bci^ 
through M0M8 to hi8 people, for the instruction m all ""■"'^^f, 
was, that the abandonment of the transgression, and the re- 
pentant mind and fechng for having committed it, and tlie 
sincere return to their sacred duties, should always end the 
displeasure, procure the forgivencas, and regain the favour of 
their God. This was emphatically declared to them vrith 
impressive kindness,^ and made, as it were, one of the laws 
of the connexion between him and them, and intended to be 
equally so between him and all mankind. 

The extension and application of thia important principle of 
the Divine plan and conduct of all the populaticma of mankind 
were in an after afe explicitly inculcated by the piro|^iet Jere- 
miah. He was directed to proclaim it in the name of the 
Deity, as the general rule of his providential administration 
in continuing or subverting the dynasties or ensures on the 
earth. II 

BIC4UIK ttaoa hearkenedat not unto tbe votes of the Lord tky God, to 
keep bis eommandmenta and his statutes whieh be coaunanded thee."— 
Deat., c. xxTiil., ▼. 45. 

* " A nation of fierce countenance, which shall noc regard Ike peiaos 
of the old, nor show Ihvoor to the young, wlbmll beneoe tbes la all thy 
gates, antil thy high and fenced walls come down, wherein thoa tnUr 
edac, throughout all thy land. If thou wilt not obsorvo to ds sU the 
words of this law that are written la this book, that thoo Baaysi fear Ihle 
glorious and fenrAil name, thk Loan thy Onn.**— lb., v. 50, M, 56i 

t " And ye shall be left few in number, whereas ye were as the Hsn 
of hesTen for multitude ; beeaiiee thoa wouldst net obey the votoe of tks 
Lord thy God. And ye shall be plueked tkcm off the land wliltkw ikM 
goeot to po«aeae it."— lb., v. 6S, M. 

t " And the Lord shall scatter thee among all people, fhiB the ses Mi 
of the esrth even unto the other. And annong thess natiooa shsk thsa 
find no ease, neither Mhall the sole of thy Ibot hsvo rest. aiU thy life 
shall hang in doubt before thee ; and thou shalt fisar day and alght, Mi 
Shalt have none aseuranceofthy life."— lb., v. M-6. 

$ " But if fVotn thence thou shalt seek the Lord thy God, thoa ehalt 
find him, ir thou seek him with all thy heart and whh all thy loal. 
When thou art in tribulation, and all these things are eooie upon thee, 
•ven in the latter days, if thou turn to the Lord Uiy God, and abalt be 
obedient unto his voice, for the Lord thy God ia a roereiftil God, he will 
not foraake thee, neither deatroy thee, nor forget the coveoaat of thy 
fttben which he sweat unto lYvenv."^— ^.^«. W». v. 9»-sl. 

JK « Then the WorAoUYielJQK^taxDAXntGAmtad^^^WNMt^lsnfl! 

«V TIM WOBUb 418 

tto MMr mM MM (Ui prtosip)* lowMit Ito Jmv MT. 
«>d IfcMtMwMI «• dMik of JMhM Md lb* MMMfen aT 

aM MHMrf ta *• betriior Jad|M, Hi4 ftMM>ll* •»» 
& WM TNT iMUi«^ MoMntoJ in Iktim rf AM. 
WlmltolNt tot tamBBNtioM wm sltonl bv inbh 
- IriM ta M> pMi4Mbi( in iMqvtQ', tlw iMff^Mbtfng 
_«MH «MiiMctidl)> pmttont ; Umb lb* Ibnatfiwd e*. 
WM hnwwlittly poMpon«d U ■ fntun t'n'ntiaa «f 
K«nfani«. who mwind tb« MMgnnion in ■ mai* 


njM iiii r I "" "• ri f 

rttlttflm m Ml ynAuMM tt jfc rt Hn fTcU «• NfMtrUt^lU 

t«aMlr <Mr*n<f It* JV*ctaifm mi Ur JAh«, Itmmm^m* 

Ht ••*> SvDHir, 
A«M| Dm nwnl nraenti wMeb liw Mit ■ il ii w I la 
Dm M(iM b bad M ipcddix IbraMd, m And In thoM whMi 
b» ibHMl to Hf^M ilair randocl lowwd* Mcb gtb« pri*- 
iWM w fat^Uii uid Mipwiot h IfaoM wbkh ha InenluUd 
■n Mgwd U himiU'. iMNMd (if smAuiv ibM lo Um 

?V*»W l*M»l 7m1|i' •pak mwR'nf • ..•»/.« iirf ■ 


MH .MfMli n|M bo axdi. »« luM. a^ tat M 

Moifllr *»« IM W-ri rflt^- I^H IMI ■«« Mil* 

EfMMH, MI>M.*»«<lwiihni Allah kainMiablfMltfM*n*Ml 


mere nileii of justice on which the ethical oodee of msiaiBpkf 
were fuunded, he extended them to require iundneee, allee- 
tionftte feeling, and mutual aid ; sympathy and benevolence in 
tiie mind, as well as in the actions of every one, towards those 
with whom he was living in nei^boorbood, or in national 
society, or had any dealmgs or mtercourse, or who should 
need his friendly services. 

These feelinf^s were 8olemnl]r enjoined by the Deity in his 
laws to the Jews in this emphatic command :— 

**Thou shall love thy neighbour as thyself: I anC the 
I/)rd;"* implying, who require this of you. To this was 
added the injunction, that every seven years all creditors were 
to rclcaHC their debtors of what they might owe them, and 
claim it no more ;t and they were to do this act of generosity 
with a willing heart, and not to be severe as it approached. t 
If they did so, the Divine blcssins^ was largely promued them.^ 
They were also at the same penod to liberate their Hdirew 
bondservant, and to give him ample supplies on parting with 
him. II To the poor they were to be always liberal, and to 
regard them as brethren. 

" iribere be amnnK you a poor man of one of thy bretbren wiihln any 
of Ihy gtitcH in thy land which the Ix)rd thy (wod giveth thee, tboa sbalt 
not hanlt'n thy heart nor shut thine hand from thy poor brother : bat 
thoa ahalt open thine hand wMe nnto him, and ahalt sur^y lend bisi mif- 
flctent for his need in that he wanteth. 

" For the poor shall never eeaae oat of the land : therefbre I c o a u n a sd 
tbee, saying, Thoo ahalt open thine hand wide onto Ihy buoclMr, Is Ihy 
poor, snd to thy needy in the land.'^IT 

Such being the Divine instructions and injuncUons on diis 

* Levltieas, c. xlx., t. 18. 

t Deuteronomy, c. xr^ r. 1 

i ** Beware that there be not a thoofht in thy wicked boart, sayiBA 
The aevenih year, the year of release, is at hand ; and thins eye bs sru 
Sfsinst thy poor brother, and tboa gireat him naoght ; and bs cry asls 
the Ijord against thee, and it be sin unto thee.*' — Deot., e. xr., v. 9L 

$ " Thou ahalt surely gire him, snd thine heart shslt not bs grisrsd 
when thou giveet unto him : becssse that fl>r this thing tbs Lord shsB 
bless thee in all thy worka, and in all that thou pattest tUne band onto." 
— Ib.,v. 10. 

II lb., V. 12. " And when thoa sendest him oat ftve fbom tbee, tboa 
Shalt not let him go away empty. Thou ahalt fhmish him libsrally oat 
of thy flock, and out of thy floor, and out of thy wine-prsss: of that 
whercwitb the Lord thy God hath blesaed tbee tbou shalt give onio 
Wm."— lb., y. 13. 

IT Deut.,c.xy.v.7,ft-U. 

ct rai woftu. 415 

fWbytStf N( W iMnOWtM UnputHI IMMMHlf VpOB 

Hy'b ili Mlm Wt ri ufi tad giwunntiMM, will Ittd im to ft 

An who Mw on ttrth tm Mlpw-erMMiraif crlgiatUiiff alilM 
m tlMMRM OpMtor, and p o M i M td of ono eomaMm Mt»o» 
vMl tboMMo ajrolom of botng, qoolMof, ond wtoto. All !•• 
^«lio to bo Mwulnod b3r food, ond, la dviliiod life, nood 
•Im nimonl tnd hoMUCion, wtd muj nmfamtim otid oonvo- 
fclowcoo of fumly wo for Uiolr dolljr comfort. 

Whil wo Uhm roquiro orlooa from two dMorttit Moieoo. 
Om of tiMM io tbo Uoity, tbo ockor io oor foUow-boiofi. 
tiM ■aotwa n ot of monkind b tbo ommil prorMoa of tbo 
iopromo through hio vogotoMo ond ohImoI Icinfdomo. But 
•■ tbo otbor nofloaiorloo and eomronioneofl of lifo wo modo 1^ 
hnwi fndoatry and mffsmiity, in tbo vtriouo tru aiid mooa- 
foolww of loeiotjr. liM motoriaU of all aro in eroatod n^ 
IMO t hot H io tbo band ot man whieb eonvorto tboao into 
otothing, boiMMia, and all tho otbor moana and implomonlo of oor 
dMHMtw oad aoeial two. Evory voar tho Divino ajratom ro- 

1 ovunr dajr, in 

tbo noodod food t and ovunr dajr, in cifilitMl nationo, tho 

pooiiiatlon an omplojrod m makin|| what othoni will alao want 
What braian labmir thiio fahnoatoa, oarb muot mako for 
Mmooif, or obtain from thoao who can aupoly him with it. 
Tho food whieb mankind raqniro ia praduood npon tho aw> 
■0 of tho oaith bi proportion aa it la eultivatod. 
Hw aopply ia aeanty without cuHuro, and would oiUt anil 
on. Thoraforo, aa tho nnmboni muitipl3f, 
ho tilhid and mora produoo raiaod in propor* 
thoir p rutf raaa i vo angmontation. Tho barvooto ob* 
b3r the akiD and labour of tho huahandman, origino- 
thy horn bio poraonal oiortiona, can bo juotk clalmod vf no 
mm flom hfan without bia conaont. Whon all aio oultivaton, 
in OM thoa pvoduoo thoir own aopplioa. 

0gl whon fiationa hocomo populona, it ia found thai o pait 
•f thin only ia n a c aaa ar y for that agricnliofal indoatry which 
«■ ndao fiom tbo natural anrfMo tho aoatooaneo wnich all 
Mfsho. Tho raat of aocioty than apply thoir kbour and hi- 
to OMko all tho other neraaaariaa and comforta whieb 

^0^^Wr^^a^^W^^^"O P^^F^^^p^ ^P^ ^^^P^W ^^^ ^^^^^^W ^^^^^VV 


In thit condition ftU nationi mra eziating : one portion ob* 
ttininff from the toil of the countiy the enttenuiee for aU; 
the othera making in the variooa arta and mannfiictnraa mhal- 
ever else ia wanted. 

Bat aa erery one will need aomething that another makea, 
ererr one who ia thus employed in soppljing aocieCj with 
the miit of his labour ia doing daily gONod, wm. ia really ex- 
erciaing a philanthropic employment. 

Every artisan performs an act of benevolence in everything 
he frames. His own interest may be his impulse and object ; 
but he is conferring benefit on some one by everything he pro- 
dncea. His workmanahip will give comrort and plMtanre to 
othera, whether he means it or not. , 

If others did not make my ahoes, and hat, and coat, uid 
atockings, I must live in the pain or. discomfort of being 
without them. I am therefore obliged by the poorest mso, 
whose hands have formed what I derive such hourly sdvan- 
taffe from. 

r9o one will labour if what he makea by his thooght and ia* 
dnstry is to be taken from him. It therefore becomes, from 
the beginning, one of the eariiest and most fixed laws of hu- 
man society, that every one shall have an absolute property 
in the work of his hands, and therefore in all that he mskes 
and obtains. The law of individual property is thus coeval 
with all- civilized life. The savage plunders and is foundered. 
He therefore makes nothing beyond his most urgent wants, 
and for these as little as possible. Hence savage tribea have 
no property. Right of holding it without moleatation from 
others, security in its use and possession, must therefore be 

In England tbe Amilies employed chiefly in agrienltare are 761,S48; 
tboee in trade, man ufkct ores, and tiandicraA, 1,183,918; all other fhmi- 
Uee. 801^0. 

In Wales ttiese reepective dassea are 73,105; 44,708; 48,641. la 
BeoUand, 196,591 ; 907,859 ; 166,451 ; or, on Uie whole of Great Britain, 
Affficuliural . . 961,134 

Trade and manufkctares . 1,434,873 

Other ftmiJiea .... 1,018,168 

3,414,175 nunilies 
{Rickman, vol. ii., p. 1041) 
By the above we perceive that in Wales the fluniliea in huabandiy 
were nearly double those in trade, dec. In Ireland the proportion of tbe 
af ri^uliural ia still greater ; for there, out of a population of 1,385,066 
families, 884,339 nre en\p\o^«^ \u Wvt \iNAufitioQ of food.— Porfcr*« 
" Progress of the NaUoo;^ p. IA. 


Mttbiirfirit befoTO mtnkiiid will maks anytliing lor the ute of 
fecn, or ujrthinff comfortable for thamselTM. 
Honeo the welAre of til requires the full etttbUehment of 

Ibe right of indiTidual property ; the prohibition of all inva- 
i of it ; " " 

and the certainty of enjoying, UMog, and disposing 
of it solely as the holder lAeases. Until this right be solidly 
fied and universally upheldi man must live in destitution and 

But two results arise from this indispensable law. One, 
that every man must labour for what he wants ; and the other, 
that ha cannot have what he desires, however necessary for 
lua existence, unless he earn it from those who possess it. 
For if he docs not work for what he will need, some others 
Most work for him while he is indolent, and no one is willing 
to do this. None will habitually work gratis for others. AU 
work for each other, eipecting a fair remuneration in some 
Aape or other ; but none without a return which he deema 
«^uivalent, or which is satisfactory to him. Every one re* 
Uraiog what he has, and not parting with any portion of it 
without an equitable consideration, each must find the moana 
of obtaining what he needs from those who have it by giving 
to them wnat they also want : thus society subsists by its 
members exchanging labour and produce with each other. 

One delivers an article of his property for something which 
is the property of the fiemon who applies ; and on this system 
of interchanging the fruit of each other's skill and industry 
all civilixed society is everywhere subsisting and generally 

But as commodities can seldom be conveniently exchanged 
for commodities, and never in the small portions and on the 
•eries of occasions in which they are wanted, all nations use 
■ medium or instrument of tliis bsrter ; and this is money. 
The money of a country can be divided into small parts, as 
wen as be pot together into larger ones ; and therefore it is 
a mdy means of buying and selling at all times and in all de- 
moea, and hence is used as the medium of our social traffic. 
The bbourer takes money for his Isbour, because he knows 
that when he takes that to the shopkee|)er, he will have for it 
the things he wants up to its value. 

Hence every workman and trader seeks payment for his la- 
bour and produce in money, and by tliat acquires from others 
what they have made which hia deniea. 


The ■jBtem of Proridence therefora is, that mui dnll 
ploy himself in hiii sociml world in cultirating the aoil to oh- 
tein its yearly hurventa, and in making for himadf oat of the 
materials, mineral, vegetable, and animal, lidiich are upon the 
earth, all the other necessaries he requirea. Theee materials 
are always ready to be so used, and are abundant beyond the 
noasibilily of man's exhausting their natural store. These 
he can ukc up and work at whenever he pleases. It rests 
entirely with himself what he shall do witn them, and how 
much he will fabricate or not. This rests, I say, with him- 
aelf, as between man snd his Creator ; but beyond this it is 
an afiair between each individual and his fellow-creatores. 
For here again the laws of property apply, and say, althousfa 
there is this exuberance of the substances from which the 
necessaries of life are formed, yet, aa in civilized life, every 
yard of ground, and all that is upon it, have become the sp- 
propriat^ possession of some one, none must take any put 
out as the owner gives or allows. 

The same plan, therefore, prevails as to the supplies for iH 
our wanta. Man receives from God everything that is neces- 
sary in unfailing sufficiency, or, more generally, in supersbun- 
dant quantity. But in civilized society, all that the Creator 
thus provides becomes the property of mdividuals as it arises, 
and has to be imparted by them to each other aa they shsU 
think proper. 

Thus, as to our food, the Great Giver, after his yearly do- 
nation of it in the vegetable harvest, leaves it to the cultiva- 
tors and owners of the soil to distribute between themselves 
and the rest of society. All that relates to it after ita growth * 
and full maturity belongs to man. It is committed £en to 
the self-interest, the benevolence, the duty, and the necessi- 
ties of those who receive it from the heavenly bounty. It is 
made essential to their self-interest and personal comfort thst 
they should raise enough for others as well as for themseives. 
No society would allow them to hold it under any system of 
property if they did not. They are also, for their own sskes, 
obliged to let others have what they do not consume in their 
immediate families. What the most selfish motives thus com- 
pel, every benevolent feeling of man's nature makes pleasing 
to him ; and it is moral duty thus to act towards the society 
which pemuU Vvvm lo V^^e the sure property in it, and pro- 
tects that right to \ma. KVl nvVo tm^ ^^ ^"^ux ^^stn^aiaoces 

Ct TM WOAUK 419 

^Wbmmmkt Hm ttmt Iwpiilniiia ohMgnioni. AUbave 
«fcii tthMi WMil, and miifli b* MnplMd wtth from dmn. 
^ il it tiM wtt and 4Mi» of Um Oiwtor, and tha tondmey 
^ Ihtai ■ jpMji a lli iai, with whieh ba haa oaalad tha bunan 
UmI aM wbo bava nora tban Ibajf naad iboold diatribula 
wplw to tha raat who bavo oeeaaion tot it. And ■■ tha 
Mid Mitaliactiial chaiaetar of bnauw natuia in^MOTea, 
wM ho ila hiatinetifa haUi. No ono will, in tima, lot an- 
nMt what ba aan anppljr. It will ba apart of bia bap- 
togifoaawaUaatofoeaHra. Tha diatiibution will than 
plaaa uf ahia aanaationa to ham than avan tbapaf- 
. ,iMnt. Ifanjf ImI thia ahaady. 80 truly waa it 
mU hv oar flofiour, br him who mada our frama, and who, 
hr IM«i ^ ^ ^>vNl D** human lila on aarth, knowa how it 

Am Io naohro.*** It ia paeuliarljr Important for ararjr ona to 
•waloot thia aphorism ; for it waa tha Oivar of all btaaainfa 
who pwoiBaJ it, and tharalbra it praaanta to na ono of tha 

Bat witfl human natnra raacbaa thia atafa of ita ptograaaion, 
An aotnating caoaa which laada tha poaaaaaora and makara of 
thi niniMinii of liiato part with tham to aacbothar, ia tbair 
•WB MUfidual naad of what otheia bava. Each ean oat tha 
MppUoa ho wanta only by gtving to thoir ownaia aqniYalant 
pmoMi of what ba ia boUing. 

Ho ia, tharafaia, alwaya ofewing thaaa lor aala to othara, 
Am* by tha monay which thay produca, ba may purebaaa from 
•than what ho iMa oeeaaion for; and thna all that la yielded 
ly tmo Of mada by man la to conata nl app Hca i ton , diatribn* 
CM. and dimlation through ovary claaa cf aoeiatv. 

No ay at am of human aimphr couU have bean piannad on a 
mtm hanafoiant dovieo : for H auggaata and chanabaa philan- 
IhMpy hatwaa n nmn and man to ovory part. It makoa avary 
mm hanafafltar to tha other. It ia a banafoetion to mo from 
ihn mtlaanof lahoorarwboprovidaawhatl want, thathapro- 
II for mo ( and foam tha tiadamian who aaOa H to mo, 
hii flhCiina il> and kaana k madv for aao whandvar I a^ 


ply for it. It M a benafKtkm from ma to tbem tkat I boy it, 
and give for it that nioiMy which thoy can wmfAow again ia 
proenhng fresh supi^ict for those who will need. Tfana hojrer 
and seller, producer and consumer, are eanally benefaetois to 
each odier, and msT increase their own h^ipiness and each 
olher*8 bf so considering themselTea. 

lodood, it is a moral defect in us not to keep nch ideas 
in our mind, for by the omission we convict oorselTes of 
perpetual inaratitude. I accuse myself of partaking too much 
of the fault i notice. My breakfast is werj simple. One cop 
of tea, with ■uav, but no milk, and merely dry bread, whick 
I eat with it. Thna I require four things lor my moning, as 
also for my evening meal. 

The water is my Creator's aupply, always at hand, bat to 
how many perMms am I indebted for my other three articles! 
The tea is a kind of inspiration to my mind, and a genlle ex- 
citation of happy spirits and comfortable feelings, and hss 
been so sll my life. Yet vrhat a vast social machineiy is ne- 
cessary to be put in action ! How many nrast motk and W 
iKIor in a thousand ways, and some endure nmch suffering and 
hardship, before I can enjoy either my sing^ cup of tea or its 
sugar ! Ships must be built by laborious shipwrights. Offi- 
cers and seamen must be trained, and watch, and tofl, and 
endure all the privations, and storms, and dangers of a dis- 
tant voyage. Merchants must undertake and carry on the 
commercial enterprise which employs them. The Chinese 
fanners and their labourers must raise the tea-tree from the 
soil ; and the West India planters and their operatives mnst 
tend the growing of the sugarcanes, and boil out and transmit 
the sugar. Deuers at home must then get them into dieir 
ahops, so as to be ready when I need them. Thus, thoi^ I 
have only to send to a grocer's shop for them, yet they could 
not be there, nor come thence to me, without aill this stupen- 
dous apparatus of working fellow-creatures^ toiling in all Uwir 
multifarious occupations. 

The tea and sugar on my table represent all this series of 
human activity to me ; and when I duly think of it, I oiwfat 
to feel that I have congenial obligation to every one who has 
thus contributed to give me an enjoyment of high Gratification 
twice every day. It is for them to feel congenially on their 
puU to those who employ them, and who, by purchasing what 
tbejr bring, are also ciuiea oi ^LsMraM voji. cobd&gi^ ^ tbon. 


iM kvir flwllf w«M ow inilatl pUlttttlvopy ine^ 
ita|«i tit dtetilM of ov immr and btlter Mings, tiid 
' iteh oUmt m tht iottnuMnto of UioiM i«d|irocst«d 
wUdi gif« lifo to mich dailjr happkiMf. It is ia 
mI btMfcetioM thtt €t?iUsM tocitty k most duh 
ftoB Um ••▼•« itato. For ia this imii it bis own 
|I9M« only, Md k dosUtiito, wild, and BUtonbU for bdng M. 
Ifpiri WMl Is WMMod la ofd«r to gi?o thsss sonsstions to 
• ifil NothimbalthorscoUtetloaofsaehfKts. Ifsirory 
mtimmm woold tklak tint what bo wis dotnf wis not noro 
•mM liboar, for selflsb objoct, bat thst bo wss rsoUj nakiog 
iHM WMld bo ionricosMo to sooio of bis isllow-crosturas, 
aad would ffivo thom oonfort i and if bo would aeeostom bis 
loM ploaaars in tboidsa tbat bo was tbtrsby bocom- 


te Mi of tba oanoos and craators of bomaa bappinoss, and 
mmM pa w a bis work wkb a sontimoat of dosiio to banoftt* 
mmf onlolo bo mads wouM ho o bsnovolant fabrication, and 
" ; of h witb soeb foalings and for sucb a pnrpoaa a 
oelloa. Moeb Tiowa and foalings tnni ovary m^ 
hrto a s e an s aad sebool of virtuo. IVoridanco 
M to bo so. And wboovor works, sails, or boys witb 
Moti aad foolii^ will ba cborishing ?irtiioiis amotions 
loadfa^ a Tirtaooa Itfb, wbatovar bo tbo oceopatioa. Wo 
Ikaa aMraUia aad dignify ovary patb aad oxoition of b»- 
MafttT t aad wo aball aMko bolb oar aoeial aad oar in- 
iHl Hfo tbo baoplor if wo do ao. 
Ykaaallba aoppUaa of all oar naaaaaitias ariaa from Divino 
MteHoaaad taa bamaa labour. All bavo tha aaroo waato 
li aaai tbo aanw au Ifidsnciaa for tbam. No man caa mako 
for MMSolf all tbat ba raqniraa, and aacb, tbarafora, makoa 
1% aad all baeoroa soppliad by tbaaa raeiprocal intar^ 
of aitiolaa aad madi ii ma witb aacb otbar, ovanr oao 
otban aad b aaa i ts d by tbsm. flocioty rsUs oa 
■0 wMi tbis ciicalation of matoal good, wbicb only 

■Ifoaf doaiio, aad oaoeatioa, to mako it ovoiywbsio 

Bat foom tbis point arisaa tba graat dlOenlty on tbb sub- 
JmI kaiivooa aam and maa, nndor wbicb tbo social world b 
I oifotbig, aad whieb 1 foal myaolf laconyslaot to 
loo Igaoraat of tba foetoaad aJn^Mamsiiswi «anp 



This diAcalty it, that many are deatitut« of their daily aab- 
aittence and of the means of acquiring it, althonefa plenty it 
eiisting in etery society ; and also, tMt those who, hy their 
■kill and Ubour, could add to the proyiaion of the necessaries 
of life, find no means or channels by which they can make 
their wilUnff industry serviceable to them, or no demand for 
what tbejr do or supply. All towns, villages, and countiies 
have a large portion of persons in this un|novided and desti- 
tute state, although there is always enough provided by Prov- 
idence or fabricated by man for every existing individnal^s 
use and comfort. 

Some plan should be devised to remedy this; but yriai 
that plan should be I am unable to suggest. 

The usual remedies required by the suffering are agrarian 
laws, equalization of property, the abolition of all classes but 
the labouring one, and the diminution of their labour, and of 
the necessity for working. It has been fancied that Uie spo- 
liation of the wealthier, and the destruction of all riches, and 
a community of property, would heal every evil and make 
every one happy ; a great and infelicitating mistake— because, 
if acted upon, it would spread destruction around, and make 
misery or poverty the general lot. This would make the un- 
provided class so much more wretched, that most of them 
would be unable to survive. 

These results I can foresee, but how to alleviate the evils 
is the important problem which statesmen .and legislators have 
to solve. I am too inexperienced in the pra^cal details of the 
national and local subjects which it inv<rfves to iHnesnme to 
decide what ought to be done. I can only, with real diffi- 
dence and with a desire to be enlightened hj thoee who are 
better acquainted with them, make a few observations on the 
circumstances and principlea which ahould be taken into coot 
sideration by all classes ^of the community. 

It seems to be a reproach to a society to have within it any 
who are demrous U^ work, and by their honest industry to 
obtain their needful share of the subsistence and ccmveniences 
of life, and to have no employment to give them, that they 
may exercise their laudable wishes and useful activity. 

It is an imputation on the intellect, as well as on the phi- 

hmthropy of the society, that this is the case, because aU their 

comforts arise from \udm^\x^V ^^toductivity and individual 

labour. Each of those wasiVm^ Qccxx^a^^nn caxwVii^ %iQmducer 

or THB woelh. 428 

•f tORM of dwM vtUitie*, or of ocben Ibat will Iw fonricMbU 
if bo were employed to do so. 

Each etn by hie induetry add to the property and enjoy- 
Monle of hia country, at the aaoie time that ne gaina for him- 
■elf the neeeaaariea he reaairea. To lei him \m inactive aiid 
•oflchng by not putting hia creative powera into uae, i« an 
injoiy to tae atate aa well aa to him ; for if it be deairable to 
have more property, aueb p«Taona are the mairumcnt to make 
it. All further property of anv kind muat ariae from further 
bboar; and theae unemployed peraona offer the producing 
iadaetfy that will increaae the atock of the general wealtli ana 
of indiTidual convenience. 

That aocietv la in want of a vaat deal* more property i« 
•videiK from tne maiority of ita popuUiion having no little of 
it. Yet all thoae wno are deairoua of working, l>ui who can- 
not get employment, are ao many makers of what othera want, 
who could be put into action to produce it. 

It it therefore a vicioua anomaly in our civil polity, that 
tliere are ao many who want more property in order to be 
comfortable, and ao many able and willmg to Ubour to make 
it ; and yet that theae are not aupplied with aome cinploytfient 
that would alike benefit aociety and themaclvM, but are left 
to atanre or aufler in uaeleaa inactivity and unwilling indoleoce. 

What will remove auch a diagraceful anomaly ! Who i» in 
iudt 1 la there a want of benevolence or of mtellect in the 
•oeiety, that »o many capable inatromeota of beneficial pro- 
4iictioiia are left in tbia onuaed and paralyied atate, merely 
W>caua» aociety haa not provided the due |Hana and meaua to 
avail ttaelf o( their gooa wiabea and induathoua capacitiea 1 
Ifo ; oor nation aboonda with talent and philanthropy, but it 
haa not directed ita thoaghta and foeltnga aufficiently to thia 
BKMnentoua theme. It liaa not vet done what la obvioualy the 
tlvng wanted. It haa noi yet deviaed an operative ayatem of 
iodmg and giving uaeful employment to thoae who cannot 
ftt it for thomaelvea. It haa not cataUiahed wiae pboa for 
■ottiag the onemptoycd to be the makera of what othera want, 
m tot diaffibuting to thoae what they camiot make or procure 
for riiawatlvia. For any to have mora praperty or conve- 
nioDcea, mof^ labour la required *, it ia therefore eaaential to 
social weUare that, when ao many oiler mora labour whirh 
would bo productive of more coumoditiaa, ■Meana fJatafiSA. W 


in czutence at all times to employ the willing indoatiy m 
augmenting the public happiness. 

How thin desirable object can be practically eflbcted I am 
unable to stale. 

But some parochial or municipal mechanism is wanted for 
this purpose ; some always open and approachable medium by 
which those wanting employment may, without depreciation, 
discredit, or displeasure, find the work provided for them, or 
recommendations or introductions to it, by which they may 
support themselves as long as they need, and lossc»i the pov- 
erty in society by increasing its articles of property and con- 

Whether public boards or private associations in towns or 
parishes could best do this, I cannot say. But as large com- 
munications and intercourse between different places would 
be necessary, perhaps some general system, with local nmifi- 
cations, would be most avaifing. From the labours of such 
men, the cottages of the poor might, by wise and kind distri- 
butions of the produce, be su|^lied with many family coor 
veniences that would diffuse great delight and much improve- 
ment too. The poor cannot buy many things they need. 
How patriotic it would be to use the surplus labour which is 
everywhere asking for employment, in making in every parish 
what so many are needing, ukI could thus so easily be sup- 
plied with ! But I can only express wishes and speculations ; 
1 am incompetent to devise the proper institutions that would 
be at the same time unobjectionable and efficient ; but there 
are many able men who can supply my deficiency. I can 
only send you these general suggestions. 

I will merely add, that as it is more labour which can alone 
remove the poverty that exists, it is a mistake to imagine that 
the general labour of society can be ever lessened, or that its 
diminution would increase human happiness ; nor is it wise 
to cherish any prejudice against it. Nothing but the inven- 
tion of machinery, as effective to make what it accomplishes, 
can supersede it. The less labour there is in a society, the 
less supply there must be, and, of course, the less comfort, from 
the sbsence of the supply which is abstracted by the absence 
of the industry that provided it. AU that mankind enjoy arises 
from their respective labours. Some individuals may be, and 
are bo circumstanced as to Ya.n« ^ Wcdensome proportitm. 
T^iUM Inquires some scheme oi a.\>eXVeiX^N\&\^\i«xA^t»x&sv 


tion of the indatlnr required, but no dimimition of it, unleee 
biifnen ert ctn mtie wood and metals, ateam or atones per- 
ftnrm what ia now eflfected liy human acttrity and atrongth. 
The leaa agricnitural labour without this aulMtitute, the Teaa 
food must be liad, and so of evorv article which our artiaana 
prcnride. To leasen labour woula be to make poverty more 
poor and more univeraal. 

It would also lessen all that happiness which arises from 
Oocopfttion which is not pernicious to others, or individually 
Mjndicial ; for without continual employment man would be 
•M ia a diaaatiafied, unhappy, and wrongly-acting biding. 
Biit the laborioua occupationa of society certainly need be- 
neirolent and legislative revision and r«fguuitioiis. The factory 
•raCem containa evils which dis|pace the owners who continue 
tneoi and the nation whose Icgialature allows their duration. 
An eneh thinga should lie remedied ; the poor should be 
guided, taught, counselled, and assisted, but nevfir pmnecuted, 
Earahly treated, oppressed, or neglected. National prosperity 
will iacreaee aa tney are more kindly attended to. 



T%t Jtmiah HatioH raised yp/or imw main Pwfo—$, which their Ht§ 
kmmeemMiuhed.—The KCmatien pfii tohtihe amtereign Kmptr- 
tkt World prewmted tp fMoman, fe ro hoetm, and the People eetahttek' 
*•# Poionimn amonf tkem.^Tkeir DnHoion into two Kingdome.-^ 
T%e pred$etod and emeeuted Dowi^aU y Ikeeo People for poreuitng in 
tkidr Iranegrteeione. 

Mr DSiB floff, 
The DeKy appears to have raiaed up hia Jewiah nation for 
fifO great porpoeea, besidna the collateral onea which were 
■leo promoted oy it. One of theae waa to enable him to dia- 
plmr mneelf to mankind as he wiabed to be known by them, 
tmi therefore to make his omnipoUtnt infinity appear to them 
in theae intercating and romprchensible qualities and featuree 
wMi which thity would be most concemod, and thus to be in 
thokr eoneeptiona, from aenaorial and actual knowledfCB^ that 
mi iBMilocteaipetiOnabtyto^ittorikV w a OT 



mmnf to Iw Msimilated, u (kr m created being could 
ble such a wonderful and all-perfect Creator. The DiTina 
conduct in all thinsa ezbibiu phnciplea of action which we 
are to imitate, as Ur aa they apply in our haman life and 
dealinffs. He manifested himselt at various times, in order 
to produce on the Jewish mind, and, throogh that, on all oth- 
ers, those impressions and effects which would be most pro- 
motive of their right, moral, and intellectual formation. 

To this end even their perversities were made condndve 
aa vrcU as their obedience. For whatever they did gave their 
Divine Sovereign an of^rtunity of shaping and advandng 
his tuition accordingly. His blessings and hia collections 
alike educated and instructed them. The one admonished 
theijn what they were to avoid, the other what he approved 
and rewarded. By all he disclosed the feelines, views, ex- 
pectations, determinations, and principles which he entertained 
as to human nature, and on which he had created iL In his 
deaUngs with themiie taught both them and us, by action is 
well as by proccpt ; and by causing what he did and said to 
be faithfully recorded, in its principal and sufficient outlines, 
in written language, he has made his lessons and manifesta- 
tions to them the common property of all his human world, 
who can read the transmitted and preserved narrations, or 
hear what they contain. By this means all that waa done or 
inculcated by him in Egypt, on Mount Sinai, in the Wilder- 
ness, in Judca and elsewhere, has been said and done for us 
as much as for them, and has been, ever since these sacred 
writings have been known and studied by other nations, en- 
lightening and ^iding all the populations of the world. From 
our Saviour^s time more especially to this moment, they have 
been forming and enriching the intellect of human nature, in 
all its national sections, with a knowledge of Divine truths, 
with an excitation of Divine feelings, and with a peipetual 
melioration of character. 

The mental and moral results of these Divine means and 
agencies we are now inheriting. They have raised human 
beings now to an elevated superiority above all the ancient 

generations, and will be still working their improving and 
luminating effects, with increased power and fertility, in every 
new generation that will arise. This part of the Divine process, 
in the formation of his Jewish nation, and in the admtiou to 
that of hiB grand ChiisX^ ^evf^aXAsa,\A&\)uiai ^>aXLY answered 

or THI WORLD. 429 

— Divineljr oiHeieiit. The preMnt gtste of tbo w«rld it Kb* 
yfaib l e evidence of iu tueceMful ttid iiuipiiSeent operation. 
Homui nature neTfl*r bee l>een no f(reat tod rich in all the 
qMliCM that adorn it aa it ia at the prraent mooMnt, notwitb- 
■lUidiBg the vicea and errora which yet deform aociety, and 
•0 ofton aadden individual life. 

The other great puqioiie waii to make it inatrunictital to the 
Improvement of all the roat of inankiiMl, and to the diKloturt 
of the Divine government of all natitina on the earth ; and to 
prapera, by what waa don« in it and with it, for the introduc- 
lien of hia great Chriatian ayatpm, which waa to be hia next 
grand proceaa, for the bcnffit and fonnaliou of all hia human 
world. It i« to thia accoiid piir|iOMe of hia Divine plan in the 
lowirii nation that I will now direct your further alteniion. 

It eeema to have been Uh; intention of tlio Aliniglity, if tbo 
Jowiah people would have nteailily acted on the lawa and 

E'nciplee which he had taugtit tln'm, to conduct and aggran- 
m tnem to be the ■ovenrisfn nation of the earth, ruling all, 
and the pattern of moral, religioiia. arwl intellectual excelience 
■ndpfOffreaaion, for all to im*i> and imitate. 

Tne Moaaic language Icada ua to thia inference.* Such 
iplendid inlimationa are arvi'ral tiniea repeated, t and would 
bnve been accoinpliahe<l if thia people, liy training themaelvea 
arcoiding to hia inatrucliona, had made themaelvea fit to bo 
tneb a predominating nation. But ibey aoon fell into that 
•xtraordmary infatuation of the amrifnt world which we have 
before conaidered. Tlie next generation after Joahua forgot 

• "ir ikoa eafcAilly haarken unto iha velea aT the Lflr4 ihy God le 
etaarve le te all Uieaa cMiiinaiHlinania wblrb I command ihoa ihia day. 
ifeoa akall Kiga ovir many naiiona, but they ahaJl nat rdgn ever ibaa.' 
<— Daei., r. «v., v. », «. 

•• All ilM poeplo of Uw «artb ahall aaa chel ihoa art called by iba aaaM 
^ Iba Lard, and ibey alMll tm af^id of ihoc. And lha l^ord ahall maka 
llMa lha head and not the lail ; and tbuu nhali ba abeva oaly, and Ihau 

laH BoC ba baoMlb."— lb . r. iKf lit., v. 10-13. 

t Aa, •* Plar If yo ahall dillioniiy keep all iheaa ww a wndei aata, le de 

Kary ^taer wharooo Um aofaa or ynar 

Aaoi lha wildamaaa and L«iibanoA ; from tb« river, lha rifor Euphraiaa, 

Man unio tk» ullfmuut tern, aliall your rvaai ht. 

•• TVrv Bkmil MO Hioit W mki* fo efood kefmrt foe ; Ibr lha Lard yanr 
•ai atall lay lha (bar of yoe and the diaod of yoa apoa all U ' 
leaMI Maai naan. aa ha haih aaM nHo yen.**— Ih., «. at, v 


thmr DiTine benefactor, vui Adopted the peginism of tfai 
naiifftia around them.* Thia compelled him to afflict them, 
by giving Tictory over them to thoae they were pervenelj 
imitating, in order to recover them frmn the follT- But thnr 
repentance waa aoon aucceeded by reUpaea, and thia aitein»- 
tion of right and wrong conduct continued, till at laat they 
threw off the immediate government of their Sacred Legiala- 
tpr, and inaiated upon havinff one of themaelvea made their 
Tiaible and ruling king. Said waa choaen to thia dignity, but 
waa ao little faithful and obedient that hia dynasty waa put 
aaide, and a new one, in the young ahepherd David, waa raiaed 
to the Jewish throne in hia stead. 

David became, in mind and feeling towarda Grod, all that 
he was required to be : but the corruptions of ^reat proapexity 
undeniiined his moral resolution, and in an evd hour he com- 
mitted a crime, by the indulgence of his aenaual paaaiona, 
which could not but have the most injurious effects, by ita 
bad aanction and example, on all his people. He relented 
with bitter aelf-remorae ; but he had done the moral nuachief 
to his nation, and, thou^ pardoned, was doomed to an afflicted 
life, on account of the pernicious consequences of his conduct, 
that the world might sec and know that piety without virtue 
is an incongruity, to which suffering and chastisement are at- 
tached in the providential administration of human life. 

In Solomon there appeared a prospect of a sovereign who 
would enlighten and moralize his country, and prepare it for 
expanding into the greatness of its promised destinies. Choos- 
ing in hu youth moral wisdom as his self-chosen good, he 
was blessed with every temporal benefit and greatness : but 
his worldly happiness became his ruin. He resolved to enjoy 
bodily pleasures in all their forms, and he felt the effects d 
such unrestricted enjoyments, t They weakened his mind 

* JodgM. c. U., ▼. 10-3S. 

t ** I aaid in mine heart. Go to, now, I will prove thee with niith ; 
tberafore enjoy pieaanre. I aoughtin Bnineheart togive myselftowiM. 
and lo lay Iwld on fbily till I inicht see what was good for the aooa of 
men. I gat me men-smrera and womeD-aingerv, and the delighta of tiM 
aoosoTmen : musical inatnimeuta, and thatofall aorta ; and whataoevar 
mine eyea desired I kept not from them. I wiitiheld not my heart fhaa 
-any Joy. I tamed myaelf to beliold wiadom, and madneaa, and foily."' 
Ucclea., c. ii., t. 1-lS. 

The iaaueof hia experience waa, that it waa all vanity and vexatkn of 

Sjpirir, aod uo profit to him, v. ll. But it incurably contaminated hia 

oaiioa^ and drtiUitated hiinaallf « in4 ira3i\iAa4 «i\.\^ ^neOt of his 

<l^g wisdom. 

oy TUB WORLD. 489 

Mud Mmmi A kii rmtnl (mririijln, utd )mi Uid t)i« foninUtiotM 
of Um ruifi of hi« iiAtKMi, mid ]iiU<r(-ii)/Uil nil lUi f«rt)i«:r {irogrnM, 
bv AlloMrin|{ liii fnviiiifiUi w<Miifiii Ui M^Jiiru liiiii U> ifiKAblj«h 
Imt fMi^aniiirn wlurh In* ii«w|ibi IimI iHtrn niMM-.mlljr raiM-il luid 
0iirariiloii«ly iiK{(r«iiilix<:«l in ori\»^r to ■ulivurt himJ i:itiiiKiii«li.* 
Krom OmI tiffin tiMt •till of Jiirii«-I \ir^uu to Mil; Umi kiiij(<loio 
WM «tivwl<'4i iriUi two \mrlfi liy tlift J)ivirMt mU^Hurvtirn t 

'fhm d«:|ifJiViiti'Mi of iiiiikl himI ntitiUu'.i iiif:r<-iiiM!il upon ihmui 
in Avury mirrM-diiiK r«'i)(ii 'J'iifiy Ij<?f-iiiii4i umt'lnmit iti Uiiiir Jii- 
UnnArd in«inimf:iitiility «/ i*iilii;;liii-iiiiiK iiimI |fov<;riijii({ Oui 
wfirM. Slid |in*if«iriitioii« wvw llii-fi riiiMiti, on Uu« roiiUfiii<:d 
d<lfr:rliori, for flir dfatriiflivii ftiUiliiiiiiit on Litftlii of nil l^w: dn- 
lllinrifttifin« wliirh li«d \n:i:u |iri-dH-.U-d imi aiMrh iiiJ«<'oiiiliM:tp 
•nd for ikn «firri!iditiK ofNTNiioiiN on olkrr nMluini, w)iw:li 
would, liy *H.\it:T ttti-»iw, |ii<Kloi-r tin: ini|irovi*iiM-tit mwJ |ir<H 
inot« fhr lyroKrcNMioii of hniiiaii naltirii 

llif! f>ivih<i wiNflom prfH-i-i'dful (j^riujimily in tin o|4iviilioiMi 
to almMi and rttiii(»v«T ih«r oflMMljiiK luiliiin, «nd ti> (irfMluris it* 
downfall by mwU mithmiv*: nviinla «• woiiM inont lif-iirfU Uui 
rMt of manliind H«f rHiM'd ii|f a ni^w f4yrian kingdoia on 
thfrir iiorihwi'iil'-ni frontirr at iiamawna, Ut or< tlii:ir far- 
th^r r#Hiqnf!ala, and to \tf. an iiialrijifM*nt of diM-i|ilifMi npoii 
llimi t H<* raiiiN-<l Jrtrolioani, onn of Nfiloiiioira bravisnt ofli- 
rnn, Ut \tt am/jnti'd liy a |fro|4ii:t to a«jiarat«i i4in of tho 
Inhra frimi lk«r r«*at, aiul Ut form of llirui a immt kuiifilofn, 
■|i«rl friHii ihii two oLh<fra, wliu-h Nf/lirtiiiMra aon ami aiH'i:«:a- 
aora wonid Kovrn 'IIuin iIm: Jffwmli nation waa tirokirn into 
two kiniffi'ima on arrfrnnt af ihi'ir ado|it«:d idolatry ^ 'i'lii:aO 

* " fMofiMMi w<ml anrr AabinrHh, Iha miAAmm af Iba '/.Mfcrniaaa, aai 
illpr Mili'«Mi mtt\rrU). thif BlNMiiinalUHi m ilM Anmiwiill— . And Mtt^ 
mm Hid rvM in iliii MtpM nf ih* \41t6, Mini waiH «•! fully iiAar IlM l^ard, 
a* itM llavM Iiim rmlirr 'Mini iliil HfrliiffKiii luiilil « liigli plaiv Um (/iM- 
■laah. IbM alimniiiaiMm iil Mush, In I Iw till I ibai la tiHbf« JuriiMlMii. and 
ftr MolM-h , an4 litM-wiati 4i4 lin Ihf all kM airani* wI«m wincli MiraC 
laaaiiM and aarnttrMl nnoi ihfiir giHto."—! Kings, c. at, « fr a. 

f ** WiMiffitbff* ilMi I^m4 mmI uiiio HfitMiifNi, nifaaMiaeli aa iliia ladoM 
af lliM, I will aaraly mikI ihy kingrfam rroM \im^ and will glva U mil* 
llnr aarvaiN. i will rmd u fMl nf IIm ImikI uf Iby mm, tNit will glta aM 
Iffta la Iky MR fbr my ■wvani Iia«i4li MkA."- lb. v. II II. 

I •* Ami ttmi mtrrm4 liifM hii aiiatlMf wivimary. Bmim, wIm IM flraai 
kla Uiril, lfaila«l«vr, king ol MmU Urn g«ili»rMl mmi ynKi kim. aad ba- 
mmm «a|iiaia nvmt a bana . aitd ih«ir wmii Ut iJawia— aa, ami dwall lk«f", 
and rolffiiMl m itaniaaraa, ila abfcMrad laraal, and rifaad mwrni Vyrla." 

^ '^AMd *a aald fa i > M b u aw, Ttaa aaMli «to Lbi4 ^te UaA iA 


becoming jmIous of each other and mutually